Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: geotechnics

8 An Engineering Review of Grouting in Soil Improvement Applications

Authors: Mohamad Kazem Zamani, Meldi Suhatril


Soil improvement is one of the main concerns of each civil engineer who is working at soil mechanics and geotechnics. Grouting has been used as a powerful treatment for soil improving. In this paper, we have tried to review the grouting application base on grouts which is used and also we have tried to give a general view of grout applications and where and when can be used.

Keywords: cementious grouting, chemical grouting, soil improvement, civil engineering

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7 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim


The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

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6 District Selection for Geotechnical Settlement Suitability Using GIS and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study in Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Erdal Akyol, Mutlu Alkan


Multi criteria decision analysis (MDCA) covers both data and experience. It is very common to solve the problems with many parameters and uncertainties. GIS supported solutions improve and speed up the decision process. Weighted grading as a MDCA method is employed for solving the geotechnical problems. In this study, geotechnical parameters namely soil type; SPT (N) blow number, shear wave velocity (Vs) and depth of underground water level (DUWL) have been engaged in MDCA and GIS. In terms of geotechnical aspects, the settlement suitability of the municipal area was analyzed by the method. MDCA results were compatible with the geotechnical observations and experience. The method can be employed in geotechnical oriented microzoning studies if the criteria are well evaluated.

Keywords: GIS, spatial analysis, multi criteria decision analysis, geotechnics

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5 Slope Stability Considering the Top Building Load

Authors: Micke Didit, Xiwen Zhang, Weidong Zhu


Slope stability is one of the most important subjects of geotechnics. The slope top-loading plays a key role in the stability of slopes in hill slope areas. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the relationship between the load and the stability of the slope. This study aims to analyze the influence of the building load applied on the top of the slope and deduces its effect on the slope stability. For this purpose, a three-dimensional slope model under different building loads with different distances to the slope shoulder was established using the finite-difference analysis software Flac3D. The results show that the loads applied at different distances on the top of the slope have different effects on the slope stability. The slope factor of safety (fos) increases with the increase of the distance between the top-loading and the slope shoulder, resulting in the decrease of the coincidence area between the load-deformation and the potential sliding surface. The slope is no longer affected by the potential risk of sliding at approximately 20 m away from the slope shoulder.

Keywords: building load, finite-difference analysis, FLAC3D software, slope factor of safety, slope stability

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4 Bearing Capacity Improvement in a Silty Clay Soil with Crushed Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Renzo Palomino, Alessandra Trujillo, Lidia Pacheco


The document presents a study based on the incremental bearing capacity of silty clay soil with the incorporation of crushed PET fibers. For a better understanding of the behavior of soil, it is necessary to know its origin. The analyzed samples came from the subgrade layer of a highway that connects the cities of Muniches and Yurimaguas in Loreto, Peru. The material in this area usually has properties such as low support index, medium to high plasticity, and other characteristics that make it considered a ‘problematic’ soil due to factors such as climate, humidity, and geographical location. In addition, PET fibers are obtained from the decomposition of plastic bottles that are polluting agents with a high production rate in our country; in that sense, their use in a construction process represents a considerable reduction in environmental impact. Moreover, to perform a precise analysis of the behavior of this soil mixed with PET, tests such as the hydrometer test, Proctor and CBR with 15%, 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, and 1% of PET with respect to the mass of the sample of natural soil were carried out. The results show that when a low percentage of PET is used, the support index increases.

Keywords: environmental impact, geotechnics, PET, silty clay soil

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3 Virtual Approach to Simulating Geotechnical Problems under Both Static and Dynamic Conditions

Authors: Varvara Roubtsova, Mohamed Chekired


Recent studies on the numerical simulation of geotechnical problems show the importance of considering the soil micro-structure. At this scale, soil is a discrete particle medium where the particles can interact with each other and with water flow under external forces, structure loads or natural events. This paper presents research conducted in a virtual laboratory named SiGran, developed at IREQ (Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Quebec) for the purpose of investigating a broad range of problems encountered in geotechnics. Using Discrete Element Method (DEM), SiGran simulated granular materials directly by applying Newton’s laws to each particle. The water flow was simulated by using Marker and Cell method (MAC) to solve the full form of Navier-Stokes’s equation for non-compressible viscous liquid. In this paper, examples of numerical simulation and their comparisons with real experiments have been selected to show the complexity of geotechnical research at the micro level. These examples describe transient flows into a porous medium, interaction of particles in a viscous flow, compacting of saturated and unsaturated soils and the phenomenon of liquefaction under seismic load. They also provide an opportunity to present SiGran’s capacity to compute the distribution and evolution of energy by type (particle kinetic energy, particle internal elastic energy, energy dissipated by friction or as a result of viscous interaction into flow, and so on). This work also includes the first attempts to apply micro discrete results on a macro continuum level where the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was used to resolve the system of governing equations. The material behavior equation is based on the results of simulations carried out at a micro level. The possibility of combining three methods (DEM, MAC and SPH) is discussed.

Keywords: discrete element method, marker and cell method, numerical simulation, multi-scale simulations, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2 Modelling for Roof Failure Analysis in an Underground Cave

Authors: M. Belén Prendes-Gero, Celestino González-Nicieza, M. Inmaculada Alvarez-Fernández


Roof collapse is one of the problems with a higher frequency in most of the mines of all countries, even now. There are many reasons that may cause the roof to collapse, namely the mine stress activities in the mining process, the lack of vigilance and carelessness or the complexity of the geological structure and irregular operations. This work is the result of the analysis of one accident produced in the “Mary” coal exploitation located in northern Spain. In this accident, the roof of a crossroad of excavated galleries to exploit the “Morena” Layer, 700 m deep, collapsed. In the paper, the work done by the forensic team to determine the causes of the incident, its conclusions and recommendations are collected. Initially, the available documentation (geology, geotechnics, mining, etc.) and accident area were reviewed. After that, laboratory and on-site tests were carried out to characterize the behaviour of the rock materials and the support used (metal frames and shotcrete). With this information, different hypotheses of failure were simulated to find the one that best fits reality. For this work, the software of finite differences in three dimensions, FLAC 3D, was employed. The results of the study confirmed that the detachment was originated as a consequence of one sliding in the layer wall, due to the large roof span present in the place of the accident, and probably triggered as a consequence of the existence of a protection pillar insufficient. The results allowed to establish some corrective measures avoiding future risks. For example, the dimensions of the protection zones that must be remained unexploited and their interaction with the crossing areas between galleries, or the use of more adequate supports for these conditions, in which the significant deformations may discourage the use of rigid supports such as shotcrete. At last, a grid of seismic control was proposed as a predictive system. Its efficiency was tested along the investigation period employing three control equipment that detected new incidents (although smaller) in other similar areas of the mine. These new incidents show that the use of explosives produces vibrations which are a new risk factor to analyse in a next future.

Keywords: forensic analysis, hypothesis modelling, roof failure, seismic monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1 Designing Offshore Pipelines Facing the Geohazard of Active Seismic Faults

Authors: Maria Trimintziou, Michael Sakellariou, Prodromos Psarropoulos


Nowadays, the exploitation of hydrocarbons reserves in deep seas and oceans, in combination with the need to transport hydrocarbons among countries, has made the design, construction and operation of offshore pipelines very significant. Under this perspective, it is evident that many more offshore pipelines are expected to be constructed in the near future. Since offshore pipelines are usually crossing extended areas, they may face a variety of geohazards that impose substantial permanent ground deformations (PGDs) to the pipeline and potentially threaten its integrity. In case of a geohazard area, there exist three options to proceed. The first option is to avoid the problematic area through rerouting, which is usually regarded as an unfavorable solution due to its high cost. The second is to apply (if possible) mitigation/protection measures in order to eliminate the geohazard itself. Finally, the last appealing option is to allow the pipeline crossing through the geohazard area, provided that the pipeline will have been verified against the expected PGDs. In areas with moderate or high seismicity the design of an offshore pipeline is more demanding due to the earthquake-related geohazards, such as landslides, soil liquefaction phenomena, and active faults. It is worthy to mention that although worldwide there is a great experience in offshore geotechnics and pipeline design, the experience in seismic design of offshore pipelines is rather limited due to the fact that most of the pipelines have been constructed in non-seismic regions (e.g. North Sea, West Australia, Gulf of Mexico, etc.). The current study focuses on the seismic design of offshore pipelines against active faults. After an extensive literature review of the provisions of the seismic norms worldwide and of the available analytical methods, the study simulates numerically (through finite-element modeling and strain-based criteria) the distress of offshore pipelines subjected to PGDs induced by active seismic faults at the seabed. Factors, such as the geometrical properties of the fault, the mechanical properties of the ruptured soil formations, and the pipeline characteristics, are examined. After some interesting conclusions regarding the seismic vulnerability of offshore pipelines, potential cost-effective mitigation measures are proposed taking into account constructability issues.

Keywords: offhore pipelines, seismic design, active faults, permanent ground deformations (PGDs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 443