Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 809

Search results for: shaft friction

809 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat


Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test

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808 Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Mehrak Zargaryaeghoubi, Masood Hajali


Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Drilled Shaft Foundation, size and soil characteristic, axial load capacity, Finite Element

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807 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang


In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
806 Development of a Single Drive for the Accessories Components in IC Engine

Authors: R. Rishi Jain, S. V. Viswanath, R. Naveen Vasanthan


Generally all the IC engines, alternators, air conditioner compressors, oil pumps and coolant pumps are driven by a crankshaft utilizing V-belt drivers. An increase in the number of idle pulleys results in the increase of frictional power. Further, components like idler and belt tensioner are also needed to run the belt drive which adds to the frictional power. The aspiration of this paper is to minimize the friction power by introducing a new system that could combine all the accessories in one shaft within a single casing. This is conceptualized to minimize the friction power, service and maintenance cost, space and also time. The validation of this work can be executed through a simpler drive transmitting power from the crank shaft.

Keywords: single drive, idler pulley, belt tensioner, friction power, casing, space and cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
805 Effect of Bored Pile Diameter in Sand on Friction Resistance

Authors: Ashraf Mohammed M. Eid, Hossam El Badry


The bored pile friction resistance may be affected by many factors such as the method of construction, pile length and diameter, the soil properties, as well as the depth below ground level. These factors can be represented analytically to study the influence of diameter on the unit skin friction. In this research, the Egyptian Code of soil mechanics is used to assess the skin friction capacity for either the ordinary pile diameter as well as for the large pile diameter. The later is presented in the code and through the work of some researchers based on the results of investigations adopted for a sufficient number of field tests. The comparative results of these researchers with respect to the Egyptian Code are used to check the adequacy of both methods. Based on the results of this study, the traditional static formula adopted for piles of diameter less than 60 cm may be continually used for larger piles by correlating the analyzed formulae. Accordingly, the corresponding modified angle of internal friction is concluded demonstrating a reduction of shear strength due to soil disturbance along the pile shaft. Based on this research the difference between driven piles and bored piles constructed in same soil can be assessed and a better understanding can be evaluated for the effect of different factors on pile skin friction capacity.

Keywords: large piles, static formula, friction piles, sandy soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
804 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
803 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan


In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: brake pad, friction, wear, abrasives

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802 An Acoustical Diagnosis of a Shaft-Wood Phyto-Pathogenic Damage of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz

Authors: Yuri V. Plugatar, Vladimir P. Koba, Vladimir V. Papelbu, Vladimir N. Gerasimchuk, Tatjana M. Sakhno


Using a supersonic shaft–wood tomography, the evaluation of a shaft-wood phyto-pathogenic damage level of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz was prosecuted. The digital bivariate reflections of the shaft tissue damage were obtained, the characteristics of comparative parameters of the wood-decay degree were given. The investigation results allowed to show up the role of some edaphic factors in their affection on a vital condition and the level of destructive processes while shaft tissue damaging of S.giganteum. It was pinned up that soil consolidation, and hydro-morphication equally make for a phyto-pathogenic damage of plants. While soil consolidation negative acting the shaft-wood damage is located in an underneath of a shaft. In the conditions of an enlarged hydro-morphication a tissue degradation runs less intensively, the destructive processes more active spread in a vertical section of a shaft. The use of a supersonic tomography method gives wide possibilities to diagnose a shaft-wood phyto-pathogenic damage.

Keywords: Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz, supersonic tomography, diagnosis, phyto-pathogenic damage, a vital condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
801 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
800 Productivity Improvement in the Propeller Shaft Manufacturing Process

Authors: Won Jung


In automotive, propeller shaft is the device for transferring power from engine to axle via transmission, and the slip yoke is one of the main parts in the component. Since the propeller shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, they need to be strong enough to bear the stress. The purpose of this research is to improve the productivity of slip yoke for automotive propeller shaft. We present how to redesign the component that currently manufactured as a forged single body type. The research was focused on not only reducing processing time but insuring durability of the component simultaneously.

Keywords: automotive, propeller shaft, productivity, durability, slip yoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
799 Design and Performance of a Large Diameter Shaft in Old Alluvium

Authors: Tamilmani Thiruvengadam, Ramasthanan Arulampalam


This project comprises laying approximately 1.8km of 400mm, 1200mm and 2400mm diameter sewer pipes using pipe jacking machines along Mugliston Park, Buangkok Drive, and Buangkok Link. The works include an estimated 14 circular shafts with depth ranging from 10.0 meters to 29.0 meters. Cast in-situ circular shaft will be used for the temporary shaft excavation. The geology is predominantly Backfill and old alluvium with weak material encountered in between. Where there is a very soft clay, F1 material or weak soil is expected, ground improvement will be carried out outside of the shaft followed by cast in-situ concrete ring wall within the improved soil zone. This paper presents the design methodology, analysis and results of temporary shafts for micro TBM launching and constructing permanent manholes. There is also a comparison of instrumentation readings with the analysis predicted values.

Keywords: circular shaft, ground improvement, old alluvium, temporary shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
798 Analytical Method for Seismic Analysis of Shaft-Tunnel Junction under Longitudinal Excitations

Authors: Jinghua Zhang


Shaft-tunnel junction is a typical case of the structural nonuniformity in underground structures. The shaft and the tunnel possess greatly different structural features. Even under uniform excitations, they tend to behave discrepantly. Studies on shaft-tunnel junctions are mainly performed numerically. Shaking table tests are also conducted. Although many numerical and experimental data are obtained, an analytical solution still has great merits of gaining more insights into the shaft-tunnel problem. This paper will try to remedy the situation. Since the seismic responses of shaft-tunnel junctions are very related to directions of the excitations, they are studied in two scenarios: the longitudinal-excitation scenario and the transverse-excitation scenario. The former scenario will be addressed in this paper. Given that responses of the tunnel are highly dependent on the shaft, the analytical solutions would be developed firstly for the vertical shaft. Then, the seismic responses of the tunnel would be discussed. Since vertical shafts bear a resemblance to rigid caissons, the solution proposed in this paper is derived by introducing terms of shaft-tunnel and soil-tunnel interactions into equations originally developed for rigid caissons. The validity of the solution is examined by a validation model computed by finite element method. The mutual influence between the shaft and the tunnel is introduced. The soil-structure interactions are discussed parametrically based on the proposed equations. The shaft-tunnel relative displacement and the soil-tunnel relative stiffness are found to be the most important parameters affecting the magnitudes and distributions of the internal forces of the tunnel. A hinge-joint at the shaft-tunnel junction could significantly reduce the degree of stress concentration compared with a rigid joint.

Keywords: analytical solution, longitudinal excitation, numerical validation , shaft-tunnel junction

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797 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak


The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, powder metallurgy, friction welding, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
796 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller


This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

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795 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao


In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft

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794 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi


In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
793 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo


This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, simulink, bearing, EPS

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792 Identification of Dynamic Friction Model for High-Precision Motion Control

Authors: Martin Goubej, Tomas Popule, Alois Krejci


This paper deals with experimental identification of mechanical systems with nonlinear friction characteristics. Dynamic LuGre friction model is adopted and a systematic approach to parameter identification of both linear and nonlinear subsystems is given. The identification procedure consists of three subsequent experiments which deal with the individual parts of plant dynamics. The proposed method is experimentally verified on an industrial-grade robotic manipulator. Model fidelity is compared with the results achieved with a static friction model.

Keywords: mechanical friction, LuGre model, friction identification, motion control

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791 Determination of the Friction Coefficient of AL5754 Alloy by Ring Compression Test: Experimental and Numerical Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zadshakoyan


One of the important factors that alter different process and geometrical parameters on metal forming processes is friction between contacting surfaces. Some important factors that effected directly by friction are: stress, strain, required load, wear of surfaces and then geometrical parameters. In order to control friction effects permanent lubrication is necessary. In this article, the friction coefficient is elicited by the most effective method, ring compression tests. The tests were done by both finite element method and practical tests. Different friction curves that extracted by finite element simulations and has good conformity with published results, used for obtaining final friction coefficient. In this study Mos2 is used as the lubricant and Al5754 alloy used as the specimens material.

Keywords: experiment, FEM, friction coefficient, ring compression

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790 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay


Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
789 Failure Analysis of Recoiler Mandrel Shaft Used for Coiling of Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: Sachin Pawar, Suman Patra, Goutam Mukhopadhyay


The primary function of a shaft is to transfer power. The shaft can be cast or forged and then machined to the final shape. Manufacturing of ~5 m length and 0.6 m diameter shaft is very critical. More difficult is to maintain its straightness during heat treatment and machining operations, which involve thermal and mechanical loads, respectively. During the machining operation of a such forged mandrel shaft, a deflection of 3-4mm was observed. To remove this deflection shaft was pressed at both ends which led to the development of cracks in it. To investigate the root cause of the deflection and cracking, the sample was cut from the failed shaft. Possible causes were identified with the help of a cause and effect diagram. Chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, and hardness measurement were done to confirm whether the shaft meets the required specifications or not. Chemical composition analysis confirmed that the material grade was 42CrMo4. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of untempered martensite, indicating improper heat treatment. Due to this, ductility and impact toughness values were considerably lower than the specification of the mentioned grade. Residual stress measurement of one more bent shaft manufactured by a similar route was done by portable X-ray diffraction(XRD) technique. For better understanding, measurements were done at twelve different locations along the length of the shaft. The occurrence of a high amount of undesirable tensile residual stresses close to the Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of the material was observed. Untempered martensitic structure, lower ductility, lower impact strength, and presence of a high amount of residual stresses all confirmed the improper tempering heat treatment of the shaft. Tempering relieves the residual stresses. Based on the findings of this study, stress-relieving heat treatment was done to remove the residual stresses and deflection in the shaft successfully.

Keywords: residual stress, mandrel shaft, untempered martensite, portable XRD

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788 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni


Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis

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787 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško


The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
786 Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft

Authors: Hossein Kh. Bisheh, Nan Wu


Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.

Keywords: Bending natural frequency, Composite drive shaft, Peak torque, Torsional buckling

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785 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan


This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

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784 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao


Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts

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783 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang


This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: friction, L-bending, springback, Stribeck curves

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782 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam


Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

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781 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov


The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: gland seal, lubricant additives, nanocrystalline cellulose, water-based lubricants

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780 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System


The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, Functionally graded material, Porosity volume fraction, Power law

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