Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3167

Search results for: black cotton soil

3167 Influence of Compactive Efforts on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Bagasse Ash Treated Black Cotton Soil

Authors: T. S. Ijimdiya, K. J. Osinubi

Abstract:

This study examines the influence of compactive efforts on hydraulic conductivity behaviour of compacted black cotton soil treated with bagasse ash which is necessary in assessing the performance of the soil - bagasse ash mixture for use as a suitable barrier material in waste containment application. Black cotton soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash (obtained from burning the fibrous residue from the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane) by dry weight of soil for use in waste containment application. The natural soil classifies as A-7-6 or CH in accordance with the AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System, respectively. The treated soil samples were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2, and +4 % of optimum moisture contents and compacted using four compactive efforts of Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH). The results obtained show that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in bagasse ash content, moulding water content and compaction energy.

Keywords: bagasse ash treatment, black cotton soil, hydraulic conductivity, moulding water contents, compactive efforts

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3166 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

Abstract:

Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: bagasse ash, black cotton soil, deficient soil, laterite, soil improvement

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3165 Improving the Strength Characteristics of Soil Using Cotton Fibers

Authors: Bindhu Lal, Karnika Kochal

Abstract:

Clayey soil contains clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter, which exhibits properties like low drainage, high plasticity, and shrinkage. To overcome these issues, various soil reinforcement techniques are used to elevate the stiffness, water tightness, and bearing capacity of the soil. Such techniques include cementation, bituminization, freezing, fiber inclusion, geo-synthetics, nailing, etc. Reinforcement of soil with fibers has been a cost-effective solution to soil improvement problems. An experimental study was undertaken involving the inclusion of cotton waste fibers in clayey soil as reinforcement with different fiber contents (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% by weight) and analyzing its effects on the unconfined compressive strength of the soil. Two categories of soil were taken, comprising of natural clay and clay mixed with 5% sodium bentonite by weight. The soil specimens were subjected to proctor compaction and unconfined compression tests. The validated outcome shows that fiber inclusion has a strikingly positive impact on the compressive strength and axial strain at failure of the soil. Based on the commendatory results procured, compressive strength was found to be directly proportional to the fiber content, with the effect being more pronounced at lower water content.

Keywords: bentonite clay, clay, cotton fibers, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3164 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio of a Black Cotton Soil Stabilized with Waste Glass and Eggshell Powder using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Biruhi Tesfaye, Avinash M. Potdar

Abstract:

The laboratory test process to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR) of black cotton soils is not only overpriced but also time-consuming as well. Hence advanced prediction of CBR plays a significant role as it is applicable In pavement design. The prediction of CBR of treated soil was executed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which is a Computational tool based on the properties of the biological neural system. To observe CBR values, combined eggshell and waste glass was added to soil as 4, 8, 12, and 16 % of the weights of the soil samples. Accordingly, the laboratory related tests were conducted to get the required best model. The maximum CBR value found at 5.8 at 8 % of eggshell waste glass powder addition. The model was developed using CBR as an output layer variable. CBR was considered as a function of the joint effect of liquid limit, plastic limit, and plastic index, optimum moisture content and maximum dry density. The best model that has been found was ANN with 5, 6 and 1 neurons in the input, hidden and output layer correspondingly. The performance of selected ANN has been 0.99996, 4.44E-05, 0.00353 and 0.0067 which are correlation coefficient (R), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The research presented or summarized above throws light on future scope on stabilization with waste glass combined with different percentages of eggshell that leads to the economical design of CBR acceptable to pavement sub-base or base, as desired.

Keywords: CBR, artificial neural network, liquid limit, plastic limit, maximum dry density, OMC

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3163 Metagenomic Assessment of the Effects of Genetically Modified Crops on Microbial Ecology and Physicochemical Properties of Soil

Authors: Falana Yetunde Olaitan, Ijah U. J. J, Solebo Shakirat O.

Abstract:

Genetically modified crops are already phenomenally successful and are grown worldwide in more than eighteen countries on more than 67 million hectares. Nigeria, in October 2018, approved Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton and maize; therefore, the need to carry out environmental risk assessment studies. A total of 15 4L octagonal ceramic pots were filled with 4kg of soil and placed on the bench in 2 rows of 10 pots each and the 3rd row of 5 pots, 1st-row pots were used to plant GM cotton seeds, while the 2nd-row pots were used for non-GM cotton seeds and the 3rd row of 5 pots served as control, all in the screen house. Soil samples for metagenomic DNA extraction were collected at random and at the monthly interval after planting at a distance of 2mm from the plant’s root and at a depth of 10cm using a sterile spatula. Soil samples for physicochemical analysis were collected before planting and after harvesting the GM and non-GM crops as well as from the control soil. The DNA was extracted, quantified and sequenced; Sample 1A (DNA from GM cotton Soil at 1st interval) gave the lowest sequence read with 0.853M while sample 2B (DNA from GM cotton Soil at 2nd interval) gave the highest with 5.785M, others gave between 1.8M and 4.7M. The samples treatment were grouped into four, Group 1 (GM cotton soil from 1 to 3 intervals) had between 800,000 and 5,700,000 strains of microbes (SOM), Group 2 (non GM cotton soil from 1 to 3 intervals) had between 1,400,600 and 4,200,000 SOM, Group 3 (control soil) had between 900,000 and 3,600,000 SOM and Group 4 (initial soil) had between 3,700,000 and 4,000,000 SOM. The microbes observed were predominantly bacteria (including archaea), fungi, dark matter alongside protists and phages. The predominant bacterial groups were the Terrabacteria (Bacillus funiculus, Bacillus sp.), the Proteobacteria (Microvirga massiliensis, sphingomonas sp.) and the Archaea (Nitrososphaera sp.), while the fungi were Aspergillus fischeri and Fusarium falciforme. The comparative analysis between groups was done using JACCARD PERMANOVA beta diversity analysis at P-value not more than 0.76 and there was no significant pair found. The pH for initial, GM cotton, non-GM cotton and control soil were 6.28, 6.26, 7.25, 8.26 and the percentage moisture was 0.63, 0.78, 0.89 and 0.82, respectively, while the percentage Nitrogen was observed to be 17.79, 1.14, 1.10 and 0.56 respectively. Other parameters include, varying concentrations of Potassium (0.46, 1,284.47, 1,785.48, 1,252.83 mg/kg) and Phosphorus (18.76, 17.76, 16.87, 15.23 mg/kg) were recorded for the four treatments respectively. The soil consisted mainly of silt (32.09 to 34.66%) and clay (58.89 to 60.23%), reflecting the soil texture as silty – clay. The results were then tested with ANOVA at less than 0.05 P-value and no pair was found to be significant as well. The results suggest that the GM crops have no significant effect on microbial ecology and physicochemical properties of the soil and, in turn, no direct or indirect effects on human health.

Keywords: genetically modified crop, microbial ecology, physicochemical properties, metagenomics, DNA, soil

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3162 Cotton Transplantation as a Practice to Escape Infection with Some Soil-Borne Pathogens

Authors: E. M. H. Maggie, M. N. A. Nazmey, M. A. Abdel-Sattar, S. A. Saied

Abstract:

A successful trial of transplanting cotton is reported. Seeds grown in trays for 4-5 weeks in an easily prepared supporting medium such as peat moss or similar plant waste are tried. Careful transplanting of seedlings, with root system as intact as possible, is being made in the permanent field. The practice reduced damping-off incidence rate and allowed full winter crop revenues. Further work is needed to evaluate certain parameters such as growth curve, flowering curve, and yield at economic bases.

Keywords: cotton, transplanting cotton, damping-off diseases, environment sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3161 Effect of Marginal Quality Groundwater on Yield of Cotton Crop and Soil Salinity Status

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, R. K. Dashti, S. M. Yasin

Abstract:

In this paper, effect of marginal quality groundwater on yield of cotton crop and soil salinity was studied. In this connection, three irrigation treatments each with four replications were applied. These treatments were use of canal water, use of marginal quality groundwater from tube well, and conjunctive use by mixing with the ratio of 1:1 of canal water and marginal quality tubewell water. Water was applied to the crop cultivated in Kharif season 2011; its quantity has been measured using cut-throat flume. Total 11 watering each of 50 mm depth have been applied from 20th April to 20th July, 2011. Further, irrigations were stopped from last week of July, 2011 due to monsoon rainfall. Maximum crop yield (seed cotton) was observed under T1 which was 1,516.8 kg/ha followed by T3 (mixed canal and tube well water) having 1009 kg/ha and 709 kg/ha for T2 i.e. marginal quality groundwater. This concludes that crop yield in T2 and T3 with in comparison to T1was reduced by about 53 and 30% respectively. It has been observed that yield of cotton crop is below potential limit for three treatments due to unexpected rainfall at the time of full flowering season; thus the yield was adversely affected. However, salt deposition in soil profiles was not observed that is due to leaching effect of heavy rainfall occurred during monsoon season.

Keywords: conjunctive use, cotton crop, groundwater, soil salinity status, water use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3160 Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

Authors: Petarpa Boonserm, Tritos Ngampitipan, Matt Visser

Abstract:

A 'clean' black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a 'dirty black hole'. In this paper, The effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the greybody factor of a dirty black hole to be less than that of a clean black hole.

Keywords: dirty black hole, greybody factor, hawking radiation, matter fields.

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3159 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana

Abstract:

The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
3158 Investigation of Boll Properties on Cotton Picker Machine Performance

Authors: Shahram Nowrouzieh, Abbas Rezaei Asl, Mohamad Ali Jafari

Abstract:

Cotton, as a strategic crop, plays an important role in providing human food and clothing need, because of its oil, protein, and fiber. Iran has been one of the largest cotton producers in the world in the past, but unfortunately, for economic reasons, its production is reduced now. One of the ways to reduce the cost of cotton production is to expand the mechanization of cotton harvesting. Iranian farmers do not accept the function of cotton harvesters. One reason for this lack of acceptance of cotton harvesting machines is the number of field losses on these machines. So, the majority of cotton fields are harvested by hand. Although the correct setting of the harvesting machine is very important in the cotton losses, the morphological properties of the cotton plant also affect the performance of cotton harvesters. In this study, the effect of some cotton morphological properties such as the height of the cotton plant, number, and length of sympodial and monopodial branches, boll dimensions, boll weight, number of carpels and bracts angle were evaluated on the performance of cotton picker. In this research, the efficiency of John Deere 9920 spindle Cotton picker is investigated on five different Iranian cotton cultivars. The results indicate that there was a significant difference between the five cultivars in terms of machine harvest efficiency. Golestan cultivar showed the best cotton harvester performance with an average of 87.6% of total harvestable seed cotton and Khorshid cultivar had the least cotton harvester performance. The principal component analysis showed that, at 50.76% probability, the cotton picker efficiency is affected by the bracts angle positively and by boll dimensions, the number of carpels and the height of cotton plants negatively. The seed cotton remains (in the plant and on the ground) after harvester in PCA scatter plot were in the same zone with boll dimensions and several carpels.

Keywords: cotton, bract, harvester, carpel

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3157 Conductive and Stretchable Graphene Nanoribbon Coated Textiles

Authors: Lu Gan, Songmin Shang, Marcus Chun Wah Yuen

Abstract:

A conductive and stretchable cotton fabric was prepared in this study through coating the graphene nanoribbon onto the cotton fabric. The mechanical and electrical properties of the prepared cotton fabric were then investigated. As shown in the results, the graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric had an improvement in both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the resistance of the cotton fabric had a linear dependence on the strain applied to it. The prepared graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric has great application potentials in smart textile industry.

Keywords: conductive fabric, graphene nanoribbon, coating, enhanced properties

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3156 Resin Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton is the most commonly used material for apparel purpose because of its durability, good perspiration absorption characteristics, comfort during wear and dyeability. However, proneness to creasing and wrinkling give cotton garments a poor rating during actual wear. Resin finishing is a process to bring out crease or wrinkle free/resistant effect to cotton fabric. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of resin finishing to cotton fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, resin, textiles, wrinkle

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
3155 Analysis of the Black Sea Gas Hydrates

Authors: Sukru Merey, Caglar Sinayuc

Abstract:

Gas hydrate deposits which are found in deep ocean sediments and in permafrost regions are supposed to be a fossil fuel reserve for the future. The Black Sea is also considered rich in terms of gas hydrates. It abundantly contains gas hydrates as methane (CH4~80 to 99.9%) source. In this study, by using the literature, seismic and other data of the Black Sea such as salinity, porosity of the sediments, common gas type, temperature distribution and pressure gradient, the optimum gas production method for the Black Sea gas hydrates was selected as mainly depressurization method. Numerical simulations were run to analyze gas production from gas hydrate deposited in turbidites in the Black Sea by depressurization.

Keywords: CH4 hydrate, Black Sea hydrates, gas hydrate experiments, HydrateResSim

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3154 A Comparative Study on Indian and Greek Cotton Fiber Properties Correlations

Authors: Md. Nakib Ul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Sumon Miah, Misbah Ul Hoque, Bulbul Ahmed

Abstract:

The variability of cotton fiber characteristics has always been influenced by origin, weather conditions, method of culturing, and harvesting. Spinners work tirelessly to ensure consistent yarn quality by using the different origins of fibers to maximizes the profit margin. Spinners often fail to select desired raw materials of various origins to achieve an appropriate mixing plan due to the lack of knowledge on the interrelationship among fiber properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the correlations among dominating fiber properties such as micronaire, strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, maturity, reflectance, and yellowness. For this purpose, fiber samples from 500 Indian cotton bales and 350 Greek cotton bales were collected and tested using the high volume instrument (HVI). The fiber properties dataset was then compiled and analyzed using python 3.7 to determine the correlations matrix. Results show that Indian cotton fiber have highest correlation between strength-mat = 0.84, followed by SFI-Unf =-0.83, and Neps-Unf = -0.72. Greek cotton fiber, in contrast, have highest correlation between SFI-Unf =-0.98, followed by SFI-Mat = 0.89, +b-Len = 0.84, and Str-Mat = 0.74. Overall, the Greek cotton fiber showed a higher correlational matrix than compared to that of Indian cotton fiber.

Keywords: cotton fiber, fiber properties correlation, Greek cotton, HVI, Indian cotton, spinning

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3153 Major Variables Influencing Marketed Surplus of Seed Cotton in District Khanewal, Pakistan

Authors: Manan Aslam, Shafqat Rasool

Abstract:

This paper attempts to examine impact of major factors affecting marketed surplus of seed cotton in district Khanewal (Punjab) using primary source of data. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The impact of major factors on marketed surplus of seed cotton growers was estimated by employing double log form of regression analysis. The value of adjusted R2 was 0.64 whereas the F-value was 10.81. The findings of analysis revealed that experience of farmers, education of farmers, area under cotton crop and distance from wholesale market were the significant variables affecting marketed surplus of cotton whereas the variables (marketing cost and sale price) showed insignificant impact. The study suggests improving prevalent marketing practices to increase volume of marketed surplus of cotton in district Khanewal.

Keywords: seed cotton, marketed surplus, double log regression analysis

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3152 Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Lodrick Wangatia Makokha

Abstract:

Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.

Keywords: cationization, cotton, proteinous products, reactive dyes

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3151 A Review of Antimicrobial Strategy for Cotton Textile

Authors: C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

Abstract:

Cotton textile has large specific surfaces with good adhesion and water-storage properties which provide conditions for the growth and settlement of biological organisms. In addition, the soil, dust and solutes from sweat can also be the sources of nutrients for microorganisms [236]. Generally speaking, algae can grow on textiles under very moist conditions, providing nutrients for fungi and bacteria growth. Fungi cause multiple problems to textiles including discolouration, coloured stains and fibre damage. Bacteria can damage fibre and cause unpleasant odours with a slick and slimy feel. In addition, microbes can disrupt the manufacturing processes such as textile dyeing, printing and finishing operations through the reduction of viscosity, fermentation and mold formation. Therefore, a large demand exists for the anti-microbially finished textiles capable of avoiding or limiting microbial fibre degradation or bio fouling, bacterial incidence, odour generation and spreading or transfer of pathogens. In this review, the main strategy for cotton textile will be reviewed. In the beginning, the classification of bacteria and germs which are commonly found with cotton textiles will be introduced. The chemistry of antimicrobial finishing will be discussed. In addition, the types of antimicrobial treatment will be summarized. Finally, the application and evaluation of antimicrobial treatment on cotton textile will be discussed.

Keywords: antimicrobial, cotton, textile, review

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3150 RNA Antisense Coat Protein Showing Promising Effects against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease in Pakistani Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar

Abstract:

Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) is from Gemini virus and is transmitted through whiteflies in cotton. Transgenic cotton containing Antisense Coat Protein (ACP) has been found to show better results against CLCuD in cotton. In current research, Antisense Coat Protein was inserted in cotton plants to observe resistance developed in the cotton plants against CLCuD. T1 generation of plants were observed for its expression in plants. Tests were carried out to observe the expression of Antisense Coat Protein using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and by southern blotting. Whiteflies showing positive Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) were reared and released in bioassay on ACP expressing cotton plants under laboratory as well as confined semi-field conditions. Results confirmed the expression of AC protein in PCR and southern blotting. Further laboratory results showed that cotton plants expressing AC protein showed rare incidence of CLCuD infection as compared to control. In the confined semi-field, similar results were observed in AC protein expressing cotton as compared to control. These results explicitly show that ACP can help to tackle the CLCuD issue in the future and further studies on biochemical processes involved in these plants and effects of ACP induction on non-target organisms should also be studied for eco-system.

Keywords: cotton, white flies, antisense coat protein, CLCV

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3149 Bioefficacy of Novel Insecticide Flupyradifurone Sl 200 against Leaf Hoppers, Aphids and Whitefly in Cotton

Authors: N. V. V. S. D. Prasad

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India for two seasons during 2011-13 to evaluate the efficacy of flupyradifurone SL 200 a new class of insecticide in butenolide group against leaf hoppers, aphids and whitefly in Cotton. The test insecticide flupyradifurone 200 was evaluated at three doses @ 150, 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha along with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha, acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha, thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha and monocrotophos 36 SL @ 360 g ai/ha as standards. Flupyradifurone SL 200 even at lower dose of 150g ai/ha exhibited superior efficacy against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca devastans than the neonicotinoids which are widely used for control of sucking pests in cotton. Against cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Flupyradifurone SL 200 @ 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha was proved to be effective and the lower dose @ 150g ai/ha performed better than some of the neonicotinoids. The effect of flupyradifurone SL 200 on cotton against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was evident at higher doses of 200 and 250 g ai/ha and superior to all standard treatments, however, the lower dose is at par with neonicotinoids. The seed cotton yield of flupyradifurone 200 SL at all the doses tested was superior than imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha and acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha. There is no significant difference among the insecticidal treatments with regards to natural enemies. The results clearly suggest that flupyradifurone is a new tool to combat sucking pest problems in cotton and can well fit in IRM strategies in light of wide spread insecticide resistance in cotton sucking pests.

Keywords: cotton, flupyradifurone, neonicotinoids, sucking pests

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3148 Dissipation of Tebuconazole in Cropland Soils as Affected by Soil Factors

Authors: Bipul Behari Saha, Sunil Kumar Singh, P. Padmaja, Kamlesh Vishwakarma

Abstract:

Dissipation study of tebuconazole in alluvial, black and deep-black clayey soils collected from paddy, mango and peanut cropland of tropical agro-climatic zone of India at three concentration levels were carried out for monitoring the water contamination through persisted residual toxicity. The soil-slurry samples were analyzed by capillary GC-NPD methods followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique and cleanup process. An excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1 to 50 μgkg-1. The detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) limits were 3 and 10 μgkg-1 respectively. Well spiked recoveries were achieved from 96.28 to 99.33 % at levels 5 and 20 μgkg-1 and method precision (% RSD) was ≤ 5%. The soils dissipation of tebuconazole was fitted in first order kinetic-model with half-life between 34.48 to 48.13 days. The soil organic-carbon (SOC) content correlated well with the dissipation rate constants (DRC) of the fungicide Tebuconazole. An increase in the SOC content resulted in faster dissipation. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon and tebuconazole concentrations plays dominant role in dissipation processes. The initial concentration illustrated that the degradation rate of tebuconazole in soils was concentration dependent.

Keywords: cropland soil, dissipation, laboratory incubation, tebuconazole

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3147 An Analysis of the Wheat Export Performance of Ukraine in Europe

Authors: Kiran Bala Das

Abstract:

This paper examines the Ukraine wheat export condition after Russian-Ukrainian military confrontation. The political conflict in Ukraine and the recent military intervention of Russia in Crimea is raising concern full effect of the events there is still uncertain, but some hints can be seen in the wheat market by analyzing the trend and pattern of Ukraine wheat export. Crimea is extremely important as it is where most of Ukraine grain exported by ship from its ports of the black sea. Ukraine is again seeking to establish itself a significant exporter of agricultural product with its rich black soil, it is chornozem the top soil layer that makes the country soil so fertile and become one of the major exporter of wheat in the world, its generous supplier of wheat make Ukraine 'Bread basket of Europe'. Ukraine possesses 30% of the world’s richest black soil; its agricultural industry has huge potential especially in grains. European Union (EU) is a significant trading partner of Ukraine but geopolitical tension adversely affects the wheat trade from black sea, which threatens Europe breadbasket. This study also highlights an index of export intensity to analyze the intensity of existing trade for the period 2011-2014 between Ukraine and EU countries. The result show export has intensified over the years, but this year low trade intensity. The overall consequence is hard to determine but if the situation deteriorates and Ukraine cutoff export, international wheat price will hike and grain prices (wheat) also come under the current circumstances and the recent development indicates how the grain market get affected and Agri future now in danger in Ukraine, and its forecast that Ukraine harvest low wheat crop this year and projected decline in export of wheat.

Keywords: breadbasket of Europe, export intensity index, growth rate, wheat export

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3146 Yield, Economics and ICBR of Different IPM Modules in Bt Cotton in Maharashtra

Authors: N. K. Bhute, B. B. Bhosle, D. G. More, B. V. Bhede

Abstract:

The field experiments were conducted during kharif season of the year 2007-08 at the experimental farm of the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Studies on evaluation of different IPM modules for Bt cotton in relation to yield economics and ICBR revealed that MAU and CICR IPM modules proved superior. It was, however, on par with chemical control. Considering the ICBR and safety to natural enemies, an inference can be drawn that Bt cotton with IPM module is the most ideal combination. Besides reduction in insecticide use, it is also expected to ensure favourable ecological and economic returns in contrast to the adverse effects due to conventional insecticides. The IPM approach, which takes care of varying pest situation, appears to be essential for gaining higher advantage from Bt cotton.

Keywords: yield, economics, ICBR, IPM Modules, Bt cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
3145 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.

Keywords: learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, cotton, wrinkle-resistant, BTCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3144 Callus Induction, In-Vitro Plant Regeneration and Acclimatization of Lycium barbarum L. (Goji)

Authors: Rosna Mat Taha, Sakinah Abdullah, Sadegh Mohajer, Asmah Awal

Abstract:

Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) belongs to Solanaceae family and native to some areas of China. Ethnobotanical studies have shown that this plant has been consumed by the Chinese since ancient times. It has been used as medicine in providing excellent effects on cardiovascular system and cholesterol level, besides contains high antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. In the present study, some tissue culture work has been carried out to induce callus, in vitro regeneration from various explants of Goji and also some acclimatization protocols were followed to transfer the regenerated plants to soil. The main aims being to establish high efficient regeneration system for mass production and commercialization for future uses, since the growth of this species is very limited in Malaysia. The optimum hormonal regime and the most suitable and responsive explants were identified. It was found that leaves and stems gave good responses. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BAP was the best for callus induction and MS media fortified with 1.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BAP was optimum for in vitro regeneration. The survival rates of plantlets after acclimatization was 63±1.5 % on black soil and 50±1.3 % on mixed soil (combination of black and red soil at a ratio of 2 to 1), respectively.

Keywords: callus, acclimatization, in vitro culture, regeneration

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3143 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Haider Karar, Saghir Ahmad, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: red cotton bug, cotton, weather factors, years

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3142 Comparative Evaluation of Root Uptake Models for Developing Moisture Uptake Based Irrigation Schedules for Crops

Authors: Vijay Shankar

Abstract:

In the era of water scarcity, effective use of water via irrigation requires good methods for determining crop water needs. Implementation of irrigation scheduling programs requires an accurate estimate of water use by the crop. Moisture depletion from the root zone represents the consequent crop evapotranspiration (ET). A numerical model for simulating soil water depletion in the root zone has been developed by taking into consideration soil physical properties, crop and climatic parameters. The governing differential equation for unsaturated flow of water in the soil is solved numerically using the fully implicit finite difference technique. The water uptake by plants is simulated by using three different sink functions. The non-linear model predictions are in good agreement with field data and thus it is possible to schedule irrigations more effectively. The present paper describes irrigation scheduling based on moisture depletion from the different layers of the root zone, obtained using different sink functions for three cash, oil and forage crops: cotton, safflower and barley, respectively. The soil is considered at a moisture level equal to field capacity prior to planting. Two soil moisture regimes are then imposed for irrigated treatment, one wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 50% of available soil water; and other wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 75% of available soil water. For both the soil moisture regimes it has been found that the model incorporating a non-linear sink function which provides best agreement of computed root zone moisture depletion with field data, is most effective in scheduling irrigations. Simulation runs with this moisture uptake function result in saving 27.3 to 45.5% & 18.7 to 37.5%, 12.5 to 25% % &16.7 to 33.3% and 16.7 to 33.3% & 20 to 40% irrigation water for cotton, safflower and barley respectively, under 50 & 75% moisture depletion regimes over other moisture uptake functions considered in the study. Simulation developed can be used for an optimized irrigation planning for different crops, choosing a suitable soil moisture regime depending upon the irrigation water availability and crop requirements.

Keywords: irrigation water, evapotranspiration, root uptake models, water scarcity

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3141 Water Repellent Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Fabrics can be treated to equip them with certain functional properties in which water repellency is one of the important functional effects. In this study, commercial water repellent agent was used under different application conditions to cotton fabric. Finally, the water repellent effect was evaluated by standard testing method. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of water repellent finishing to cotton fabric and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, water repellent, textiles, cotton

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3140 Solvent-Free Synthesis of Sorbents for Removal of Oil Spills

Authors: Mohammad H. Al-Sayah, Khalid Jarrah, Soleiman Hisaindee

Abstract:

Hydrophobic sorbents are usually used to remove oil spills from water surfaces. In this study, the hydrophilic fibers of natural cotton were chemically modified with a solvent-free process to modify them into hydrophobic fibers that can remove oil from water surfaces. The cellulose-based fibers of cotton were reacted with trichlorosilanes through gas-solid reaction in a dry chamber. Cotton fibers were exposed to vapors of four different chloroalkylsilanes at room temperature for 24 hours. The chlorosilanes were namely trichloromethylsilane, dichlorodimethyl silane, butyltrichlorosilane, and trichloro (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl) silane. The modified cotton fibers were characterized by IR-spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The degree of substitution for each of the grafted alkyl groups was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 per glucose residue. As a result of sialylation, the cotton fibers became hydrophobic; this was reflected by water contact-angle measurements of the fibers which increased from zero for the unmodified cotton to above 100 degrees for the modified fibers. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the fibers for oil from water surfaces increased by about five times that of the unmodified cotton reaching 18 g oil/g of cotton modified by dimethyl substituted silyl ethers. The optimal fiber-oil contact time and temperature for adsorption were 10 mins at 25°C, respectively. Therefore, the efficacy of cotton fibers to remove oil spills from contaminated water surfaces was significantly enhanced by using a simple solvent-free and environment-friendly process.

Keywords: gas-solid silyl reaction, modified cellulose, solvent-free, oil pollution, cotton

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3139 Impacts of Racialization: Exploring the Relationships between Racial Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Activism

Authors: Brianna Z. Ross, Jonathan N. Livingston

Abstract:

Given that discussions of racism and racial tensions have become more salient, there is a need to evaluate the impacts of racialization among Black individuals. Racial discrimination has become one of the most common experiences within the Black American population. Likewise, Black individuals have indicated a need to address their racial identities at an earlier age than their non-Black peers. Further, Black individuals have been found at the forefront of multiple social and political movements, including but not limited to the Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter, MeToo, and Say Her Name. Moreover, the present study sought to explore the predictive relationships that exist between racial discrimination, racial identity, and activism in the Black community. The results of standard and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that racial discrimination and racial identity significantly predict each other, but only racial discrimination is a significant predictor for the relationship to activism. Nonetheless, the results from this study will provide a basis for social scientists to better understand the impacts of racialization on the Black American population.

Keywords: activism, racialization, racial discrimination, racial identity

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3138 Black Bodies Matter: The Contemporary Manifestation of Saartjie Baartman

Authors: Rokeshia Renné Ashley

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of historical figure Saartjie 'Sara/Sarah' Baartman from a cross cultural perspective of black women in the United States and black women in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) uncover that many women in both countries did not have an accurate representation, recollection, or have been exposed to the story of Baartman. Nonetheless, those who were familiar with Baartman’s story, those participants compared her to modern examples of black women who are showcased in a contemporary familiarity. The women are described by participants as women who reveal their bodies in a sexualized manner and have the curves that are similar to Baartman’s historic figure. This comparison emphasized a connection to popular images of black women who represent the curvaceous ideal. Findings contribute to social comparison theory by providing a lens for examining black women’s body image.

Keywords: black women, body modification, media, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 226