Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: gentamicin

41 Biofilm Formation Due to the Proteome Changes Of Enterococcus Faecium in Response to Sub-Mic of Gentamicin

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Mahdi Asghari Ozma


Background and Objective:Enterococcus faecium is a normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract that causes infection in the host body under conditions such as biofilm formation, in which the use of antibiotics causes changes in these pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate comprehensively the changes in E.faecium when exposed to sub-MIC of the gentamicin,especiallythe biofilm formation rate. Materials and Methods: For this study, the keywords "Enterococcus faecium ", "Biofilm", and "Gentamicin" in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Sid, and MagIran between 2015 and 2021 were searched, and 14 articles were chosen, studied, and analyzed. Results: Gentamicin significantly had increased biofilm formation in most of the isolates in the studies. Increased expression of the genes (efaA and esp) and proteins involved in biofilm formation and decreased expression of the genes (gelE and cylA) involved in spreading and proteins involved in metabolism and cell division in E.faecium were the most significant cause of the biofilm formation, which were increased in sub-MIC gentamicin-treated situation. Conclusion: Inadequate use of gentamicin intensify biofilm formation of E.faecium, which can make the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium difficult.

Keywords: biofilm, enterococcus faecium, gentamicin, proteome

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40 Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohamed F. Ahmed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabha


This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days) , group 3: treated with L‐carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the above-mentioned parameters as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of the kidney associated with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: gentamicin, nephrotoxicity, L‐carnitine, kidney disease

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39 Effects of Hypolipidemic Agents in Aminoglycoside-Induced Experimental Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Evidence

Authors: Balakumar Pitchai, Xiang Llan Ang, Sunil Prajapati, Varatharajan Rajavel, Sundram Karupiah, Mohd Baidi Bahari


The study examined the pretreatment and post-treatment effects of low-doses of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin in gentamicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to rats for 8 days. In the pretreatment protocol, low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) treatments were started a day before the administration of gentamicin and continued for 8 days. In the post-treatment protocol, rats administered gentamicin were treated with low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 6 days after the completion of 8 days protocol of gentamicin administration. Gentamicin-associated acute nephrotoxicity in rats was assessed in terms of biochemical analysis and renal histopathological studies. Gentamicin-administered rats showed marked renal functional changes as assessed in terms of a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels as compared to normal rats. The renal dysfunction noted in gentamicin administered rats was accompanied with elevated serum uric acid level as compared to normal rats while there was no significant change in lipid profile. Low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment in gentamicin-administered rats afforded a significant renal functional improvements and renoprotection while its post-treatment showed no significant renoprotection. On the other hand, pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin partially reduced gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine level, but its post-treatment did not afford renal functional improvements in gentamicin-administered rats. However, all pre and post-treatments with low-doses of fenofibrate or rosuvastatin significantly reduced the elevated serum uric acid concentration in gentamicin-administered rats. Renal histopathological analysis showed a discernible incidence of acute tubular necrosis in gentamicin-administered rats which were markedly reduced by low-dose fenofibrate or low-dose rosuvastatin pretreatments; but, not by their post-treatments. In conclusion, low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment considerably prevented gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis and renal functional abnormalities in rats while its post-treatment resulted in no significant renoprotective action. In spite of effective prevention of gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis, the pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin had only a partial and fractional protection on renal functional abnormalities. The post-treatment with low-dose rosuvastatin was ineffective in affording a renoprotection in gentamicin-administered rats.

Keywords: gentamicin-nephrotoxicity, low-dose fenofibrate, low-dose rosuvastatin, renoprotection

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38 Fractionation of Biosynthetic Mixture of Gentamicins by Reactive Extraction

Authors: L. Kloetzer, M. Poştaru, A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval


Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic industrially obtained by biosynthesis of Micromonospora purpurea or echinospora, the product being a complex mixture of components with very similar structures. Among them, three exhibit the most important biological activity: gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a. The separation of gentamicin from the fermentation broths at industrial scale is rather difficult and it does not allow the fractionation of the complex mixture of gentamicins in order to increase the therapeutic activity of the product. The aim of our experiments is to analyze the possibility to selectively separate the less active gentamicin, namely gentamicin C1, from the biosynthetic mixture by reactive extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in dichloromethane, followed selective re-extraction of the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. The experiments on the reactive extraction of gentamicins indicated the possibility to separate selectively the gentamicin C1 from the mixture obtained by biosynthesis. The extraction selectivity is positively influenced by increasing the pH-value of an aqueous solution and by using a D2EHPA concentration in organic phase closer to the value needed for an equimolecular ratio between the extractant and this gentamicin. For quantifying the selectivity of separation, the selectivity factor, calculated as the ratio between the degree of reactive extraction of gentamicin C1 and the overall extraction degree of gentamicins were used. The possibility to remove the gentamicin C1 at an extractant concentration of 10 g l-1 and pH = 8 is presented. In these conditions, it was obtained the maximum value of the selectivity factor of 2.14, which corresponds to the modification of the gentamicin C1 concentration from 31.92% in the biosynthetic mixture to 72% in the extract. The re-extraction of gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a with sulfuric acid from the extract previously obtained by reactive extraction (mixture A – extract obtained by non-selective reactive extraction; mixture B – extract obtained by selective reactive extraction) allows for separating selectively the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. For recovering only the active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a, the re-extraction must be carried out at very low acid concentrations, far below those corresponding to the stoichiometry of its chemical reactions with these gentamicins. Therefore, the mixture resulted by re-extraction contained 92.6% gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. By bringing together the aqueous solutions obtained by reactive extraction and re-extraction, the overall content of the active gentamicins in the final product becomes 89%, their loss reaching 0.3% related to the initial biosynthetic product.

Keywords: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, gentamicin, reactive extraction, selectivity factor

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37 Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Related Substance in Gentamicin Drug Substances

Authors: Sofiqul Islam, V. Murugan, Prema Kumari, Hari


Gentamicin is a broad spectrum water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by the fermentation process of microorganism known as Micromonospora purpurea. It is widely used for the treatment of infection caused by both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Gentamicin consists of a mixture of aminoglycoside components like C1, C1a, C2a, and C2. The molecular structure of Gentamicin and its related substances showed that it has lack of presence of chromophore group in the molecule due to which the detection of such components were quite critical and challenging. In this study, a simple Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method using ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed and validated for quantification of the related substances present in Gentamicin drug substances. The method was achieved by using Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) with isocratic elution composed of methanol: water: glacial acetic acid: sodium hexane sulfonate in the ratio 70:25:5:3 % v/v/v/w as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, column temperature was maintained at 30 °C and detection wavelength of 330 nm. The four components of Gentamicin namely Gentamicin C1, C1a, C2a, and C2 were well separated along with the related substance present in Gentamicin. The Limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were found to be at 0.0075 mg/mL. The accuracy of the method was quite satisfactory in which the % recovery was resulted between 95-105% for the related substances. The correlation coefficient (≥ 0.995) shows the linearity response against concentration over the range of Limit of Quantification (LOQ). Precision studies showed the % Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values less than 5% for its related substance. The method was validated in accordance with the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline with various parameters like system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification, and robustness. This proposed method was easy and suitable for use for the quantification of related substances in routine analysis of Gentamicin formulations.

Keywords: reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC), high performance liquid chromatography, gentamicin, isocratic, ultraviolet

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36 Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Injectable Gentamicin Generics Used in Veterinary Practice in Nigeria

Authors: F. A. Gberindyer, M. O.Abatan, A. B. Saba


Background: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative aerobic bacteria organisms in human and animals. In Nigeria, there are arrays of multisource generic versions of injectable gentamicin sulphate in the drug markets. There is a high prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs in the third world countries with consequent effect on their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaceutical equivalence of some of these generics used in veterinary practice in Nigeria. Methodology: About 20 generics of injectable gentamicin sulphate were sampled randomly across Nigeria but 15 were analyzed for identity and potency. Identity test was done using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and the spectral for each product compared with that of the USP reference standard for similarity. Microbiological assay using agar diffusion method with E. coli as a test organism on nutrient agar was employed and the respective diameters of bacterial inhibition zones obtained after 24 hour incubation at 37°C. The percent potency for each product was thereafter calculated and compared with the official specification. Result And Discussion: None of the generics is produced in any African country. About 75 % of the products are imported from China whereas 60 % of the veterinary generics are manufactured in Holland. Absorption spectra for the reference and test samples were similar. Percent potencies of all test products were within the official specification of 95-115 %. Nigeria relies solely on imported injectable gentamicin sulphate products. All sampled generic versions passed both identity and potency tests. Clinicians should ensure that drugs are used rationally since the converse could be contributing to the therapeutic failures reported for most of these generics. Bioequivalence study is recommended to ascertain their interchangeability when parenteral extra venous routes are indicated.

Keywords: generics, gentamicin, identity, multisource, potency

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35 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt

Authors: Nourhan Hussein Fanaki, Hoda Mohamed Gamal El-Din Omar, Nihal Kadry Moussa, Eva Adel Edward Farid


The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.

Keywords: glycopeptides, combinations, induction, diclofenac, transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction

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34 Mesoporous Titania Thin Films for Gentamicin Delivery and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Immobilization

Authors: Ane Escobar, Paula Angelomé, Mihaela Delcea, Marek Grzelczak, Sergio Enrique Moya


The antibacterial capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of antibiotics that can be delivered to the media after the surgery. Mesoporous films have shown great potential in drug delivery for orthopedic applications, since pore size and thickness can be tuned to produce different surface area and free volume inside the material. This work shows the synthesis of mesoporous titania films (MTF) by sol-gel chemistry and evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on top of glass substrates. Pores with a diameter of 12nm were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A film thickness of 100 nm was measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Gentamicin was used to study the antibiotic delivery from the film by means of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Staphilococcus aureus strand was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the penicillin loaded films toward inhibiting bacterial colonization. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell proliferation experiments proved that MTFs have a good biocompatibility and are a suitable surface for MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Moreover, images taken by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy using labeled vinculin, showed good adhesion of the MC3T3-E1 cells to the MTFs, as well as complex actin filaments arrangement. In order to improve cell proliferation Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) was adsorbed on top of the mesoporous film. The deposition of the protein was proved by measurements in the contact angle, showing an increment in the hydrophobicity while the protein concentration is higher. By measuring the dehydrogenase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in dually functionalized mesoporous titatina films with gentamicin and BMP-2 is possible to find an improvement in cell proliferation. For this purpose, the absorption of a yellow-color formazan dye, product of a water-soluble salt (WST-8) reduction by the dehydrogenases, is measured. In summary, this study proves that by means of the surface modification of MTFs with proteins and loading of gentamicin is possible to achieve an antibacterial effect and a cell growth improvement.

Keywords: antibacterial, biocompatibility, bone morphogenetic protein-2, cell proliferation, gentamicin, implants, mesoporous titania films, osteoblasts

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33 Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Gentamicin Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats

Authors: Amina Unis, Samah S. El Basateeny, Noha A. H. Nassef


Introduction: Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract (GCBE) on gentamicin induced ARF in rats. Methods: The study was conducted on 60 male rats divided into six equal groups. Group 1 served as normal control group and GCBE was administered for 7 days at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day in group 2 and 40 mg/kg/day in group 3 to test the effect of GCBE on normal kidneys. ARF was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for 7 days in group 4 (model group), group 5 (GCBE 20 mg/kg/day) and group 6 (GCBE 20 mg/kg/day). All rats were sacrificed after 7 days and blood was withdrawn for kidney function tests. Kidneys were removed for determination of renal oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Results: The present study showed that rats that received oral GCBE for 7 days without induction of ARF showed no significant change in all the assessed parameters in comparison to the normal control group, while rats in the groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days with induction of ARF showed a significant improvement in kidney functions tests (decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen) when compared to the ARF model group. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE treated groups along induction of ARF when compared to ARF model group. The most significant improvement was reported in the group where GCBE was administered for 7 days in a dose 40 mg/kg/day, along with induction of ARF. Conclusion: GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF mostly through its antioxidant effect.

Keywords: green coffee bean extract, gentamicin, acute renal failure, pharmacology

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32 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha


The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

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31 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Nagat M. Saeed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah


The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganisms, drug sensitivity

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30 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay


Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, gram negative rods, ESBL, VITEK 2

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29 Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Enterococci in Treated Wastewater Effluent in Durban, South Africa and Characterization of Vancomycin and High-Level Gentamicin-Resistant Strains

Authors: S. H. Gasa, L. Singh, B. Pillay, A. O. Olaniran


Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been implicated as the leading reservoir for antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), including Enterococci spp. and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), worldwide. Enterococci are a group of clinically significant bacteria that have gained much attention as a result of their antibiotic resistance. They play a significant role as the principal cause of nosocomial infections and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the role of WWTPs in Durban, South Africa as potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant Enterococci (ARE) and their related ARGs. Furthermore, the antibiogram and resistance gene profile of Enterococci species recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban were also investigated. Using membrane filtration technique, Enterococcus selective agar and selected antibiotics, ARE were enumerated in samples (influent, activated sludge, before chlorination and final effluent) collected from two WWTPs, as well as from upstream and downstream of the receiving surface water. Two hundred Enterococcus isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface water were identified by biochemical and PCR-based methods, and their antibiotic resistance profiles determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay, while PCR-based assays were used to detect the presence of resistance and virulence genes. High prevalence of ARE was obtained at both WWTPs, with values reaching a maximum of 40%. The influent and activated sludge samples contained the greatest prevalence of ARE with lower values observed in the before and after chlorination samples. Of the 44 vancomycin and high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates, 11 were identified as E. faecium, 18 as E. faecalis, 4 as E. hirae while 11 are classified as “other” Enterococci species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance for gentamicin (39%) and vancomycin (61%) was recorded in species tested. The most commonly detected virulence gene was the gelE (44%), followed by asa1 (40%), while cylA and esp were detected in only 2% of the isolates. The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia detected in 43%, 45% and 41% of the isolates, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between resistant phenotypes to high levels of aminoglycosides and presence of all aminoglycoside resistance genes. Resistance genes for glycopeptide: vanB (37%) and vanC-1 (25%), and macrolide: ermB (11%) and ermC (54%) were detected in the isolates. These results show the need for more efficient wastewater treatment and disposal in order to prevent the release of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococci species and safeguard public health.

Keywords: antibiogram, enterococci, gentamicin, vancomycin, virulence signatures

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28 Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Raw Cow Milk

Authors: Margita Čanigová, Jana Račková, Miroslav Kročko, Viera Ducková, Vladimíra Kňazovická


The aim of the study was to test the milk samples in terms of enterococci presence and their counts. Tested samples were as follows: raw cow milk, raw cow milk stored at 10°C for 16 hours and milk pasteurised at 72°C for 15 seconds. The typical colonies were isolated randomly and identified by classical biochemical test - EN-COCCUS test (Lachema, CR) and by PCR. Isolated strains were tested in terms of antibiotic resistance by well diffusion method. Examined antibiotics were: vancomycin (30 μg/disc), gentamicin (120 μg/disc), erythromycin (15 μg/disc), teicoplanine (30 μg/disc), ampicillin (10 μg/disc) and tetracycline (30 μg/disc). Average value of enterococci counts in raw milk cistern samples (n=30) was 8.25 ± 1.37 ×103 CFU/cm3. Storage tank milk samples (n=30) showed an increase (P > 0.05) and average value was 9.16 ± 1.49 × 103 CFU/cm3. Occurrence of enterococci in pasteurized milk (n=30) was sporadic and their counts were mostly below 10 CFU/cm3. Overall, 96 enterococci strains were isolated. In samples of raw cow milk and stored raw cow milk, Enterococcus faecalis was a dominant species (58.1% and 71.7%, respectively), followed by E. faecium (16.3% and 0%, respectively). Enterococcus mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. durans and E. gallinarum were isolated, too. Resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin were found in 7.29%, 3.13%, 4.00%, 13.54% and 10.42% of isolated enterococci strains, respectively. Resistance to teicoplanine was not found in any isolated strain. All Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) belonged to E. faecalis. Obtained results confirmed that raw milk is a potential risk of enterococci resistant to antibiotics transmission into the food chain.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, milk, biosystems engineering

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27 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Serratia marcescens and Providencia Spp. from Various Clinical Specimens by Using Both the Conventional and Automated (VITEK2) Methods

Authors: Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz


Objective: Serratia species are identified as aerobic, motile Gram negative rods. The species Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) causes both opportunistic and nosocomial infections. The genus Providencia is Gram-negative bacilli and includes urease-producing that is responsible for a wide range of human infections. Although most Providencia infections involve the urinary tract, they are also associated with gastroenteritis, wound infections, and bacteremia. The aim of this study was evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains which had been isolated from various clinical materials obtained from different patients who belongs to intensive care units (ICU) and inpatient clinics. Methods: A total of 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains isolated from various clinical samples admitted to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University between October 2013 and September 2015 were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: The distribution of clinical samples were as follows: upper and lower respiratory tract samples 26, 74.2 % wound specimen 6, 17.1 % blood cultures 3, 8.5%. Of the 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains; 28, 80% were isolated from clinical samples sent from ICU. The resistance rates of S. marcescens strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 8.5 %, 22.8 %, 11.4 %, 2.8 %, 17.1 %, 40 %, 28.5 % and 5.7 % respectively. Resistance rates of Providencia spp. strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 10.2 %, 33,3 %, 18.7 %, 8.7 %, 13.2 %, 38.6 %, 26.7%, and 11.8 % respectively. Conclusion: S. marcescens is usually resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cephamycins, nitrofurantoin, and colistin. The most effective antibiotic on the total of S. marcescens strains was found to be gentamicin 2.8 %, of the totally tested strains the highest resistance rate found against to ceftazidime 40 %. The lowest and highest resistance rates were found against gentamiycin and ceftazidime with the rates of 8.7 % and 38.6 % for Providencia spp.

Keywords: Serratia marcescens, Providencia spp., antibiotic resistance, intensive care unit

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26 Use of Zikani’s Ribosome Modulating Agents for Treating Recessive Dystrophic & Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa with Nonsense Mutations

Authors: Mei Chen, Yingping Hou, Michelle Hao, Soheil Aghamohammadzadeh, Esteban Terzo, Roger Clark, Vijay Modur


Background: Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (RDEB) is a genetic skin condition characterized by skin tearing and unremitting blistering upon minimal trauma. Repeated blistering, fibrosis, and scarring lead to aggressive squamous cell carcinoma later in life. RDEB is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding collagen type VII (C7), the major component of anchoring fibrils mediating epidermis-dermis adherence. Nonsense mutations in the COL7A1 gene of a subset of RDEB patients leads to premature termination codons (PTC). Similarly, most Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB) cases are caused by nonsense mutations in the LAMB3 gene encoding the β3 subunit of laminin 332. Currently, there is an unmet need for the treatment of RDEB and JEB. Zikani Therapeutics has discovered an array of macrocyclic compounds with ring structures similar to macrolide antibiotics that can facilitate readthrough activity of nonsense mutations in the COL7A1 and LAMB3 genes by acting as Ribosome Modulating Agents (RMAs). The medicinal chemistry synthetic advancements of these macrocyclic compounds have allowed targeting the human ribosome while preserving the structural elements responsible for the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of clinically used macrolide antibiotics. Methods: C7 expression was used as a measure of readthrough activity by immunoblot assays in two primary human fibroblasts from RDEB patients (R578X/R578X and R163X/R1683X-COL7A1). Similarly, immunoblot assays in C325X/c.629-12T > A-LAMB3 keratinocytes were used to measure readthrough activity for JEB. The relative readthrough activity of each compound was measured relative to Gentamicin. An imaging-based fibroblast migration assay was used as an assessment of C7 functionality in RDEB-fibroblasts over 16-20 hrs. The incubation period for the above experiments was 48 hrs for RDEB fibroblasts and 72 hours for JEB keratinocytes. Results: 9 RMAs demonstrated increased protein expression in both patient RDEB fibroblasts. The highest readthrough activity at tested concentrations without cytotoxicities increased protein expression up to 179% of Gentamicin (400 µg/ml), with favored readthrough activity in R163X/R1683X-COL7A1 fibroblasts. Concurrent with protein expression, fibroblast hypermotility phenotype observed in RDEB was rescued by reducing motility by ~35% to WT levels (the same level as 690 µM Gentamicin treated cells). Laminin β3 expression was also shown to be increased by 6 RMAs in keratinocytes to 33-83% of (400 µg/ml) Gentamicin. Conclusions: To date, 9 RMAs have been identified that enhance the expression of functional C7 in a mutation-dependent manner in two different RDEB patient fibroblast backgrounds (R578X/R578X and R163X/R1683X-COL7A1). A further 6 RMAs have been identified that enhance the readthrough of C325X-LAMB3 in JEB patient keratinocytes. Based on the clinical trial conducted by us with topical gentamycin in 2017, Zikani’s RMAs achieve clinically significant levels of read-through for the treatment of recessive dystrophic and Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Keywords: epidermolysis bullosa, nonsense mutation, readthrough, ribosome modulation

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25 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, VITEK 2

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24 Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India

Authors: Hardik Goswami, Gayatri Swarnakar


-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.

Keywords: antibiotic, buffalo, cow, mastitis, prevalence

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23 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader


Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, E. coli, raw meat, salmonella species

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22 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed


The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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21 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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20 Preliminary Results on a Study of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis Strains Isolated during Anthrax Outbreaks in Italy from 2001 to 2017

Authors: Viviana Manzulli, Luigina Serrecchia, Adelia Donatiello, Valeria Rondinone, Sabine Zange, Alina Tscherne, Antonio Parisi, Antonio Fasanella


Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminant herbivores), and can be transmitted to humans through consumption or handling of contaminated animal products. The etiological agent B.anthracis is able to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions by forming endospore which remain viable in the soil for many decades. Furthermore, B.anthracis is considered as one of the most feared agents to be potentially misused as a biological weapon and the importance of the disease and its treatment in humans has been underscored before the bioterrorism events in the United States in 2001. Due to the often fatal outcome of human cases, antimicrobial susceptibility testing plays especially in the management of anthrax infections an important role. In Italy, animal anthrax is endemic (predominantly found in the southern regions and on islands) and is characterized by sporadic outbreaks occurring mainly during summer. Between 2012 and 2017 single human cases of cutaneous anthrax occurred. In this study, 90 diverse strains of B.anthracis, isolated in Italy from 2001 to 2017, were screened to their susceptibility to sixteen clinically relevant antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution method. B.anthracis strains selected for this study belong to the strain collection stored at the Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy located inside the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Puglia and Basilicata. The strains were isolated at different time points and places from various matrices (human, animal and environmental). All strains are a representative of over fifty distinct MLVA 31 genotypes. The following antibiotics were used for testing: gentamicin, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, penicillin G, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, linezolid, cefotaxime, tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and trimethoprim. A standard concentration of each antibiotic was prepared in a specific diluent, which were then twofold serial diluted. Therefore, each wells contained: bacterial suspension of 1–5x104 CFU/mL in Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB), the antibiotic to be tested at known concentration and resazurin, an indicator of cell growth. After incubation overnight at 37°C, the wells were screened for color changes caused by the resazurin: a change from purple to pink/colorless indicated cell growth. The lowest concentration of antibiotic that prevented growth represented the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). This study suggests that B.anthracis remains susceptible in vitro to many antibiotics, in addition to doxycycline (MICs ≤ 0,03 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (MICs ≤ 0,03 µg/ml) and penicillin G (MICs ≤ 0,06 µg/ml), recommend by CDC for the treatment of human cases and for prophylactic use after exposure to the spores. In fact, the good activity of gentamicin (MICs ≤ 0,25 µg/ml), streptomycin (MICs ≤ 1 µg/ml), clindamycin (MICs ≤ 0,125 µg/ml), chloramphenicol(MICs ≤ 4 µg/ml), vancomycin (MICs ≤ 2 µg/ml), linezolid (MICs ≤ 2 µg/ml), tetracycline (MICs ≤ 0,125 µg/ml), erythromycin (MICs ≤ 0,25 µg/ml), rifampin (MICs ≤ 0,25 µg/ml), amoxicillin (MICs ≤ 0,06 µg/ml), towards all tested B.anthracis strains demonstrates an appropriate alternative choice for prophylaxis and/or treatment. All tested B.anthracis strains showed intermediate susceptibility to the cephalosporins (MICs ≥ 16 µg/ml) and resistance to trimethoprim (MICs ≥ 128 µg/ml).

Keywords: Bacillus anthracis, antibiotic susceptibility, treatment, minimum inhibitory concentration

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19 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan


This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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18 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: The Major Carbapenem Resistance Bacteria from Waste Water Treatment Plant of Pig Farm

Authors: Young-Ji Kim, Jin-Hyeong Park, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kwang-Yeop Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Il-Byeong Kang, Da-Na Jeong, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Ho-Seok Jang, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo


Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the emerging opportunistic pathogens, and also known to have extensive drug resistance intrinsically including carbepenems which is last resort for most serious infections. One possible way for S. maltophilia to infect human is via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the period between October 2016 and February 2017, effluent samples of WWTP from 3 different pig farms were collected once a month and screened for isolation of S. maltophilia. Total 16 strains of S. maltophilia were isolated and, the antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes were determined by Vitek 2 system for 16 antibiotics, ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), cefazolin (CZ), cefoxitin (FOX), cefotaxime (CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (FEP), aztreonam (AZT), ertapenem (ETP), imipenem (IMP), amikacin (AK), gentamicin (GN), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tigecycline (TGC) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). All isolates showed high resistance to AMP (100%), CZ (100%), FOX (100%), CTX (100%), CAZ (100%), FEP (94%), AZT (100%), ETP (100%), IMP (100%), AK (100%), GN (100%) whereas were susceptible to CIP (0%), TGC (0%), SXT (6%). All strains harbored at least one of the antibiotic resistance determinant such as spgM, rmlA, and rpfF. Some isolates had similar MLST (multilocus sequence typing) types with clinical isolates, suggesting WWTP could have potential role in the transmission of S. maltophilia to aquatic environment and, possibly, to humans.

Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Carbapenem resistance, waste water treatment plant, pig farm

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17 Antibacterial Activity of Melaleuca Cajuputi Oil against Resistant Strain Bacteria

Authors: R. M. Noah, N. M. Nasir, M. R. Jais, M. S. S. Wahab, M. H. Abdullah, A. S. S. Raj


Infectious diseases are getting more difficult to treat due to the resistant strains of bacteria. Current generations of antibiotics are most likely ineffective against multi-drug resistant strains bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need in search of natural antibiotics in particular from medicinal plants. One of the common medicinal plants, Melaleuca cajuputi, has been reported to possess antibacterial properties. The study was conducted to evaluate and justify the presence of antibacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (EO) against the multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical isolates obtained from the teaching hospital were re-assessed to confirm the exact identity of the bacteria to be tested, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer (ESBLs). A well diffusion method was done to observe the inhibition zones of the essential oil against the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method in 96-well flat microplate. The absorbance was measured using a microplate reader. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was performed using the agar medium method. The zones of inhibition produced by the EO against MRSA, CRE, and ESBL were comparable to that of generic antibiotics used, gentamicin and augmentin. The MIC and MBC results highlighted the antimicrobial efficacy of the EO. The outcome of this study indicated that the EO of Melaleuca cajuputi had antibacterial activity on the multi-drug resistant bacteria. This finding was eventually substantiated by electron microscopy work.

Keywords: melaleuca cajuputi, antibacterial, resistant bacteria, essential oil

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16 Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran

Authors: Alisha Akya, Afsaneh salami


Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.

Keywords: clonal dissemination, mettalo-beta-lactamase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PFGE

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15 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic resistance rates, intensive care unit, Pseudomonas spp.

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14 The First Report of Aberrant Corneal Occlusion in Rabbit in Iran

Authors: Bahador Bardshiri, Omid Moradi, Amir Komeilian, Nima Panahifar


Formation of a conjunctival membrane over the corneal surface is a condition unique to rabbits that has been labeled aberrant corneal occlusion or pseudopterygium. In the summer of 2013, a five years old male Standard Chinchilla rabbit were presented to Karaj Central Veterinary hospital and the owner complained that his rabbit shows degrees of blindness and there were opacities on both eyes of the presented rabbit. Ophthalmic examination of the affected eyes revealed a conjunctival fold stretching over the cornea of both eyes. The fold originated from limbus and it was vascularized and centrally thickened. There were no attachments to the corneal epithelium and the fold could be easily lifted. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The conjunctival fold was incised centrifugally up to its attachment at the limbus and the lid margin using small scissors. The central rim of the segment was then replaced to its normal position in the fornix and fixed with mattress sutures (7/0) passing through outside skin. After the surgery, eye drops containing dexamethasone, gentamicin and polymixin were applied twice daily up to 3 weeks. Within the observation period (8 months) no recurrence was noted. "Pseudo" in the term pseudopterygium refers to the fact that the conjunctival membrane is not adhering to the underlying cornea, but growing over it. In rare cases, the membrane may be loosely attached to the cornea, but can be easily separated without causing damage. It can cover only a small part of the cornea with an annular peripheral opacification of the cornea, or cover it almost fully, leading to blindness. Ethiopathogenesis remains unclear and recurrence of the problem is very likely. The surgical technique that used here decreases probability of recurrence of conjunctival fold.

Keywords: rabbit, cornea, aberrant corneal occlusion, pseudopterygium

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13 Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Campylobacter from Pig and Cattle Carcasses in Poland

Authors: Renata Szewczyk, Beata Lachtara, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek


Campylobacter is recognized as the main cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections in Europe. A main source of the pathogen is poultry and poultry meat; however, other animals like pigs and cattle can also be reservoirs of the bacteria. Human Campylobacter infections are often self-limiting but in some cases, macrolide and fluoroquinolones have to be used. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns (AMR) of Campylobacter isolated from pig and cattle carcasses. Between July 2009 and December 2015, 735 swabs from pig (n = 457) and cattle (n = 278) carcasses were collected at Polish slaughterhouses. All samples were tested for the presence of Campylobacter by ISO 10272-1 and confirmed to species level using PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates was determined by a microbroth dilution method with six antimicrobials: gentamicin (GEN), streptomycin (STR), erythromycin (ERY), nalidixic acid (NAL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline (TET). It was found that 167 of 735 samples (22.7%) were contaminated with Campylobacter. The vast majority of them were of pig origin (134; 80.2%), whereas for cattle carcasses Campylobacter was less prevalent (33; 19.8%). Among positive samples C. coli was predominant species (123; 73.7%) and it was isolated mainly from pig carcasses. The remaining isolates were identified as C. jejuni (44; 26.3%). Antimicrobial susceptibility indicated that 22 out of 167 Campylobacter (13.2%) were sensitive to all antimicrobials used. Fourteen of them were C. jejuni (63.6%; pig, n = 6; cattle, n = 8) and 8 was C. coli (36.4%; pig, n = 4; cattle, n = 4). Most of the Campylobacter isolates (145; 86.8%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials (C. coli, n = 115; C. jejuni, n = 30). Comparing the AMR for Campylobacter species it was found that the most common pattern for C. jejuni was CIP-NAL-TET (9; 30.0%), whereas CIP-NAL-STR-TET was predominant among C. coli (47; 40.9%). Multiresistance, defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials, was found in 57 C. coli strains, mostly obtained from pig (52 isolates). On the other hand, only one C. jejuni strain, isolated from cattle, showed multiresistance with pattern CIP-NAL-STR-TET. Moreover, CIP-NAL-STR-TET was characteristic for most of multiresistant C. coli isolates (47; 82.5%). For the remaining C. coli the resistance patterns were CIP-ERY-NAL-TET (7 strains; 12.3%) and for one strain of each patterns: ERY-STR-TET, CIP-STR-TET, CIP-NAL-GEN-STR-TET. According to the present findings resistance to erythromycin was observed only in 11 C. coli (pig, n = 10; cattle, n = 1). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that pig carcasses may be a serious public health concern because of contamination with C. coli that might features multiresistance to antimicrobials.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Campylobacter, carcasses, multi resistance

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12 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Proteus Mirabilis Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz


Objective: Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens in human and it causes urinary tract and nosocomial infections. P. mirabilis is susceptible to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. It was aimed to investigate the resistance status to antimicrobial agents of Proteus mirabilis strains produced from samples sent to Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory from different clinics and polyclinics during the period of 24 months. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 30 Proteus were isolated from clinical samples of patients were hospitalized in intensive care units and in various departments of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hempshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Of the total 30 Proteus strains isolated from clinical samples, 19 from urine, 7 from wound, 4 from tracheal aspiration materials were isolated. Antimicrobial resistant for these strains were determined to 24,3% for meropenem, 26.2% for imipenem, 20.2% for amikacin 10.5% for cefepim, 33.3% for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% for ceftazidime, 20% for ceftriaxone, 15.2% for gentamicin and 26.6% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Conclusion: In the present study, the highest number of clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated from urine (63,3%), followed by the others (36,6%). The distribution of samples P. mirabilis strains to the clinics were as fallows; 16,8% intensive care unit (ICU), 29,9% polyclinics, 53,3% hospital service units The most effective antibiotic on the total of strains were found to be cefepim, the least effective antibiotics on the total of strains were found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale.

Keywords: proteus mirabilis, antibiotic resistance, intensive care unit, Proteus spp.

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