Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2113

Search results for: gated recurrent unit

2113 Preparation on Sentimental Analysis on Social Media Comments with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Gated Recurrent Unit and Model Glove in Portuguese

Authors: Leonardo Alfredo Mendoza, Cristian Munoz, Marco Aurelio Pacheco, Manoela Kohler, Evelyn Batista, Rodrigo Moura

Abstract:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques are increasingly more powerful to be able to interpret the feelings and reactions of a person to a product or service. Sentiment analysis has become a fundamental tool for this interpretation but has few applications in languages other than English. This paper presents a classification of sentiment analysis in Portuguese with a base of comments from social networks in Portuguese. A word embedding's representation was used with a 50-Dimension GloVe pre-trained model, generated through a corpus completely in Portuguese. To generate this classification, the bidirectional long short-term memory and bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) models are used, reaching results of 99.1%.

Keywords: natural processing language, sentiment analysis, bidirectional long short-term memory, BI-LSTM, gated recurrent unit, GRU

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2112 Emotion Classification Using Recurrent Neural Network and Scalable Pattern Mining

Authors: Jaishree Ranganathan, MuthuPriya Shanmugakani Velsamy, Shamika Kulkarni, Angelina Tzacheva

Abstract:

Emotions play an important role in everyday life. An-alyzing these emotions or feelings from social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, blogs, and forums based on user comments and reviews plays an important role in various factors. Some of them include brand monitoring, marketing strategies, reputation, and competitor analysis. The opinions or sentiments mined from such data helps understand the current state of the user. It does not directly provide intuitive insights on what actions to be taken to benefit the end user or business. Actionable Pattern Mining method provides suggestions or actionable recommendations on what changes or actions need to be taken in order to benefit the end user. In this paper, we propose automatic classification of emotions in Twitter data using Recurrent Neural Network - Gated Recurrent Unit. We achieve training accuracy of 87.58% and validation accuracy of 86.16%. Also, we extract action rules with respect to the user emotion that helps to provide actionable suggestion.

Keywords: emotion mining, twitter, recurrent neural network, gated recurrent unit, actionable pattern mining

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2111 Transportation Mode Classification Using GPS Coordinates and Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Taylor Kolody, Farkhund Iqbal, Rabia Batool, Benjamin Fung, Mohammed Hussaeni, Saiqa Aleem

Abstract:

The rising threat of climate change has led to an increase in public awareness and care about our collective and individual environmental impact. A key component of this impact is our use of cars and other polluting forms of transportation, but it is often difficult for an individual to know how severe this impact is. While there are applications that offer this feedback, they require manual entry of what transportation mode was used for a given trip, which can be burdensome. In order to alleviate this shortcoming, a data from the 2016 TRIPlab datasets has been used to train a variety of machine learning models to automatically recognize the mode of transportation. The accuracy of 89.6% is achieved using single deep neural network model with Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) architecture applied directly to trip data points over 4 primary classes, namely walking, public transit, car, and bike. These results are comparable in accuracy to results achieved by others using ensemble methods and require far less computation when classifying new trips. The lack of trip context data, e.g., bus routes, bike paths, etc., and the need for only a single set of weights make this an appropriate methodology for applications hoping to reach a broad demographic and have responsive feedback.

Keywords: classification, gated recurrent unit, recurrent neural network, transportation

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2110 Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals

Authors: Zhongmin Wang, Wudong Fan, Hengshan Zhang, Yimin Zhou

Abstract:

In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features have the different contributions to construct the health indicators, the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered. To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets. Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.

Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, convolution neural net-work, gated recurrent unit, health indicators, remaining useful life

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2109 A Multi-Stage Learning Framework for Reliable and Cost-Effective Estimation of Vehicle Yaw Angle

Authors: Zhiyong Zheng, Xu Li, Liang Huang, Zhengliang Sun, Jianhua Xu

Abstract:

Yaw angle plays a significant role in many vehicle safety applications, such as collision avoidance and lane-keeping system. Although the estimation of the yaw angle has been extensively studied in existing literature, it is still the main challenge to simultaneously achieve a reliable and cost-effective solution in complex urban environments. This paper proposes a multi-stage learning framework to estimate the yaw angle with a monocular camera, which can deal with the challenge in a more reliable manner. In the first stage, an efficient road detection network is designed to extract the road region, providing a highly reliable reference for the estimation. In the second stage, a variational auto-encoder (VAE) is proposed to learn the distribution patterns of road regions, which is particularly suitable for modeling the changing patterns of yaw angle under different driving maneuvers, and it can inherently enhance the generalization ability. In the last stage, a gated recurrent unit (GRU) network is used to capture the temporal correlations of the learned patterns, which is capable to further improve the estimation accuracy due to the fact that the changes of deflection angle are relatively easier to recognize among continuous frames. Afterward, the yaw angle can be obtained by combining the estimated deflection angle and the road direction stored in a roadway map. Through effective multi-stage learning, the proposed framework presents high reliability while it maintains better accuracy. Road-test experiments with different driving maneuvers were performed in complex urban environments, and the results validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

Keywords: gated recurrent unit, multi-stage learning, reliable estimation, variational auto-encoder, yaw angle

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2108 Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Konstantinos Perifanos, Eirini Florou, Dionysis Goutsos

Abstract:

This paper presents and benchmarks a number of end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy 0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91 F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples, the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar tasks.

Keywords: metaphor detection, deep learning, representation learning, embeddings

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2107 Speech Emotion Recognition with Bi-GRU and Self-Attention based Feature Representation

Authors: Bubai Maji, Monorama Swain

Abstract:

Speech is considered an essential and most natural medium for the interaction between machines and humans. However, extracting effective features for speech emotion recognition (SER) is remains challenging. The present studies show that the temporal information captured but high-level temporal-feature learning is yet to be investigated. In this paper, we present an efficient novel method using the Self-attention (SA) mechanism in a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) network to learn high-level temporal-feature. In order to further enhance the representation of the high-level temporal-feature, we integrate a Bi-GRU output with learnable weights features by SA, and improve the performance. We evaluate our proposed method on our created SITB-OSED and IEMOCAP databases. We report that the experimental results of our proposed method achieve state-of-the-art performance on both databases.

Keywords: Bi-GRU, 1D-CNNs, self-attention, speech emotion recognition

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2106 A Comparative Analysis of Hyper-Parameters Using Neural Networks for E-Mail Spam Detection

Authors: Syed Mahbubuz Zaman, A. B. M. Abrar Haque, Mehedi Hassan Nayeem, Misbah Uddin Sagor

Abstract:

Everyday e-mails are being used by millions of people as an effective form of communication over the Internet. Although e-mails allow high-speed communication, there is a constant threat known as spam. Spam e-mail is often called junk e-mails which are unsolicited and sent in bulk. These unsolicited emails cause security concerns among internet users because they are being exposed to inappropriate content. There is no guaranteed way to stop spammers who use static filters as they are bypassed very easily. In this paper, a smart system is proposed that will be using neural networks to approach spam in a different way, and meanwhile, this will also detect the most relevant features that will help to design the spam filter. Also, a comparison of different parameters for different neural network models has been shown to determine which model works best within suitable parameters.

Keywords: long short-term memory, bidirectional long short-term memory, gated recurrent unit, natural language processing, natural language processing

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2105 Digital Publics, Analogue Institutions: Everyday Urban Politics in Gated Neighborhoods in India

Authors: Praveen Priyadarshi

Abstract:

What is the nature of the 'political subjects' in the new urban spaces of the Indian cities? How do they become a 'public'? The paper explores these questions by studying the National Capital Region's gated communities in India. Even as the 'gated-ness' of these neighborhoods constantly underlines the definitive spatial boundary of the 'public' that it is constituted within the walls of a particular gated community, the making of this 'public' occurs as much in the digital spaces—in the digital space of online messaging apps and platforms—populated by unique digital identities. It is through constant exchanges of the digital identities that the 'public' is created. However, the institutional framework and the formal rules governing the making of the public are still analogue because they presume and privilege traditional modes of participation for people to constitute a 'public'. The institutions are designed as rules and norms governing people's behavior when they participate in traditional, physical mode, whereas rules and norms designed in the algorithms regulate people's social and political behavior in the digital domain. In exploring this disjuncture between the analogue institutions and the digital public, the paper analytically evaluates the nature of everyday politics in gates neighborhoods in India.

Keywords: gated communities, everyday politics, new urban spaces, digital publics

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2104 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence or pattern recognition/ classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: hybrid systems, hidden markov models, recurrent neural networks, deterministic finite state automata

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2103 Oct to Study Efficacy of Avastin in Recurrent Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration and Persistent Diffuse DME

Authors: Srinivasarao Akuthota, Rajasekhar Pabolu, Bharathi Hepattam

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of intravitreal Avastin in subjects with recurrent wet AMD and persistent diffuse DME on the basis of OCT. Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, observational study,single center study. Conclusion: The study showed that intravitreal Avastin has an equivalent effect on recurrent AMD and in persistent diffuse DME.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diffuse diabetic retinopathy (DME), intravitreal Avastin (IVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT)

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2102 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe

Abstract:

This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system

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2101 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

Abstract:

Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

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2100 Endometriosis: The Optimal Treatment of Recurrent Endometrioma in Infertile Patients

Authors: Smita Lakhotia, C. Kew, S. H. M. Siraj, B. Chern

Abstract:

Up to 50% of those with endometriosis may suffer from infertility due to either distorted pelvic anatomy/impaired oocyte release or inhibit ovum pickup and transport, altered peritoneal function, endocrine and anovulatory disorders, including LUF, impaired implantation, progesterone resistance or decreased levels of cellular immunity. The dilemma continues as to whether the surgery or IVF is the optimal management for such recurrent endometriomas. The core question is whether surgery adds anything of value for infertile women with recurrent endometriosis or not. Complete and detailed information on risks and benefits of treatment alternatives must be offered to patients, giving a realistic estimate of chances of success of repetitive surgery and of multiple IVF cycles in order to allow unbiased choices between different possible optionsAn individualized treatment plan should be developed taking into account patient age, duration of infertility, previous pregnancies and specific clinical conditions and wish.

Keywords: recurrent endometriosis, infertility, oocyte release, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
2099 Cogeneration Unit for Small Stove

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Marian Brazdil, Otakar Stelcl, Jiri Pospisil

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This paper shows an experimental testing of a small unit for combustion of solid fuels, such as charcoal and wood logs, that can provide electricity. One of the concepts is that the unit does not require a qualified personnel for its operation. The unit itself is composed of two main parts. The design requires a heat producing stove and an electricity producing thermoelectric generator. After the construction the unit was tested and the results shows that the emission release is within the legislative requirements for emission production and environmental protection. That qualifies such unit for indoor application.

Keywords: micro-cogeneration, thermoelectric generator, biomass combustion, wood stove

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2097 The Prevalence of X-Chromosome Aneuploidy in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Douad, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), classically defined as the occurrence of two or more failed pregnancies, is a serious reproductive problem, in which, chromosomal rearrangements in either carrier are a major cause; mainly the chromosome aneuploidy. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and contribution of X-chromosome aneuploidy in recurrent pregnancy loss. A retrospective study was carried out among 100 couples with more than 2 miscarriages, referred to our genetic counseling. In all the cases the detailed reproductive histories were taken. Chromosomal analysis was performed using RHG banding in peripheral blood. Of a total of 100 couples; 3 patients with a detected X-chromosome aneuploidy were identified with an overall frequency of 3%. Chromosome abnormalities are as below: a Turner syndrome with 45, X/46, XX mosaicism, a 47, XXX, and a Klinefelter syndrome with 46, XY/47, XXY. These data show a high incidence of X-chromosome aneuploidy; mainly with mosaicism; in RPL. Thus, couples with such chromosomal abnormality should be referred to a clinical geneticist with whom the option of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in subsequent pregnancy should be discussed.

Keywords: aneuploidy, genetic testing, recurrent pregnancy loss, X-chromosome

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2096 Predicting Global Solar Radiation Using Recurrent Neural Networks and Climatological Parameters

Authors: Rami El-Hajj Mohamad, Mahmoud Skafi, Ali Massoud Haidar

Abstract:

Several meteorological parameters were used for the prediction of monthly average daily global solar radiation on horizontal using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Climatological data and measures, mainly air temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, and wind speed between 1995 and 2007 were used to design and validate a feed forward and recurrent neural network based prediction systems. In this paper we present our reference system based on a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) as well as the proposed approach based on an RNN model. The obtained results were promising and comparable to those obtained by other existing empirical and neural models. The experimental results showed the advantage of RNNs over simple MLPs when we deal with time series solar radiation predictions based on daily climatological data.

Keywords: recurrent neural networks, global solar radiation, multi-layer perceptron, gradient, root mean square error

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2095 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

Abstract:

The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

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2094 Validity and Reliability of Lifestyle Measurement of the LSAS among Recurrent Stroke Patients in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Meida Laely Ramdani, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito

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Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health. Measurement of lifestyle behaviors is necessary for the identification of causal associations between unhealthy lifestyle and health outcomes. There was many instruments have been measured for lifestyle, but not specific for stroke recurrence. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire of Lifestyle Adjustment Scale (LSAS) among recurrent stroke patients in Indonesia and to measure the reliability and validity of LSAS. The instrument consist of 33 items was developed from the responses of 30 recurrent stroke patients with the maximum age 60 years. Data was collected during October to November 2015. The properties of the instrument were evaluated by validity assessment and reliability measures. The content validity was judged adequate by a panel of five experts, with the result of I-CVI was 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure the reliability of LSAS. The result showed that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.819. LSAS were classified under the domains of dietary habit, smoking habit, physical activity, and stress management. The results of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each subscale were 0.60, 0.39, 0.67, 0.65 and 0.76 respectively. LSAS instrument was valid and reliable therefore can be used as research tool among recurrent stroke patients. The development of this questionnaire has been adapted to the socio-cultural context in Indonesia.

Keywords: LSAS, recurrent stroke patients, lifestyle, Indonesia

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2093 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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2092 Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles

Authors: A. A. Akande, B. P. Dhonge, B. W. Mwakikunga, A. G. J. Machatine

Abstract:

This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).

Keywords: VO2, VO2(B), MOSFET, gate voltage, humidity sensor

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2091 Study of Transformer and Motor Winding under Pulsed Power Application

Authors: Arijit Basuray, Saibal Chatterjee

Abstract:

Pulsed Power in the form of Recurrent Surge Generator (RSG) can be used for testing various parameters of Motor or Transformer windings including inter-turn, interlayer insulation. Windings with solid insulation in motor and transformer have many interfaces and undesirable defects, and these defects can be exposed under this nondestructive testing methodology. Due to rapid development in power electronics variable frequency drives (VFD), Dry Type or cast resin Transformer used with PWM Sine wave inverters for solar power, solid insulation system used nowadays are shifting more and more to a high-frequency application. Authors have used the recurrent surge generator for testing winding integrity as well as Partial Discharge(PD) at fast rising voltage enabling PD measurement at closer situation under which the insulation system is supposed to work. Authors have discussed test results on a different system with recurrent surge voltages of different rise time.

Keywords: fast rising voltage, partial discharge, pulsed power, recurrent surge generator, solid insulation

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2090 Analyzing Large Scale Recurrent Event Data with a Divide-And-Conquer Approach

Authors: Jerry Q. Cheng

Abstract:

Currently, in analyzing large-scale recurrent event data, there are many challenges such as memory limitations, unscalable computing time, etc. In this research, a divide-and-conquer method is proposed using parametric frailty models. Specifically, the data is randomly divided into many subsets, and the maximum likelihood estimator from each individual data set is obtained. Then a weighted method is proposed to combine these individual estimators as the final estimator. It is shown that this divide-and-conquer estimator is asymptotically equivalent to the estimator based on the full data. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the performance of this proposed method. This approach is applied to a large real dataset of repeated heart failure hospitalizations.

Keywords: big data analytics, divide-and-conquer, recurrent event data, statistical computing

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2089 One-Step Time Series Predictions with Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Vaidehi Iyer, Konstantin Borozdin

Abstract:

Time series prediction problems have many important practical applications, but are notoriously difficult for statistical modeling. Recently, machine learning methods have been attracted significant interest as a practical tool applied to a variety of problems, even though developments in this field tend to be semi-empirical. This paper explores application of Long Short Term Memory based Recurrent Neural Networks to the one-step prediction of time series for both trend and stochastic components. Two types of data are analyzed - daily stock prices, that are often considered to be a typical example of a random walk, - and weather patterns dominated by seasonal variations. Results from both analyses are compared, and reinforced learning framework is used to select more efficient between Recurrent Neural Networks and more traditional auto regression methods. It is shown that both methods are able to follow long-term trends and seasonal variations closely, but have difficulties with reproducing day-to-day variability. Future research directions and potential real world applications are briefly discussed.

Keywords: long short term memory, prediction methods, recurrent neural networks, reinforcement learning

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2088 Photoelectrical Stimulation for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mohammad M. Aria, Fatma Öz, Yashar Esmaeilian, Marco Carofiglio, Valentina Cauda, Özlem Yalçın

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Photoelectrical stimulation of cells with semiconductor organic polymers have been shown promising applications in neuroprosthetics such as retinal prosthesis. Photoelectrical stimulation of the cell membranes can be induced through a photo-electric charge separation mechanism in the semiconductor materials, and it can alter intracellular calcium level through both stimulation of voltage-gated ion channels and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. On the other hand, targeting voltage-gated ion channels in cancer cells to induce cell apoptosis through calcium signaling alternation is an effective mechanism which has been explained before. In this regard, remote control of the voltage-gated ion channels aimed to alter intracellular calcium by using photo-active organic polymers can be novel technology in cancer therapy. In this study, we used P (ITO/Indium thin oxide)/P3HT(poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)) and PN (ITO/ZnO/P3HT) photovoltaic junctions to stimulate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We showed that the photo-stimulation of breast cancer cells through photo capacitive current generated by the photovoltaic junctions are able to excite the cells and alternate intracellular calcium based on the calcium imaging (at 8mW/cm² green light intensity and 10-50 ms light durations), which has been reported already to safety stimulate neurons. The control group did not undergo light treatment and was cultured in T-75 flasks. We detected 20-30% cell death for ITO/P3HT and 51-60% cell death for ITO/ZnO/P3HT samples in the light treated MDA-MB-231 cell group. Western blot analysis demonstrated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activated cell death in the light treated group. Furthermore, Annexin V and PI fluorescent staining indicated both apoptosis and necrosis in treated cells. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the photoelectrical stimulation of cells (through long time overstimulation) can induce cell death in cancer cells.

Keywords: Ca²⁺ signaling, cancer therapy, electrically excitable cells, photoelectrical stimulation, voltage-gated ion channels

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2087 Thrombophilic Mutations in Tunisian Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Frikha Rim, Abdelmoula Bouayed Nouha, Rebai Tarek

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Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which causing a defective maternal haemostatic response and leading to thrombosis of the uteroplacental vasculature, that might cause pregnancy complications as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Since heritable Thrombophilic defects are associated with increased thrombosis, their prevalence was evaluated in patients with special emphasis on combinations of the above pathologies. Especially, Factor V Leiden (FVL) G1691A, methylene tetra hydro folate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and factor II (FII) G20210A mutations are three important causes of thrombophilia, which might be related to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In this study we evaluated the presence of these three mutations [factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PTG) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T] amongst 35 Tunisian women with more than 2 miscarriages, referred to our genetic counseling. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of each mutation. Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin mutation were detected respectively in 5.7% and 2.9% of women with particular history of early fetal loss and thrombotic events. Despites the luck of strength of this study, we insist that testing for the most inherited thrombophilia (FVL and FII mutation) should be performed in women with RPL in the context of thrombotic events. Multi-centre collaboration is necessary to clarify the real impact of thrombotic molecular defects on the pregnancy outcome, to ascertain the effect of thrombophilia on recurrent pregnancy loss and then to evaluate the appropriate therapeutic approach.

Keywords: thrombophilia, recurrent pregnancy loss, factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylene tetra hydro folate reductase

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2086 Small Scale Stationary and Mobile Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Robert Manurung, Hero Jan Heeres

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Biodiesel can be produced in small scale mobile units which are designed with local input and demand. Unlike the typical biodiesel production plants, mobile biodiesel unit consiss of a biodiesel production facility placed inside a standard cargo container and mounted on a truck so that it can be transported to a region near the location of raw materials. In this paper, we review the existing concept and unit for the development of community-scale and mobile production of biodiesel. This includes the main reactor technology to produce biodiesel as well as the pre-treatment prior to the reaction unit. The pre-treatment includes the oil-expeller unit to obtain oil from the oilseeds as well as the quality control of the oil before it enters the reaction unit. This paper also discusses the post-treatment after the production of biodiesel. It includes the refining and purification of biodiesel to meet the product specification set by the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, community scale, mobile biodiesel unit, reactor technology

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2085 Low Back Pain and Patients Lifting Behaviors among Nurses Working in Al Sadairy Hospital, Aljouf

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of patients lifting behaviors and LBP among nurses in Saudi Arabia remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between LBP and nurses lifting behaviors. LBP questionnaire was distributed to 100 nurses working in Alsadairy Hospital distributed as Emergency unit(9),Coronary Care unit (9), Intensive Care Unit (7), Dialysis unit (30), Burn unit (5), surgical unit (11), Medical (14) and, X-ray unit (15). The questionnaire included demographic data, attitude scale, Team work scale, Back pain history and Knowledge scale. Regarding to emergency unit, there is appositive significant relation between teamwork scale and Knowledge as r = (0.807) and P =0.05. Regarding to ICU unit, there is a positive significant relation between teamwork scale and attitude scale as r= (0.781) and P =0.05. Regarding to Dialysis unit, there is a positive significant relation between attitude scale and teamwork scale as r=(0.443) and P =0.05. The findings suggest enhanced awareness of occupational safety with safe patient handling practices among nursing students must be emphasized and integrated into their educational curriculum. Moreover, back pain prevention program should incorporate the promotion of an active lifestyle and fitness training the implementation of institutional patient handling policies.

Keywords: low back pain, lifting behaviors, nurses, team work

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2084 Overview of Standard Unit System of Shenzhen Land Spatial Planning and Case Analysis

Authors: Ziwei Huang

Abstract:

The standard unit of Shenzhen land spatial planning has the characteristics of vertical conduction, horizontal evaluation, internal balance and supervision of implementation. It mainly assumes the role of geospatial unit, assists in promoting the complex development of the business in Shenzhen and undertakes the management and transmission of upper and lower levels of planning as well as the Urban management functions such as gap analysis of public facilities, planning evaluation and dynamic monitoring of planning information. Combining with the application examples of the analysis of gaps in public facilities in Longgang District, it can be found that the standard unit of land spatial planning in Shenzhen as a small-scale geographic basic unit, has a stronger urban spatial coupling effect. However, the universality of the application of the system is still lacking and it is necessary to propose more scientific and powerful standard unit delineation standards and planning function evaluation indicators to guide the implementation of the system's popularization and application.

Keywords: Shenzhen city, land spatial planning, standard unit system, urban delicacy management

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