Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Marian Brazdil

35 Cogeneration Unit for Small Stove

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Marian Brazdil, Otakar Stelcl, Jiri Pospisil

Abstract:

This paper shows an experimental testing of a small unit for combustion of solid fuels, such as charcoal and wood logs, that can provide electricity. One of the concepts is that the unit does not require a qualified personnel for its operation. The unit itself is composed of two main parts. The design requires a heat producing stove and an electricity producing thermoelectric generator. After the construction the unit was tested and the results shows that the emission release is within the legislative requirements for emission production and environmental protection. That qualifies such unit for indoor application.

Keywords: micro-cogeneration, thermoelectric generator, biomass combustion, wood stove

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
34 Occasional Word-Formation in Postfeminist Fiction: Cognitive Approach

Authors: Kateryna Nykytchenko

Abstract:

Modern fiction and non-fiction writers commonly use their own lexical and stylistic devices to capture a reader’s attention and bring certain thoughts and feelings to his reader. Among such devices is the appearance of one of the neologic notions – individual author’s formations: occasionalisms or nonce words. To a significant extent, the host of examples of new words occurs in chick lit genre which has experienced exponential growth in recent years. Chick Lit is a new-millennial postfeminist fiction which focuses primarily on twenty- to thirtysomething middle-class women. It brings into focus the image of 'a new woman' of the 21st century who is always fallible, funny. This paper aims to investigate different types of occasional word-formation which reflect cognitive mechanisms of conveying women’s perception of the world. Chick lit novels of Irish author Marian Keyes present genuinely innovative mixture of forms, both literary and nonliterary which is displayed in different types of occasional word-formation processes such as blending, compounding, creative respelling, etc. Crossing existing mental and linguistic boundaries, adopting herself to new and overlapping linguistic spaces, chick lit author creates new words which demonstrate the result of development and progress of language and the relationship between language, thought and new reality, ultimately resulting in hybrid word-formation (e.g. affixation or pseudoborrowing). Moreover, this article attempts to present the main characteristics of chick-lit fiction genre with the help of the Marian Keyes’s novels and their influence on occasionalisms. There has been a lack of research concerning cognitive nature of occasionalisms. The current paper intends to account for occasional word-formation as a set of interconnected cognitive mechanisms, operations and procedures meld together to create a new word. The results of the generalized analysis solidify arguments that the kind of new knowledge an occasionalism manifests is inextricably linked with cognitive procedure underlying it, which results in corresponding type of word-formation processes. In addition, the findings of the study reveal that the necessity of creating occasionalisms in postmodern fiction novels arises from the need to write in a new way keeping up with a perpetually developing world, and thus the evolution of the speaker herself and her perception of the world.

Keywords: Chick Lit, occasionalism, occasional word-formation, cognitive linguistics

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33 Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides

Authors: Adriana-Gabriela Plaiasu, Catalin Marian Ducu

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The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.

Keywords: characterization, morphological, nano-oxides, structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
32 Modelling Residential Space Heating Energy for Romania

Authors: Ion Smeureanu, Adriana Reveiu, Marian Dardala, Titus Felix Furtuna, Roman Kanala

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This paper proposes a linear model for optimizing domestic energy consumption, in Romania. Both techno-economic and consumer behavior approaches have been considered, in order to develop the model. The proposed model aims to reduce the energy consumption, in households, by assembling in a unitary model, aspects concerning: residential lighting, space heating, hot water, and combined space heating – hot water, space cooling, and passenger transport. This paper focuses on space heating domestic energy consumption model, and quantify not only technical-economic issues, but also consumer behavior impact, related to people decision to envelope and insulate buildings, in order to minimize energy consumption.

Keywords: consumer behavior, open source energy modeling system (OSeMOSYS), MARKAL/TIMES Romanian energy model, virtual technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
31 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir

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In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool

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30 POSS as Modifiers and Additives for Elastomer Composites

Authors: Anna Strąkowska, Marian Zaborski

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The studies were focused on POSS application with methylvinylsilicone rubber (MVQ). The obtained results indicate that they can be successfully incorporated into silica-filled rubbers as modifying agents since they enhance cross-link density and improve most properties of the resulting network. It is also worth noting that the incorporation of POSS molecules resulted in stabilizing effect against adverse changes induced by the climatic, ozone or UV ageing of the rubbers. Furthermore, we obtained interesting results of rubbers surface modification using POSS functionalised with halogen groups (Cl, F, and Br). As the results, surface energy of the elastomeric composites and their hydrophobicity increased, barrier properties improved and thermal stability increased as well. Additionally, the studies with silicone rubber and POSS containing acidic and alkaline groups revealed composites with self-healing properties. The observed effects strictly depend on a kind and quantity of functional groups present in angles of POSS cages.

Keywords: elastomeric composites, POSS, properties modyfication, silicone rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
29 Mass Transfer in Reactor with Magnetic Field Generator

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas

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The growing interest in magnetic fields applications is visible due to the increased number of articles on this topic published in the last few years. In this study, the influence of various magnetic fields (MF) on the mass transfer process was examined. To carry out the prototype set-up equipped with an MF generator that is able to generate a pulsed magnetic field (PMF), oscillating magnetic field (OMF), rotating magnetic field (RMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) was used. To demonstrate the effect of MF’s on mass transfer, the calcium carbonate precipitation process was selected. To the vessel with attached conductometric probes and placed inside the generator, specific doses of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. Electrical conductivity changes of the mixture inside the vessel were measured over time until equilibrium was established. Measurements were conducted for various MF strengths and concentrations of added chemical compounds. Obtained results were analyzed, which allowed to creation of mathematical correlation models showing the influence of MF’s on the studied process.

Keywords: mass transfer, oscillating magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, static magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
28 Magnetic (Ethylene-Octene) Polymer Composites Reinforced With Carbon Black

Authors: Marcin Maslowski, Marian Zaborski

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The aim of the study was to receive magnetorheological elastomer composites (MRE) with the best mechanical characteristics. MRE based on different magnetoactive fillers in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. To improve mechanical properties of polymer mixtures, also carbon black (N550) was added during the composites preparation process. Micro and nan-sized magnetites (Fe3O4), as well as gamma iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP) are added together with carbon black (N550) were found to be an active fillers systems improving both static and dynamic mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Reinforcing character of applied different fillers systems results in an increased stress at 100% elongation, tensile strength and cross-linking density of the vulcanizates. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: carbon black, mechanical properties, magnetorheological composites, magnetic fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
27 Online Learning for Modern Business Models: Theoretical Considerations and Algorithms

Authors: Marian Sorin Ionescu, Olivia Negoita, Cosmin Dobrin

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This scientific communication reports and discusses learning models adaptable to modern business problems and models specific to digital concepts and paradigms. In the PAC (probably approximately correct) learning model approach, in which the learning process begins by receiving a batch of learning examples, the set of learning processes is used to acquire a hypothesis, and when the learning process is fully used, this hypothesis is used in the prediction of new operational examples. For complex business models, a lot of models should be introduced and evaluated to estimate the induced results so that the totality of the results are used to develop a predictive rule, which anticipates the choice of new models. In opposition, for online learning-type processes, there is no separation between the learning (training) and predictive phase. Every time a business model is approached, a test example is considered from the beginning until the prediction of the appearance of a model considered correct from the point of view of the business decision. After choosing choice a part of the business model, the label with the logical value "true" is known. Some of the business models are used as examples of learning (training), which helps to improve the prediction mechanisms for future business models.

Keywords: machine learning, business models, convex analysis, online learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
26 Practice of Supply Chain Management in Local SMEs

Authors: Oualid Kherbach, Marian Liviu Mocan, Amine Ghoumrassi, Cristian Dumitrache

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The Globalization system and the development of economy, e-business, and introduction of new technologies formation create new challenges to all organizations particularly for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Many studies on supply chain management (SCM) focus on large companies with universal operations employing high-stage information technology. These make a gap in the knowing of how SMEs use and practice supply chain management. In this screenplay, successful practices of supply chain management (SCM) can give SMEs an edge over their competitors. However, SMEs in Romania and Balkan countries face problems in SCM implementation and practices due to lack of resources and direction. The objectives of this research highlight the supply chain management practices of the small and medium enterprise strip in Romania and understand how SMEs manage and use SCM. This study Checks the potential existence of systematic differences between small businesses and medium-sized businesses with regard to supply chain management practices and the application of supply management has contributed to the improvement performance and increase the profitability of companies such as increasing the market share and improving the level of clients.

Keywords: globalization, small and medium enterprises, supply chain management, practices

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25 Combinated Effect of Cadmium and Municipal Solid Waste Compost Addition on Physicochemical and Biochemical Proprieties of Soil and Lolium Perenne Production

Authors: Sonia Mbarki Marian Brestic, Artemio Cerda Naceur Jedidi, Jose Antonnio Pascual Chedly Abdelly

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Monitoring the effect addition bio-amendment as compost to an agricultural soil for growing plant lolium perenne irrigated with a CdCl2 solution at 50 µM on physicochemical soils characteristics and plant production in laboratory condition. Even microbial activity indexes (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease, and dehydrogenase) was determined. Basal respiration was the most affected index, while enzymatic activities and microbial biomass showed a decrease due to the cadmium treatments. We noticed that this clay soil with higher pH showed inhibition of basal respiration. Our results provide evidence for the importance of ameliorating effect compost on plant growth even when soil was added with cadmium solution at 50 µmoml.l-1. Soil heavy metal concentrations depended on heavy metals types, increased substantially with cadmium increase and with compost addition, but the recorded values were below the toxicity limits in soils and plants except for cadmium.

Keywords: compost, enzymatic activity, lolium perenne, bioremediation

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24 Intensification of Heat Transfer in Magnetically Assisted Reactor

Authors: Dawid Sołoducha, Tomasz Borowski, Marian Kordas, Rafał Rakoczy

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The magnetic field in the past few years became an important part of many studies. Magnetic field (MF) may be used to affect the process in many ways; for example, it can be used as a factor to stabilize the system. We can use MF to steer the operation, to activate or inhibit the process, or even to affect the vital activity of microorganisms. Using various types of magnetic field generators is always connected with the delivery of some heat to the system. Heat transfer is a very important phenomenon; it can influence the process positively and negatively, so it’s necessary to measure heat stream transferred from the place of generation and prevent negative influence on the operation. The aim of the presented work was to apply various types of magnetic fields and to measure heat transfer phenomena. The results were obtained by continuous measurement at several measuring points with temperature probes. Results were compilated in the form of temperature profiles. The study investigated the undetermined heat transfer in a custom system equipped with a magnetic field generator. Experimental investigations are provided for the explanation of the influence of the various type of magnetic fields on the heat transfer process. The tested processes are described by means of the criteria which defined heat transfer intensification under the action of magnetic field.

Keywords: heat transfer, magnetic field, undetermined heat transfer, temperature profile

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23 A Comparative Analysis of Courtship among Non-Mainstream Gays and Lesbians

Authors: Marian Ubaldo, Venise Gonzales, Aileen Lovendino

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In response to an identified need in the psychological literature for current research on topics related to same-sex lived experiences, the study aims to give knowledge about Non-mainstream Gay and Non-mainstream Lesbian, or those homosexuals who do not conform with norms, in relation to courtship than to focus on heterosexuals’ courtship. Moreover, the aim of this study is to explore the experience of courtship as it is mediated by the personal meanings that Non-mainstream Homosexuals attribute to it. Also, a comparison of courtship between Non-mainstream Gays and Non-mainstream Lesbians covers the study. A total of ten self-identified Non-mainstream gay and lesbian participated in the study and was interviewed with an open ended question. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used in the study to capture the quality and texture of individual lived experiences. The results revealed similarities and differences in the lived experiences of Non-mainstream Gays and Lesbians when compared. The research findings have found that the research participants lived experiences in relation with Courtship are somehow similar and only differ in terms of sexual attraction. Non-mainstream Gays tend to follow a more sexual dating script while Non-mainstream Lesbians builds relationship through friendship or follows a ‘friendship’ script. Findings were compared with literature on dating and relationships with a large population of Gays and Lesbians to identify points of consistency and inconsistency. The implication of the results and recommendation for future researcher were given.

Keywords: non-mainstream gays, non-mainstream lesbian, courtship, heteronormativity, dating script

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22 Healing in Lourdes: Qualitative Research with Pilgrims and Their Carers

Authors: Emmylou Rahtz, Sarah Goldingay, Sara Warber, Ann Arbor, Paul Dieppe

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Introduction: Lourdes is a Catholic, Marian healing venue in South West France. Many miraculous cures have been attributed to visits there. In addition, many visitors seem to experience improvements in health and wellbeing, in the absence of a cure of disease. We wanted to investigate that phenomenon. Methods: We spent 10 days in Lourdes in 2017, carrying out ethnographic research, talking to many visitors, and carrying out formal, recorded interviews with several pilgrims, doctors, nurses, helpers, and priests. Results: Profound experiences and improvements in health and wellbeing were commonly reported. A number of ‘noetic’ experiences were also described. The paper will illustrate these phenomena. In addition, many participants in the research talked about why being in Lourdes was so beneficial to them. The community spirit, ethos of prayer, flow, synchronicity, and ability to find new meaning for life’s ills were cited as likely reasons. Conclusions: We believe that the ‘real miracle’ of Lourdes is the fact that of the many hundreds of thousands of people who go there each year, many find great benefit in health and wellbeing. It is likely that this is due to the ethos of the place, the community spirit, non-judgmental approach and loving acceptance of all aspects of humanity. Acknowledgments: We thank the BIAL foundation for generous funding of this research, and Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis and his team for facilitating our work, as well as all those who participated.

Keywords: healing, miracles, noetic experiences, wellbeing

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21 Impact of Pan Pacific's Training Program to Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Practicum Trainees

Authors: Bandojo Paula Maria Noella, Bernardo Bea Samantha B., Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S., Gomez Marian Louise D., Gomez Rome Voltaire M., Reyes Alessa Anne Therese A.

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The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the training program of Pan Pacific Hotel to other Five Star Hotels in terms of the technical, professional and personal competencies before and after their training. The theoretical framework of this study is the practicum manual of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hotel and Restaurant Management Program Practicum Manual. This study was conducted using survey questionnaires that were distributed to 50 respondents. The results showed that there is a significant difference with the level of competencies of the practicum trainee before and after the training regardless if the training is structured or unstructured. Results also showed that the structured training program of Pan Pacific Hotel significantly improved the Technical Competencies in the different departments of the hotel industry. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there is no difference between the structured and unstructured training program in terms of Professional Competencies and Personal Competencies. The proponents concluded the study by providing recommendations to the partner hotels of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management that there should be a structured training program for the practicum trainees.

Keywords: structured and structured training program, practicum trainees, competencies, tourism

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20 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Mehdi Moayyedian, Kazem Abhary, Romeo Marian

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This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: injection molding, plastic defects, short shot, Taguchi method

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19 Dynamic Analysis of the Heat Transfer in the Magnetically Assisted Reactor

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas

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The application of magnetic field is essential for a wide range of technologies or processes (i.e., magnetic hyperthermia, bioprocessing). From the practical point of view, bioprocess control is often limited to the regulation of temperature at constant values favourable to microbial growth. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of various types of electromagnetic fields (i.e., static or alternating) on the heat transfer in a self-designed magnetically assisted reactor. The experimental set-up is equipped with a measuring instrument which controlled the temperature of the liquid inside the container and supervised the real-time acquisition of all the experimental data coming from the sensors. Temperature signals are also sampled from generator of magnetic field. The obtained temperature profiles were mathematically described and analyzed. The parameters characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order dynamic system were obtained and discussed. For example, the higher values of the time constant means slow signal (in this case, temperature) increase. After the period equal to about five-time constants, the sample temperature nearly reached the asymptotic value. This dynamical analysis allowed us to understand the heating effect under the action of various types of electromagnetic fields. Moreover, the proposed mathematical description can be used to compare the influence of different types of magnetic fields on heat transfer operations.

Keywords: heat transfer, magnetically assisted reactor, dynamical analysis, transient function

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18 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo

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As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: historical narratives, old churches, cultural heritage, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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17 Exploring the Neural Correlates of Different Interaction Types: A Hyperscanning Investigation Using the Pattern Game

Authors: Beata Spilakova, Daniel J. Shaw, Radek Marecek, Milan Brazdil

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Hyperscanning affords a unique insight into the brain dynamics underlying human interaction by simultaneously scanning two or more individuals’ brain responses while they engage in dyadic exchange. This provides an opportunity to observe dynamic brain activations in all individuals participating in interaction, and possible interbrain effects among them. The present research aims to provide an experimental paradigm for hyperscanning research capable of delineating among different forms of interaction. Specifically, the goal was to distinguish between two dimensions: (1) interaction structure (concurrent vs. turn-based) and (2) goal structure (competition vs cooperation). Dual-fMRI was used to scan 22 pairs of participants - each pair matched on gender, age, education and handedness - as they played the Pattern Game. In this simple interactive task, one player attempts to recreate a pattern of tokens while the second player must either help (cooperation) or prevent the first achieving the pattern (competition). Each pair played the game iteratively, alternating their roles every round. The game was played in two consecutive sessions: first the players took sequential turns (turn-based), but in the second session they placed their tokens concurrently (concurrent). Conventional general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed activations throughout a diffuse collection of brain regions: The cooperative condition engaged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC); in the competitive condition, significant activations were observed in frontal and prefrontal areas, insula cortices and the thalamus. Comparisons between the turn-based and concurrent conditions revealed greater precuneus engagement in the former. Interestingly, mPFC, PCC and insulae are linked repeatedly to social cognitive processes. Similarly, the thalamus is often associated with a cognitive empathy, thus its activation may reflect the need to predict the opponent’s upcoming moves. Frontal and prefrontal activation most likely represent the higher attentional and executive demands of the concurrent condition, whereby subjects must simultaneously observe their co-player and place his own tokens accordingly. The activation of precuneus in the turn-based condition may be linked to self-other distinction processes. Finally, by performing intra-pair correlations of brain responses we demonstrate condition-specific patterns of brain-to-brain coupling in mPFC and PCC. Moreover, the degree of synchronicity in these neural signals related to performance on the game. The present results, then, show that different types of interaction recruit different brain systems implicated in social cognition, and the degree of inter-player synchrony within these brain systems is related to nature of the social interaction.

Keywords: brain-to-brain coupling, hyperscanning, pattern game, social interaction

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16 Approximation of Geodesics on Meshes with Implementation in Rhinoceros Software

Authors: Marian Sagat, Mariana Remesikova

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In civil engineering, there is a problem how to industrially produce tensile membrane structures that are non-developable surfaces. Nondevelopable surfaces can only be developed with a certain error and we want to minimize this error. To that goal, the non-developable surfaces are cut into plates along to the geodesic curves. We propose a numerical algorithm for finding approximations of open geodesics on meshes and surfaces based on geodesic curvature flow. For practical reasons, it is important to automatize the choice of the time step. We propose a method for automatic setting of the time step based on the diagonal dominance criterion for the matrix of the linear system obtained by discretization of our partial differential equation model. Practical experiments show reliability of this method. Because approximation of the model is made by numerical method based on classic derivatives, it is necessary to solve obstacles which occur for meshes with sharp corners. We solve this problem for big family of meshes with sharp corners via special rotations which can be seen as partial unfolding of the mesh. In practical applications, it is required that the approximation of geodesic has its vertices only on the edges of the mesh. This problem is solved by a specially designed pointing tracking algorithm. We also partially solve the problem of finding geodesics on meshes with holes. We implemented the whole algorithm in Rhinoceros (commercial 3D computer graphics and computer-aided design software ). It is done by using C# language as C# assembly library for Grasshopper, which is plugin in Rhinoceros.

Keywords: geodesic, geodesic curvature flow, mesh, Rhinoceros software

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15 Optimization of Multi Commodities Consumer Supply Chain: Part 1-Modelling

Authors: Zeinab Haji Abolhasani, Romeo Marian, Lee Luong

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This paper and its companions (Part II, Part III) will concentrate on optimizing a class of supply chain problems known as Multi- Commodities Consumer Supply Chain (MCCSC) problem. MCCSC problem belongs to production-distribution (P-D) planning category. It aims to determine facilities location, consumers’ allocation, and facilities configuration to minimize total cost (CT) of the entire network. These facilities can be manufacturer units (MUs), distribution centres (DCs), and retailers/end-users (REs) but not limited to them. To address this problem, three major tasks should be undertaken. At the first place, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINP) mathematical model is developed. Then, system’s behaviors under different conditions will be observed using a simulation modeling tool. Finally, the most optimum solution (minimum CT) of the system will be obtained using a multi-objective optimization technique. Due to the large size of the problem, and the uncertainties in finding the most optimum solution, integration of modeling and simulation methodologies is proposed followed by developing new approach known as GASG. It is a genetic algorithm on the basis of granular simulation which is the subject of the methodology of this research. In part II, MCCSC is simulated using discrete-event simulation (DES) device within an integrated environment of SimEvents and Simulink of MATLAB® software package followed by a comprehensive case study to examine the given strategy. Also, the effect of genetic operators on the obtained optimal/near optimal solution by the simulation model will be discussed in part III.

Keywords: supply chain, genetic algorithm, optimization, simulation, discrete event system

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14 The Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract of the African Lung Fish Protopterus annectens in River Niger at Agenebode, Nigeria

Authors: Marian Agbugui

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The West African Lung fishes are fishes rich in protein and serve as an important source of food supply for man. The kind of food ingested by this group of fishes is dependent on the alimentary canal as well as the fish’s digestive processes which provide suitable modifications for maximum utilization of food taken. A study of the alimentary canal of P. annectens will expose the best information on the anatomy and histology of the fish. Samples of P. annectens were dissected to reveal the liver, pancreas and entire gut wall. Digital pictures of the mouth, jaws and the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) were taken. The entire gut was identified, sectioned and micro graphed. P. annectens was observed to possess a terminal mouth that opens up to 10% of its total body length, an adaptive feature to enable the fish to swallow the whole of its pry. Its dentition is made up of incisors- scissor-like teeth which also help to firmly grip, seize and tear through the skin of prey before swallowing. A short, straight and longitudinal GIT was observed in P. annectens which is known to be common feature in lungfishes, though it is thought to be a primitive characteristic similar to the lamprey. The oesophagus is short and distensible similar to other predatory and carnivorous species. Food is temporarily stored in the stomach before it is passed down into the intestine. A pyloric aperture is seen at the end of the double folded pyloric valve which leads into an intestine that makes up 75% of the whole GIT. The intestine begins at the posterior end of the pyloric aperture and winds down in six coils through the whole length intestine and ends at the cloaca. From this study it is concluded that P. annectens possess a composite GIT with organs similar to other lung fishes; it is a detritor with carnivorous abilities.

Keywords: gastrointestinal tract, incisors scissor-like teeth, intestine, mucus, Protopterus annectens, serosa

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13 Influence of Magnetic Field on the Antibacterial Properties of Pine Oil

Authors: Dawid Sołoducha, Tomasz Borowski, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Aneta Wesołowska, Marian Kordas, Rafał Rakoczy

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Many studies report varied effects of the magnetic field in medicine, but applications are still missing. Also, essential oils (EOs) were historically used in healing therapies, food preservation and the cosmetic industry due to their wound healing and antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity. Unfortunately, the chemical characterization of EOs activates its antibacterial action only at a fairly high concentration. They can cause skin reactions, e.g., irritation (irritant contact dermatitis) or allergic contact dermatitis; therefore, they should always be used with caution. However, the administration of EOs to achieve the desired antimicrobial activity and stability with long-term medical usage in low concentration is challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of commercial Pinus sylvestris L. essential oil from Polish company Avicenna-Oil® under Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) at f = 1 – 50 Hz. The novel construction of the magnetically assisted self-constructed reactor (MAP) was applied for this study. The chemical composition of essential pine oil was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Model bacteria Escherichia coli K12 (ATCC 25922) was used. Different concentrations of pine oil was prepared: 100% 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25%. The disc diffusion and MIC test were done. To examine the effect of essential pine oil and rotating magnetic field RMF on antibacterial performance agar plate method was used. Pine oil consist of α-pinene (28.58%), β-pinene (17.79%), δ-3-carene (14.17%) and limonene (11.58%). The present study indicates the exposition to the RMF, as compared to the unexposed controls causing an increase in the efficacy of antibacterial properties of pine oil. We have shown that the rotating magnetic fields (RMF) at a frequency, f, between 25 Hz to 50 Hz, increase the antimicrobial efficiency of oil at lower than 50% concentration. The new method can be applied in many fields e.g. aromatherapy, medicine as a component of dressing, or as food preservatives.

Keywords: rotating magnetic field, pine oil, antimicrobial activity, Escherichia coli

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12 Effect of Mannitol on in Vitro Conservation of Local and Exotic Taro-Genotypes (Colocasia Esculenta Var Esculenta)

Authors: Benjamin Bonsu Bruce, Marian Dorcas Quain David Appiah-Kubi, Gertrude Osei-Diko, Harrison Kwame Dapaah

Abstract:

Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is a major staple food and remains a significant crop to many cultural and agricultural customs worldwide. In Ghana, taro is mostly propagated using vegetative material, which is conserved in field collection and recycled from their farms to establish new fields. However, this practice promotes the accumulation of systemic pathogens. Prior exposure to pests and subsequent expression of disease symptoms can also be a huge constraint to sustainable conservation and utilization of taro genetic resources. In vitro, slow growth is one of the most promising techniques to be utilized for conservation. The objective of this study was to find a medium-term in vitro conservation protocol for local and exotic taro genotypes. The medium-term conservation study was conducted using actively growing shoots obtained from in vitro cultures. Explants were cultured to full strength in complete Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with Mannitol at different concentrations (0g/l, 20g/l, 25g/l, and 30g/l). Another medium that was tested as an additional treatment is the White’s medium. The highest number of shoots (6.33) and leaves (22.67) occurred on medium containing 20 and 25g/l mannitol in genotype SAO 006 as compared to other genotypes, whereas 30g/l mannitol was the best to restrict growth for the entire 6 months period in terms of shoot height (22.50cm). The study reveals that mannitol supplemented culture media could reduce the growth of Colocasia plantlets, especially in stem height. Culture growth following 6 months of conservation, showed that healthy shoot cultures of Taro were obtained after 6 months of storage in a medium containing 20gl⁻¹ and 25gl⁻¹ mannitol.

Keywords: complete murashige, skoog medium, culture conditions, mannitol, slow growth conservation

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11 Self-Healing Composites of Silicone Rubber

Authors: Anna Strakowska, Marian Zaborski

Abstract:

This abstract focuses an overview of the methods used to create self-healing silicone composites. It has been shown how incorporating of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) molecules with acid and basic groups to silicone rubber affects the barrier properties, mechanical properties in room and reduced temperature or the influence on relaxation rates of the methylvinylsilicone rubber vulcanizates. Moreover, the presence of silsesquioxanes, their content and the way of composites preparing affect the amount of ionic bonds, as indicated by dynamic - mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) as well as measurements of equilibrium swelling in toluene. The aim of this work was to study the influence of concentration and different functional groups types selected silsesquioxanes compounds on self-healing effect of silicone rubber and obtain elastomers with good barrier and mechanical properties. Composites based on the methylvinylsilicone rubber with fumed silica as the fillers were manufactured and studied. To obtain self-healing effect various silsesquioxanes with amino and acid groups were used. Every tested sample demonstrated the ability to the self-treatment. The most significant effect was observed for system containing amic-acid isobytyl POSS/ aminopropylisobutyl POSS. Composite with this silsesquioxanes was exhibited the best improvement of gas permeability after heal. Moreover, the addition of POSS with acid and basic groups clearly affects the mechanical properties of the vulcanizates. The most significant effect was observed for the composite material consisting of amic-acid isobytyl POSS / aminoethylaminopropylisobutyl POSS, which tensile strength was even greater than the reference vulcanizate with fumed silica. The development of autonomous self-healing materials could have an enormous influence on all industry branches from motorization to power industry. Self-repairing materials would have a massive impact on lengthening product lifetimes, increasing safety, and lowering product costs by reducing maintenance requirements.

Keywords: barrier properties, mechanical properties, POSS, self-healing composites

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10 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Plant by-Product Extracts

Authors: Cristian Moisa, Andreea Lupitu, Adriana Csakvari, Dana G. Radu, Leonard Marian Olariu, Georgeta Pop, Dorina Chambre, Lucian Copolovici, Dana Copolovici

Abstract:

Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a promising, accessible, eco-friendly, and safe process with significant applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences, and farming. The aim of our study was to obtain silver nanoparticles, using plant wastes extracts resulted in the essential oils extraction process: Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia L., and in hemp processing for seed and fibre, Cannabis sativa. Firstly, we obtained aqueous extracts of thyme, oregano, lavender, and hemp (two monoicous and one dioicous varieties), all harvested in western part of Romania. Then, we determined the chemical composition of the extracts by liquid-chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometer detectors. The compounds identified in the extracts were in agreement with earlier published data, and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays confirmed their antioxidant activity due to their total polyphenolic content evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Then, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesised, as was demonstrated by UV-VIS, FT-IR spectroscopies, and SEM, by reacting AgNO₃ solution and plant extracts. AgNPs were spherical in shape, with less than 30 nm in diameter, and had a good bactericidal activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens).

Keywords: plant wastes extracts, chemical composition, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, HPLC-MS, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, silver nanoparticles

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9 Distraction from Pain: An fMRI Study on the Role of Age-Related Changes in Executive Functions

Authors: Katharina M. Rischer, Angelika Dierolf, Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Pedro Montoya, Fernand Anton, Marian van der Meulen

Abstract:

Even though age has been associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the ˈtop-downˈ modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from pain. The analgesic effects of distraction result from competition for attentional resources in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region that is also involved in executive functions. Given that the PFC shows pronounced age-related atrophy, distraction may be less effective in reducing pain in older compared to younger adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on task-related analgesia and the underpinning neural mechanisms, with a focus on the role of executive functions in distraction from pain. In a first session, 64 participants (32 young adults: 26.69 ± 4.14 years; 32 older adults: 68.28 ± 7.00 years) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, participants underwent a pain distraction paradigm, while fMRI images were acquired. In this paradigm, participants completed a low (0-back) and a high (2-back) load condition of a working memory task while receiving either warm or painful thermal stimuli to their lower arm. To control for age-related differences in sensitivity to pain and perceived task difficulty, stimulus intensity, and task speed were individually calibrated. Results indicate that both age groups showed significantly reduced activity in a network of regions involved in pain processing when completing the high load distraction task; however, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in different parts of the insula and the thalamus. Moreover, better executive functions, in particular inhibitory control abilities, were associated with a larger behavioral and neural distraction effect. These findings clearly demonstrate that top-down control of pain is affected in older age, and could explain the higher vulnerability for older adults to develop chronic pain. Moreover, our findings suggest that the assessment of executive functions may be a useful tool for predicting the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation strategies in older adults.

Keywords: executive functions, cognitive pain modulation, fMRI, PFC

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8 Covid-19 Pandemic: Another Lesson Learned by a Military Hospital

Authors: Mariana Floria, Elena-Diana Năfureanu, Diana-Mihaela Gălăţanu, Anca-Ecaterina Grumeza, Cristina Gorea-Bocîncă, Diana-Elena Iov, Aurelian-Corneliu Moraru, Dragoș-Marian Popescu

Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 is the most deadly and devastating virus of the last one hundred years, being more highly contagious than EBOLA, HIV, Swine Influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome. After two years of pandemic, planning and budgeting for use of healthcare resources and services is very important. The aim of this study was to analyze the costs for hospital stay in patients with predominantly moderate forms of COVID-19 in a support military hospital located in Nord-East of Romania. Inpatient COVID-19 hospitalizations costs, regardless of ICD-10 procedure codes (DRG payment), in a Covid-19 support military hospital were analyzed. From August 2020 through June 2021, 241 patientswere hospitalized. Our national protocol for the treatment of Covid-19 infection was applied. The main COVID-19 manifestations were: 69% respiratory (18% with severe pneumonia, 2.9% with pulmonary embolism, diagnosed by angio-computed tomography), 3.3% cardiac, 28% digestive, and 33% psychiatric (most common anxiety) manifestations. According to COVID-19 severity, most of the patients had moderate (104 patients – 43%) and severe (50 patients - 21%) forms. Seven patients with severe form died because of multiple comorbidities, and 30 patients were transferred in hospitals with COVID-19 intensive care units.Only two patients have had procalcitonin>10 ng/mL (high probability of severe sepsis or septic shock), and 1 patient had moderate risk for septic shock (0.5 - 2 ng/mL). The average estimated costs were about 3000€/patient, without significantly differences depending on disease severity. Equipment costs were 2 times higher than for drugs and 4 times than for laboratory tests. In a Covid-19 support military hospital that took care for predominantly moderate forms of COVID-19, the costs for equipment were much higher than that for treatment. Therefore, new criteria for hospitalization of these forms of COVID-19 deserve to be analyzed to avoid useless costs.

Keywords: Covid-19, costs, hospital stay, military hospital

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7 Do the Health Benefits of Oil-Led Economic Development Outweigh the Potential Health Harms from Environmental Pollution in Nigeria?

Authors: Marian Emmanuel Okon

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Introduction: The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has a vast reserve of oil and gas, which has globally positioned the nation as the sixth largest exporter of crude oil. Production rapidly rose following oil discovery. In most oil producing nations of the world, the wealth generated from oil production and export has propelled economic advancement, enabling the development of industries and other relevant infrastructures. Therefore, it can be assumed that majority of the oil resource such as Nigeria’s, has the potential to improve the health of the population via job creation and derived revenues. However, the health benefits of this economic development might be offset by the environmental consequences of oil exploitation and production. Objective: This research aims to evaluate the balance between the health benefits of oil-led economic development and harmful environmental consequences of crude oil exploitation in Nigeria. Study Design: A pathway has been designed to guide data search and this study. The model created will assess the relationship between oil-led economic development and population health development via job creation, improvement of education, development of infrastructure and other forms of development as well as through harmful environmental consequences from oil activities. Data/Emerging Findings: Diverse potentially suitable datasets which are at different geographical scales have been identified, obtained or applied for and the dataset from the World Bank has been the most thoroughly explored. This large dataset contains information that would enable the longitudinal assessment of both the health benefits and harms from oil exploitation in Nigeria as well as identify the disparities that exist between the communities, states and regions. However, these data do not extend far back enough in time to capture the start of crude oil production. Thus, it is possible that the maximum economic benefits and health harms could be missed. To deal with this shortcoming, the potential for a comparative study with countries like United Kingdom, Morocco and Cote D’ivoire has also been taken into consideration, so as to evaluate the differences between these countries as well as identify the areas of improvement in Nigeria’s environmental and health policies. Notwithstanding, these data have shown some differences in each country’s economic, environmental and health state over time as well as a corresponding summary statistics. Conclusion: In theory, the beneficial effects of oil exploitation to the health of the population may be substantial as large swaths of the ‘wider determinants’ of population heath are influenced by the wealth of a nation. However, if uncontrolled, the consequences from environmental pollution and degradation may outweigh these benefits. Thus, there is a need to address this, in order to improve environmental and population health in Nigeria.

Keywords: environmental pollution, health benefits, oil-led economic development, petroleum exploitation

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6 Application of the Material Point Method as a New Fast Simulation Technique for Textile Composites Forming and Material Handling

Authors: Amir Nazemi, Milad Ramezankhani, Marian Kӧrber, Abbas S. Milani

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The excellent strength to weight ratio of woven fabric composites, along with their high formability, is one of the primary design parameters defining their increased use in modern manufacturing processes, including those in aerospace and automotive. However, for emerging automated preform processes under the smart manufacturing paradigm, complex geometries of finished components continue to bring several challenges to the designers to cope with manufacturing defects on site. Wrinklinge. g. is a common defectoccurring during the forming process and handling of semi-finished textile composites. One of the main reasons for this defect is the weak bending stiffness of fibers in unconsolidated state, causing excessive relative motion between them. Further challenges are represented by the automated handling of large-area fiber blanks with specialized gripper systems. For fabric composites forming simulations, the finite element (FE)method is a longstanding tool usedfor prediction and mitigation of manufacturing defects. Such simulations are predominately meant, not only to predict the onset, growth, and shape of wrinkles but also to determine the best processing condition that can yield optimized positioning of the fibers upon forming (or robot handling in the automated processes case). However, the need for use of small-time steps via explicit FE codes, facing numerical instabilities, as well as large computational time, are among notable drawbacks of the current FEtools, hindering their extensive use as fast and yet efficient digital twins in industry. This paper presents a novel woven fabric simulation technique through the application of the material point method (MPM), which enables the use of much larger time steps, facing less numerical instabilities, hence the ability to run significantly faster and efficient simulationsfor fabric materials handling and forming processes. Therefore, this method has the ability to enhance the development of automated fiber handling and preform processes by calculating the physical interactions with the MPM fiber models and rigid tool components. This enables the designers to virtually develop, test, and optimize their processes based on either algorithmicor Machine Learning applications. As a preliminary case study, forming of a hemispherical plain weave is shown, and the results are compared to theFE simulations, as well as experiments.

Keywords: material point method, woven fabric composites, forming, material handling

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