Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Leung

22 Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Visible-Light Activated BiOBr-Nanoplate Photocatalyst

Authors: Meichen Lee, Michael K. H. Leung

Abstract:

In recent years, visible-light activated photocatalysis has become a major field of intense researches for the higher efficiency of solar energy utilizations. Many attempts have been made on the modification of wide band gap semiconductors, while more and more efforts emphasize on cost-effective synthesis of visible-light activated catalysts. In this work, BiOBr nanoplates with band gap of visible-light range are synthesized through a promising microwave solvothermal method. The treatment time period and temperature dependent BiOBr nanosheets of various particle sizes are investigated through SEM. BiOBr synthesized under the condition of 160°C for 60 mins shows the most uniform particle sizes around 311 nm and the highest surface-to-volume ratio on account of its smallest average particle sizes compared with others. It exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior among all samples in RhB degradation.

Keywords: microwave solvothermal process, nanoplates, solar energy, visible-light photocatalysis

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20 Experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Theoretical Study of Cyclone Performance Based on Inlet Velocity and Particle Loading Rate

Authors: Sakura Ganegama Bogodage, Andrew Yee Tat Leung

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This paper describes experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis of a cyclone performance, operated 1.0 g/m3 solid loading rate, at two different inlet velocities (5 m/s and 10 m/s). Comparing experimental results with theoretical and CFD simulation results, it is pronounced that the influence of solid in processing flow is significant than expected. Experimental studies based on gas- solid flows of cyclone separators are complicated as they required advanced sensitive measuring techniques, especially flow characteristics. Thus, CFD modelling and theoretical analysis are economical in analyzing cyclone separator performance but detailed clarifications of the application of these in cyclone separator performance evaluation is not yet discussed. The present study shows the limitations of influencing parameters of CFD and theoretical considerations, comparing experimental results and flow characteristics from CFD modelling.

Keywords: cyclone performance, inlet velocity, pressure drop, solid loading rate

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19 Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa

Authors: T. Imo, F. Latū, S. Aloi, J. Leung-Wai, V. Vaurasi, P. Amosa, M. A. Sheikh

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Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.

Keywords: coastal environment, heavy metals, pollution, sediments

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18 A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity

Authors: Ya-Ting Chuang, Krystle Leung, Ya-Jen Chang, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Paul B. Savage, Richard Cruse, Christophe Benoit, Dirk Elewaut, Nicole Baumgarth, Dale T. Umetsu

Abstract:

We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.

Keywords: NKT subset, asthma, airway hyperreactivity, hygiene hypothesis, influenza

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17 A Review of Test Protocols for Assessing Coating Performance of Water Ballast Tank Coatings

Authors: Emmanuel A. Oriaifo, Noel Perera, Alan Guy, Pak. S. Leung, Kian T. Tan

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Concerns on corrosion and effective coating protection of double hull tankers and bulk carriers in service have been raised especially in water ballast tanks (WBTs). Test protocols/methodologies specifically that which is incorporated in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Sea Water ballast tanks (PSPC) are being used to assess and evaluate the performance of the coatings for type approval prior to their application in WBTs. However, some of the type approved coatings may be applied as very thick films to less than ideally prepared steel substrates in the WBT. As such films experience hygrothermal cycling from operating and environmental conditions, they become embrittled which may ultimately result in cracking. This embrittlement of the coatings is identified as an undesirable feature in the PSPC but is not mentioned in the test protocols within it. There is therefore renewed industrial research aimed at understanding this issue in order to eliminate cracking and achieve the intended coating lifespan of 15 years in good condition. This paper will critically review test protocols currently used for assessing and evaluating coating performance, particularly the IMO PSPC.

Keywords: corrosion test, hygrothermal cycling, coating test protocols, water ballast tanks

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16 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ

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This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

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15 Explaining the Changes in Contentious Politics of China: A Comparative Study of Falun Gong and 'Diaosi'

Authors: Larry Lai, Evans Leung

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Falun gong is a self-proclaimed religious group that has been under crackdown by Beijing for more than two decades. Diaosi, on the other hand, is an emerging community with members loosely connected on the internet through different online social platforms, centering around the sharing of different hobbies and interests. Diaosi community has been transformed from a potential threat to the Chinese authority for different causes to a pro-government force. This paper seeks to explain the different strategies adopted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) regime in handling these two potential threatening communities. Both communities share some obvious similarities: (1) both have massive nation-wide participation; (2) both have attempted to challenge the PRC's authority through contentious means; (3) both have high level of mobility, online or offline; and (4) both have at first been unnoticed until the threat against the PRC have taken form. But the strategies the PRC endorsed against the communities were, in many ways, different. The question is: if the strategy against Falun Gong has been an effective one, why used other strategies against Diaosi? The authors argue that the main reason for using different strategies lies in the differences between the two communities in terms of (i) the nature of the groups, and (ii) the group dynamics. Lastly, based on this analysis, the authors attempt to explore the possible strategies that the PRC would adopt against the Hong Kong cyber-world political community in light of the latest national security law in Hong Kong.

Keywords: contentious politics, Diaosi, Falun Gong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China

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14 Case of A Huge Retroperitoneal Abscess Spanning from the Diaphragm to the Pelvic Brim

Authors: Christopher Leung, Tony Kim, Rebecca Lendzion, Scott Mackenzie

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Retroperitoneal abscesses are a rare but serious condition with often delayed diagnosis, non-specific symptoms, multiple causes and high morbidity/mortality. With the advent of more readily available cross-sectional imaging, retroperitoneal abscesses are treated earlier and better outcomes are achieved. Occasionally, a retroperitoneal abscess is present as a huge retroperitoneal abscess, as evident in this 53-year-old male. With a background of chronic renal disease and left partial nephrectomy, this gentleman presented with a one-month history of left flank pain without any other symptoms, including fevers or abdominal pain. CT abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal abscess spanning from the diaphragm, abutting the spleen, down to the iliopsoas muscle and abutting the iliac vessels at the pelvic brim. This large retroperitoneal abscess required open drainage as well as drainage by interventional radiology. A long course of intravenous antibiotics and multiple drainages was required to drain the abscess. His blood culture and fluid culture grew Proteus species suggesting a urinary source, likely from his non-functioning kidney, which had a partial nephrectomy. Such a huge retroperitoneal abscess has rarely been described in the literature. The learning point here is that the basic principle of source control and antibiotics is paramount in treating retroperitoneal abscesses regardless of the size of the abscess.

Keywords: retroperitoneal abscess, retroperitoneal mass, sepsis, genitourinary infection

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13 Gallbladder Amyloidosis Causing Gangrenous Cholecystitis: A Case Report

Authors: Christopher Leung, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez

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Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease where abnormal proteins invade various organs and impede their function. Occasionally, they can manifest in a solidary organ such as the heart, lung, and nervous systems; rarely do they manifest in the gallbladder. Diagnosis often requires biopsy of the affected area and histopathology shows deposition of abnormally folded globular proteins called amyloid proteins. This case presents a 69-year-old male with a 3-month history of RUQ pain, diarrhea and non-specific symptoms of tiredness, etc. On imaging, both his US and CT abdomen showed gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, which may represent acute cholecystitis with hypodense lesions around the gallbladder, possibly representing liver abscesses. Given his symptoms of abdominal pain and imaging findings, this gentleman eventually had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy showing a gangrenous gallbladder with a mass on the liver bed. On histopathology, it showed amorphous hyaline eosinophilic material, which Congo-stained confirmed amyloidosis. Amyloidosis explained his non-specific symptoms, he avoided further biopsy, and he was commenced immediately on Lenalidomide. Involvement of the gallbladder is extremely rare, with less than 30 cases around the world. Half of the cases are reported as primary amyloidosis. This case adds to the current literature regarding primary gallbladder amyloidosis. Importantly, this case highlights how laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help with the diagnosis of gallbladder amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder, systemic amyloidosis

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12 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

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Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

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11 A Systematic Review for the Association between Active Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Pui Hong Chung, Wing Chi Ho, Jun Li, Cyrus Leung, Ek Yeoh

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Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with poor tuberculosis (TB) outcomes in terms of progression of active TB, relapse of TB and TB-related mortality, but the association with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is unclear. The systematic review conducted aimed at studying the association between active smoking and LTBI, and likelihood of dose-response relationship. Methods: Two independent reviewers searched three electronic databases comprising PudMed, Medline by EBSCOHOST, ExcerptaMedica Database (EMBASE), from inception up to 31st Dec 2015 for studies reporting data on current smoking and the LTBI with tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) results, comparing the odds ratios (ORs) of outcome measure of TST or IGRAs among current smokers with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Seven studies were identified, including six cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal cohort study. The outcome measures from three studies were in TST, three studies in IGRAs and one for both tests. For TST, OR ranging from 1.39 to 3.40 (95% CI) with all studies shown positive association between cigarette smoking and LTBI. For IGRAs, OR ranging from 0.47 to 1.89 (95% CI) with one study shown the negative association that might be related to impaired interferon-gamma production in immunosuppressive persons. One identified study demonstrated positive dose-response relationship in TST result. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely to be a risk factor of LTBI. There is the important implication for TB and tobacco control program to halt TB by empowering public health policy. Further study is also needed to provide more evidence of the dose-response model/relationship.

Keywords: latent tuberculosis infection, systematic review, active smoking, model

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10 Use of Telephone Counselling in Employee Assistance Program

Authors: Andy S.K. Cheng, Samuel Leung, Cindy Kwok, Hector Tsang

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Background: Telephone counselling is one of the essential interventions that can be found in most of the Employee Assistance Programs (EAP). The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the trend of the telephone counselling from 2003-2016 in Hong Kong; (2) explore which EAP issue requires more follow-up; and 3) examine the relationship between the EAP issues and demographic data such as gender and job ranking. Method: Date of EAP services usage was collected from EAP providers in Hong Kong during 2003-2016. EAP issues were categorized into two domains, namely workplace issues and personal issues. Each domain has 12 sub-categories. Two hypotheses were formulated in this study (1) there was a gender difference in EAP issues and the follow-up hours; and (2) there was a significant difference between job ranking, EAP issues and follow-up hours. Results: A total of eight hundred and ninety-three valid cases were identified for analysis. Of them, three hundred and forty-three cases sought for follow-up. The duration of follow-up by hours was calculated for each of the follow-up cases. The results of the study shows that the top three workplace issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) workload, (2) supervisor-subordinate relationship; and (3) team member’s relationship. On the other hand, the top three personal issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) parenting/parent-child relationship, (2) family care, and (3) marital relationship. Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the total follow-up hours (excluding first intake) between gender and EAP issues. There was no statistical significance for gender (p =.891), but a statistically significant main effect for EAP issues (p <.001) was found. Post-hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) showed that total follow-up hour in personal issues was statistically significant higher than that in handling workplace issues (p <.001). However, there was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and EAP issues (p=.879) and between job ranking and EAP issues (p=.843). Conclusion: Telephone counselling is a very common intervention in addressing EAP issues arising from workplace and personal level in Hong Kong. It was frequently used to handle interpersonal relationships and the service usage was independent of gender and job ranking.

Keywords: employee assistance program, follow-up time, interpersonal relationships, telephone counselling

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9 Teachers' Views on Mother Tongue Language Curriculum Development

Authors: Wai Ha Leung

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Mother tongue language (MTL) curriculum is core to school education in most countries/regions' school curriculum. Through mother tongue language learning, students are expected to enhance their understanding of the nation's culture and foster the sense of cultural and ethnic identity. However, MTL education in Hong Kong is complicated by the colonial history. This study examines Hong Kong Chinese language teachers' perceptions of MTL education, and the implication on MTL curriculum development. The questionnaire was administrated to 97 teachers, and interviews were carried out on 17 teachers. Usually, MTL is both the tool with which knowledge and skills are taught and learned and the vehicle for students to learn about the traditions of the countries' literature and culture. In Hong Kong, 95% of the population is of Chinese descent. Traditionally, education in China was a mixture of philosophy, history, politics and literacy. Chinese as an MTL subject in pre-colonial Hong Kong has always been assigned the mission of developing students' cultural identity in addition to the development of linguistic proficiency. During the colonial period, the Chinese Language curriculum shifted to be more language skills based with less emphasis on Chinese culture and moral education. After the sovereignty of Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, although a new curriculum was implemented in 2002, teaching and learning in school as well as public examinations seem to be remaining language skills oriented instead of culturally based. This deviation from the trend of both Chinese traditional education and global mother tongue language education makes some Chinese language teachers feel confused. In addition, there is comment that in general Hong Kong students' Chinese language proficiency is becoming weaker and weaker in recent years. Thus, effectiveness of the skills oriented language curriculum has come under question. How a language teacher views the aims and objectives of the language subject he or she is teaching has a direct effect on the curriculum delivery and pedagogies used. It is, therefore, important to investigate what is the language teachers' perception of MTL education, and whether the current school curriculum can meet the teachers' expectation as well as achieve the aims of MTL education. Given this context, this study explored the views of Hong Kong Chinese language teachers on MTL education. The data indicate that teachers showed a strong resentment towards the current curriculum. Results may have implications on mother tongue language curriculum development.

Keywords: Chinese language education, curriculum development, mother tongue language education, teachers' perception

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8 Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being: An Experimental Study Using a Mobile App as Intervention

Authors: Beeto W. C. Leung, Nicole C. Y. Lee

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It was well known that college students experienced a high level of stress and anxiety. College athletes, a special group of college students, may even encounter a higher level of pressure and distress due to their dual endeavors in academic and athletic settings. Due to the high demands and costs of mental health services, easily accessible, web-based self-help interventions are getting more popular. The aim of the present experimental study was to examine the potential intervention effect of a mindfulness-based self-help mobile App, called 'Smiling Mind', on mindfulness and psychological well-being. Forty-six college athletes, recruited from athletic teams of two local universities in Hong Kong, were randomly assigned to the Mindfulness App Group (MAG) and the Control Group (CG). All participants were administered the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 before the study (Time 1, T1) and after the 4-week intervention (Time 2, T2). MAG was requested to use the app and follow the instructions every day for at least 5 days per week. Participants were also asked to record their daily app usage time. Results showed that, for MAG, from T1 to T2, mindfulness has been increased from 3.25 to 3.92; depressive symptoms and stress has been significantly decreased from 8.6 to 5.1 and 24.8 to 13.5 respectively while for the CG, mindfulness has been decreased slightly from 3.29 to 3.13; depressive symptoms and stress has been slightly increased from 7.1 to 7.3 and 24.1 to 27.1 respectively. Three mixed-design ANOVAs with time (T1, T2) as the within-subjects factor and intervention group (MAG, CG) as the between-subjects factor revealed a main effect of time on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 10.28, p < 0.01, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 6.55, p < 0.02 and stress, F(1, 41) = 16.96, p < 0.001 respectively. Both predicted interaction between time and intervention group on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 26.6, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.39, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 8.00, p < 0.01, ηp 2 =0.16 and Stress F(1, 41) = 49.3, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.55 were significant meaning that participants using the Mindfulness Mobile App in the intervention did experienced a significant increase in mindfulness and significant decrease in depressive symptoms and perceived level of stress after the 4-week intervention when compared with the control group. The present study provided encouraging empirical support for using Smiling Mind, a self-help mobile app, to promote mindfulness and mental health in a cost-effective way. Further studies should examine the potential use of Smiling Mind in different samples, including children and adolescence, as well as, investigate the lasting effects of using the app on other psychosocial outcomes such as emotional regulations.

Keywords: college athletes, experimental study, mindfulness mobile apps, psychological well-being

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7 Rapid Fetal MRI Using SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR Techniques

Authors: Chen-Chang Lee, Po-Chou Chen, Jo-Chi Jao, Chun-Chung Lui, Leung-Chit Tsang, Lain-Chyr Hwang

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Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a challenge task because the fetal movements could cause motion artifact in MR images. The remedy to overcome this problem is to use fast scanning pulse sequences. The Single-Shot Fast Spin-Echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging technique is routinely performed and often used as a gold standard in clinical examinations. Fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) T1-Weighted Imaging (T1WI) is often used to identify fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Fast Imaging Employing Steady-State Acquisition (FIESTA) is commonly used to identify fetal structures as well as the heart and vessels. The contrast of FIESTA image is related to T1/T2 and is different from that of SSFSE. The advantages and disadvantages of these two scanning sequences for fetal imaging have not been clearly demonstrated yet. This study aimed to compare these three rapid MRI techniques (SSFSE, FIESTA, and FSPGR) for fetal MRI examinations. The image qualities and influencing factors among these three techniques were explored. A 1.5T GE Discovery 450 clinical MR scanner with an eight-channel high-resolution abdominal coil was used in this study. Twenty-five pregnant women were recruited to enroll fetal MRI examination with SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR scanning. Multi-oriented and multi-slice images were acquired. Afterwards, MR images were interpreted and scored by two senior radiologists. The results showed that both SSFSE and T2W-FIESTA can provide good image quality among these three rapid imaging techniques. Vessel signals on FIESTA images are higher than those on SSFSE images. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of FIESTA is lower than that of the others two techniques, but it is prone to cause banding artifacts. FSPGR-T1WI renders lower Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) because it severely suffers from the impact of maternal and fetal movements. The scan times for these three scanning sequences were 25 sec (T2W-SSFSE), 20 sec (FIESTA) and 18 sec (FSPGR). In conclusion, all these three rapid MR scanning sequences can produce high contrast and high spatial resolution images. The scan time can be shortened by incorporating parallel imaging techniques so that the motion artifacts caused by fetal movements can be reduced. Having good understanding of the characteristics of these three rapid MRI techniques is helpful for technologists to obtain reproducible fetal anatomy images with high quality for prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: fetal MRI, FIESTA, FSPGR, motion artifact, SSFSE

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6 A Study of Sexual Violence on Women and Children in Hong Kong

Authors: Wing Hang Shelley Leung

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With the rise of the recent social movement, namely #MeToo, it shows that a lot of women and children in fact suffered from sexual abuse and some even suffered from child abuse, including in Hong Kong. In view of the ongoing social movements, this paper argues that we have to look beyond their impacts and understand the roots of the problem: what if the underlying cause of the recent social movements was the inherited values that were rooted in us since we were young, or the public’s lack of confidence in the legal system when it comes to this type of personal matters? What if the movements reveal the problematic issue of the lack of protection plans, either in the private or public sphere? If the legal system is presumed to not be able to preemptively protect everyone or effectively punish all perpetrators, can other pillars provide supports to fill in the loopholes of the legal system? This paper takes a theoretical approach to look into current sexuality education, the legal system in Hong Kong and the adoption of Asian values in society to argue that difficulties that are being placed onto victims in disclosing sexual violence they had experienced. Reviews of the current system and recent sexual assaults court cases for case studies allow the research to address the issues of victims’ experience including (a) their reactions to incidents; (b) issues they have in trials; (c) psychological impacts of the incidents; and (d) their understandings of gender equality before and after incidents. The study is significant because it criticises the current legal system in Hong Kong and provides insights to the public by explaining the dynamics between the problem, the legal system and the society. Also, it contributes to the ongoing research about the psychological impacts to victims in Hong Kong, especially how they are placed in a disadvantaged position in the legal system and society and even for their recovery. It contributes to the findings of how family structures, parental responsibilities and gender studies influence a child’s perception of gender equality in Hong Kong and hence their immediate reactions to incidents. To fully address the needs of victims, especially our younger generation, as well as to prevent future harm and to raise awareness, an inclusive framework which recognizes the needs of protecting and safeguarding women and children in the private sphere and a proper education for gender equality are needed.

Keywords: child abuse, children's rights, domestic violence, gender equality, Hong Kong, Me too, sexual violence, women's rights

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5 Preparedness for Nurses to Adopt the Implementation of Inpatient Medication Order Entry (IPMOE) System at United Christian Hospital (UCH) in Hong Kong

Authors: Yiu K. C. Jacky, Tang S. K. Eric, W. Y. Tsang, C. Y. Li, C. K. Leung

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Objectives : (1) To enhance the competence of nurses on using IPMOE for drug administration; (2) To ensure the transition on implementation of IPMOE in safer and smooth way hospital-wide. Methodology: (1) Well-structured Governance: To make provision for IPMOE implementation, multidisciplinary governance structure at Corporate and Local levels are well established. (2) Staff Engagement: A series of staff engagement events were conducted including Staff Forum, IPMOE Hospital Visit, Kick-off Ceremony and establishment of IPMOE Webpage for familiarizing the forthcoming implementation with frontline staff. (3) Well-organized training program: from Workshop to Workplace Two different IPMOE training programs were tailor-made which aimed at introducing the core features of administration module. Fifty-five identical training classes and six train-the-trainer workshops were organized at 2-3Q 2015. Lending Scheme on IPMOE hardware for hands-on practicing was launched and further extended the training from workshop to workplace. (4) Standard Guidelines and Workflow: the related workflow and guidelines are developed which facilitates users to acquire the competence towards IPMOE and fully familiarize with the standardized contingency plan. (5) Facilities and Equipment: The installations of IPMOE hardware were promptly arranged for rollout. Besides, IPMOE training venue was well-established for staff training. (6) Risk Management Strategy: UCH Medication Safety Forum is organized in December 2015 for sharing “Tricks & Tips” on IPMOE which further disseminate at webpage for arousal of medication safety. Hospital-wide annual audit on drug administration was planned to figure out the compliance and deliberate the rooms for improvement. Results: Through the comprehensive training plan, over 1,000 UCH nurses attended the training program with positive feedback. They agreed that their competence on using IPMOE was enhanced. By the end of November 2015, 28 wards (over 1,000 Inpatient-bed) involving departments of M&G, SUR, O&T and O&G have been successfully rolled out IPMOE in 5-month. A smooth and safe transition of implementation of IPMOE was achieved. Eventually, we all get prepared for embedding IPMOE into daily nursing and work altogether for medication safety at UCH.

Keywords: drug administration, inpatient medication order entry system, medication safety, nursing informatics

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4 Disability Management and Occupational Health Enhancement Program in Hong Kong Hospital Settings

Authors: K. C. M. Wong, C. P. Y. Cheng, K. Y. Chan, G. S. C. Fung, T. F. O. Lau, K. F. C. Leung, J. P. C. Fok

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Hospital Authority (HA) is the statutory body to manage all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Occupational Care Medicine Service (OMCS) is an in-house multi-disciplinary team responsible for injury management in HA. Hospital administrative services (AS) provides essential support in hospital daily operation to facilitate the provision of quality healthcare services. An occupational health enhancement program in Tai Po Hospital (TPH) domestic service supporting unit (DSSU) was piloted in 2013 with satisfactory outcome, the keys to success were staff engagement and management support. Riding on the success, the program was rolled out to another 5 AS departments of Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital (AHNH) and TPH in 2015. This paper highlights the indispensable components of disability management and occupational health enhancement program in hospital settings. Objectives: 1) Facilitate workplace to support staff with health affecting work problem, 2) Enhance staff’s occupational health. Methodology: Hospital Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) team and AS departments (catering, linen services, and DSSU) of AHNH and TPH worked closely with OMCS. Focus group meetings and worksite visits were conducted with frontline staff engagement. OSH hazards were identified with corresponding OSH improvement measures introduced, e.g., invention of high dusting device to minimize working at height; tailor-made linen cart to minimize back bending at work, etc. Specific MHO trainings were offered to each AS department. A disability management workshop was provided to supervisors in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in return-to-work (RTW) facilitation. Based on injured staff's health condition, OMCS would provide work recommendation, and RTW plan was formulated with engagement of staff and their supervisors. Genuine communication among stakeholders with expectation management paved the way for realistic goals setting and success in our program. Outcome: After implementation of the program, a significant drop of 26% in musculoskeletal disorders related sickness absence day was noted in 2016 as compared to the average of 2013-2015. The improvement was postulated by innovative OSH improvement measures, teamwork, staff engagement and management support. Staff and supervisors’ feedback were very encouraging that 90% respondents rated very satisfactory in program evaluation. This program exemplified good work sharing among departments to support staff in need.

Keywords: disability management, occupational health, return to work, occupational medicine

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3 A Delphi Study to Build Consensus for Tuberculosis Control Guideline to Achieve Who End Tb 2035 Strategy

Authors: Pui Hong Chung, Cyrus Leung, Jun Li, Kin On Kwok, Ek Yeoh

Abstract:

Introduction: Studies for TB control in intermediate tuberculosis burden countries (IBCs) comprise a relatively small proportion in TB control literature, as compared to the effort put in high and low burden counterparts. It currently lacks of consensus in the optimal weapons and strategies we can use to combat TB in IBCs; guidelines of TB control are inadequate and thus posing a great obstacle in eliminating TB in these countries. To fill-in the research and services gap, we need to summarize the findings of the effort in this regard and to seek consensus in terms of policy making for TB control, we have devised a series of scoping and Delphi studies for these purposes. Method: The scoping and Delphi studies are conducted in parallel to feed information for each other. Before the Delphi iterations, we have invited three local experts in TB control in Hong Kong to participate in the pre-assessment round of the Delphi study to comments on the validity, relevance, and clarity of the Delphi questionnaire. Result: Two scoping studies, regarding LTBI control in health care workers in IBCs and TB control in elderly of IBCs respectively, have been conducted. The result of these two studies is used as the foundation for developing the Delphi questionnaire, which tapped on seven areas of question, namely: characteristics of IBCs, adequacy of research and services in LTBI control in IBCs, importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in hospital, screening and treatment of LTBI in community, reasons of refusal to/ default from LTBI treatment, medical adherence of LTBI treatment, and importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in elderly in IBCs. The local experts also commented on the two scoping studies conducted, thus act as the sixth phase of expert consultation in Arksey and O’Malley framework of scoping studies, to either nourish the scope and strategies used in these studies or to supplement ideas for further scoping or systematic review studies. In the subsequent stage, an international expert panel, comprised of 15 to 20 experts from IBCs in Western Pacific Region, will be recruited to join the two-round anonymous Delphi iterations. Four categories of TB control experts, namely clinicians, policy makers, microbiologists/ laboratory personnel, and public health clinicians will be our target groups. A consensus level of 80% is used to determine the achievement of consensus on particular issues. Key messages: 1. Scoping review and Delphi method are useful to identify gaps and then achieve consensus in research. 2. Lots of resources are put in the high burden countries now. However, the usually neglected intermediate-burden countries with TB is an indispensable part for achieving the ambitious WHO End TB 2035 target.

Keywords: dephi questionnaire, tuberculosis, WHO, latent TB infection

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2 Operation System for Aluminium-Air Cell: A Strategy to Harvest the Energy from Secondary Aluminium

Authors: Binbin Chen, Dennis Y. C. Leung

Abstract:

Aluminium (Al) -air cell holds a high volumetric capacity density of 8.05 Ah cm-3, benefit from the trivalence of Al ions. Additional benefits of Al-air cell are low price and environmental friendliness. Furthermore, the Al energy conversion process is characterized of 100% recyclability in theory. Along with a large base of raw material reserve, Al attracts considerable attentions as a promising material to be integrated within the global energy system. However, despite the early successful applications in military services, several problems exist that prevent the Al-air cells from widely civilian use. The most serious issue is the parasitic corrosion of Al when contacts with electrolyte. To overcome this problem, super-pure Al alloyed with various traces of metal elements are used to increase the corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, high-purity Al alloys are costly and require high energy consumption during production process. An alternative approach is to add inexpensive inhibitors directly into the electrolyte. However, such additives would increase the internal ohmic resistance and hamper the cell performance. So far these methods have not provided satisfactory solutions for the problem within Al-air cells. For the operation of alkaline Al-air cell, there are still other minor problems. One of them is the formation of aluminium hydroxide in the electrolyte. This process decreases ionic conductivity of electrolyte. Another one is the carbonation process within the gas diffusion layer of cathode, blocking the porosity of gas diffusion. Both these would hinder the performance of cells. The present work optimizes the above problems by building an Al-air cell operation system, consisting of four components. A top electrolyte tank containing fresh electrolyte is located at a high level, so that it can drive the electrolyte flow by gravity force. A mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell is fabricated with low-cost materials including low grade Al, carbon paper, and PMMA plates. An electrolyte waste tank with elaborate channel is designed to separate the hydrogen generated from the corrosion, which would be collected by gas collection device. In the first section of the research work, we investigated the performance of the mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell with a constant flow rate of electrolyte, to ensure the repeatability experiments. Then the whole system was assembled together and the feasibility of operating was demonstrated. During experiment, pure hydrogen is collected by collection device, which holds potential for various applications. By collecting this by-product, high utilization efficiency of aluminum is achieved. Considering both electricity and hydrogen generated, an overall utilization efficiency of around 90 % or even higher under different working voltages are achieved. Fluidic electrolyte could remove aluminum hydroxide precipitate and solve the electrolyte deterioration problem. This operation system provides a low-cost strategy for harvesting energy from the abundant secondary Al. The system could also be applied into other metal-air cells and is suitable for emergency power supply, power plant and other applications. The low cost feature implies great potential for commercialization. Further optimization, such as scaling up and optimization of fabrication, will help to refine the technology into practical market offerings.

Keywords: aluminium-air cell, high efficiency, hydrogen, mechanical recharge

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1 Reassembling a Fragmented Border Landscape at Crossroads: Indigenous Rights, Rural Sustainability, Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Justice in Hong Kong

Authors: Chiu-Yin Leung

Abstract:

This research investigates a complex assemblage among indigenous identities, socio-political organization and national apparatus in the border landscape of post-colonial Hong Kong. This former British colony had designated a transient mode of governance in its New Territories and particularly the northernmost borderland in 1951-2012. With a discriminated system of land provisions for the indigenous villagers, the place has been inherited with distinctive village-based culture, historic monuments and agrarian practices until its sovereignty return into the People’s Republic of China. In its latest development imperatives by the national strategic planning, the frontier area of Hong Kong has been identified as a strategy site for regional economic integration in South China, with cross-border projects of innovation and technology zones, mega-transport infrastructure and inter-jurisdictional arrangement. Contemporary literature theorizes borders as the material and discursive production of territoriality, which manifest in state apparatus and the daily lives of its citizens and condense in the contested articulations of power, security and citizenship. Drawing on the concept of assemblage, this paper attempts to tract how the border regime and infrastructure in Hong Kong as a city are deeply ingrained in the everyday lived spaces of the local communities but also the changing urban and regional strategies across different longitudinal moments. Through an intensive ethnographic fieldwork among the borderland villages since 2008 and the extensive analysis of colonial archives, new development plans and spatial planning frameworks, the author navigates the genealogy of the border landscape in Ta Kwu Ling frontier area and its implications as the milieu for new state space, covering heterogeneous fields particularly in indigenous rights, heritage preservation, rural sustainability and regional economy. Empirical evidence suggests an apparent bias towards indigenous power and colonial representation in classifying landscape values and conserving historical monuments. Squatter and farm tenants are often deprived of property rights, statutory participation and livelihood option in the planning process. The postcolonial bureaucracies have great difficulties in mobilizing resources to catch up with the swift, political-first approach of the mainland counterparts. Meanwhile, the cultural heritage, lineage network and memory landscape are not protected altogether with any holistic view or collaborative effort across the border. The enactment of land resumption and compensation scheme is furthermore disturbed by lineage-based customary law, technocratic bureaucracy, intra-community conflicts and multi-scalar political mobilization. As many traces of colonial misfortune and tyranny have been whitewashed without proper management, the author argues that postcolonial justice is yet reconciled in this fragmented border landscape. The assemblage of border in mainstream representation has tended to oversimplify local struggles as a collective mist and setup a wider production of schizophrenia experiences in the discussion of further economic integration among Hong Kong and other mainland cities in the Pearl River Delta Region. The research is expected to shed new light on the theorizing of border regions and postcolonialism beyond Eurocentric perspectives. In reassembling the borderland experiences with other arrays in state governance, village organization and indigenous identities, the author also suggests an alternative epistemology in reconciling socio-spatial differences and opening up imaginaries for positive interventions.

Keywords: heritage conservation, indigenous communities, post-colonial borderland, regional development, rural sustainability

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