Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: 1996

118 Absence of Arbitrator Duty of Disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996

Authors: Qusai Alshahwan

Abstract:

The arbitrator’s duties of independence and impartiality play a significant role in delivering arbitral awards which legitimate the fundamental of arbitration concepts. For this reason, the international and national arbitration rules require arbitrators to be independent and impartial to solve the arbitration disputes fairly between the parties. However, solving the disputes fairly also requires arbitrators to disclose any existing conflicts of interest with the parties to avoid misunderstanding and late challenges. In contrary with the international and national arbitration rules, the English Arbitration Act 1996 does not include independence as a separate ground for arbitrator’s removal, and importantly the English Arbitration Act 1996 is deliberately silent to the arbitrator duty of disclosure. The absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure is an issue had generated uncertainty and concerns for the arbitration community under the English jurisdiction, particularly when the English courts rejected the IBA guidelines of arbitrator conflict of interest such as in case of Halliburton v Chubb for example. This article is highlighting on the legal consequences of the absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996 and the arbitrator's contractual obligations.

Keywords: arbitration, impartiality, independence, duty of disclosure, English Arbitration Act 1996

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
117 Times Series Analysis of Depositing in Industrial Design in Brazil between 1996 and 2013

Authors: Jonas Pedro Fabris, Alberth Almeida Amorim Souza, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo

Abstract:

With the law Nº. 9279, of May 14, 1996, the Brazilian government regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property considering the economic development of the country as granting patents, trademark registration, registration of industrial designs and other forms of protection copyright. In this study, we show the application of the methodology of Box and Jenkins in the series of deposits of industrial design at the National Institute of Industrial Property for the period from May 1996 to April 2013. First, a graphical analysis of the data was done by observing the behavior of the data and the autocorrelation function. The best model found, based on the analysis of charts and statistical tests suggested by Box and Jenkins methodology, it was possible to determine the model number for the deposit of industrial design, SARIMA (2,1,0)(2,0,0), with an equal to 9.88% MAPE.

Keywords: ARIMA models, autocorrelation, Box and Jenkins Models, industrial design, MAPE, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
116 The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in the Wetlands of North East of Algeria

Authors: Aicha Beya Mammeria, Idir Bitam

Abstract:

Our study focuses on the distribution of the white stork "Ciconia ciconia L. 1758" in the wetlands of El Tarf (North eastern of Algeria): recognized by its remarkable number of breeding pairs, monitoring of nesting, using a GPS has been performed in an attempt to explain the functioning of populations and population strategies for an overall design of its distribution, which has not so far been investigated in this region. Between 2012 and 2013, the number of breeding pairs has increased considerably from 174 in 1996 to 475 in 2007 and 968 in 2013. It should be noted that in the distribution of breeding pairs between 1996 and 2011, there is a significant development since the density of nests increased from 25.22 in 1996 to 84.16 couples/100 km² in 2013. More endemic bread apears in the region, this fluctuation is related to climatic change and changing season. Changes related to local climatic conditions might induce binding conditions for the development of this species.

Keywords: white stork, Ciconia ciconia, wetland El Tarf, northeast Algeria, climatic changing, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
115 Temporal Trends in the Urban Metabolism of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Naif Albelwi, Alan Kwan, Yacine Rezgui

Abstract:

Cities with rapid growth face tremendous challenges not only to provide services to meet this growth but also to assure that this growth occurs in a sustainable way. The consumption of material, energy, and water resources is inextricably linked to population growth with a unique impact in urban areas, especially in light of significant investments in infrastructure to support urban development. Urban Metabolism (UM) is becoming popular as it provides a framework accounting the mass and energy flows through a city. The objective of this study is to determine the energy and material flows of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using locally generated data from 1996 and 2012 and analyzing the temporal trends of energy and material flows. Preliminary results show that while the population of Riyadh grew 90% since 1996, the input and output flows have increased at higher rate. Results also show increasing in energy mobile consumption from 61k TJ in 1996 to 157k TJ in 2012 which points to Riyadh’s inefficient urban form. The study findings highlight the importance to develop effective policies for improving the use of resources.

Keywords: energy and water consumption, sustainability, urban development, urban metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
114 Focalization Used as a Narrative Strategy Mirroring Fadia Faqir’s Ideology in Pillars of Salt 1996

Authors: Malika Hammouche

Abstract:

The novel Pillars of Salt, written by Fadia Faqir in 1996, is a good example where storytelling is utilized as a traditional material to underline the author’s womanist ideology. A study of narrative could be fruitfully combined with that of ideology in this case. This combination could be demonstrated through the narrative technique used by Fadia Faqir in Pillars of Salt (1996), reflecting her anti-colonial ideology. The first step of this work will highlight the storyteller’s narrative in the novel representing, on the one hand, the imperial voice, and on the other exoticism and orientalism. The second step will demonstrate how Faqir’s narrative technique uses focalization as a narratological tool to negotiate her space. Faqir gives a voice to the female protagonist of the novel within the androcentric bias of Arab narrative theory to point to and amend the orientalist discourse typical to colonial literature. The orientalist discourse is represented through the voice of the storyteller in the novel. The juxtaposition of the storyteller’s and the female protagonist narratives is borrowed from the Arab literary background. It is a postcolonial counter-discursive strategy used by the author as a traditional material to underline her Arabo Islamic Womanist ideology in this novel.

Keywords: Arabo Islamic womanism, focalization, ideology, narrative technique, orientalist

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
113 The Effect of Anti-China Rhetoric on the Japanese General Elections: Cases from 1996 to 2017

Authors: Xiaodong Fang

Abstract:

The notion that anti-China rhetoric increases a candidate’s voter support has a wide range of empirical implications in today's democratic world. To test whether and how anti-China rhetoric works in Japan's electoral system, the build a time series statistical model from 1996 to 2017 on all the anti-China rhetoric by Japan's House of Representatives candidates to examine why the rhetoric is more effective on certain issues during certain periods, and by using certain technologies. The results show that it is more effective to use anti-China rhetoric on the economic issue during the early campaign period and through online platforms to attract voter support. Future research could also apply similar models to the study of campaign rhetoric at different levels of elections in other democracies.

Keywords: anti-china, japan, general election, campaign

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
112 Change Detection Analysis on Support Vector Machine Classifier of Land Use and Land Cover Changes: Case Study on Yangon

Authors: Khin Mar Yee, Mu Mu Than, Kyi Lint, Aye Aye Oo, Chan Mya Hmway, Khin Zar Chi Winn

Abstract:

The dynamic changes of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes in Yangon have generally resulted the improvement of human welfare and economic development since the last twenty years. Making map of LULC is crucially important for the sustainable development of the environment. However, the exactly data on how environmental factors influence the LULC situation at the various scales because the nature of the natural environment is naturally composed of non-homogeneous surface features, so the features in the satellite data also have the mixed pixels. The main objective of this study is to the calculation of accuracy based on change detection of LULC changes by Support Vector Machines (SVMs). For this research work, the main data was satellite images of 1996, 2006 and 2015. Computing change detection statistics use change detection statistics to compile a detailed tabulation of changes between two classification images and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) process was applied with a soft approach at allocation as well as at a testing stage and to higher accuracy. The results of this paper showed that vegetation and cultivated area were decreased (average total 29 % from 1996 to 2015) because of conversion to the replacing over double of the built up area (average total 30 % from 1996 to 2015). The error matrix and confidence limits led to the validation of the result for LULC mapping.

Keywords: land use and land cover change, change detection, image processing, support vector machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
111 Measuring Fragmentation Index of Urban Landscape: A Case Study on Kuala Lumpur City

Authors: Shagufta Tazin Shathy, Mohammad Imam Hasan Reza

Abstract:

Fragmentation due to urbanization and agricultural expansion has become the main reason for destruction of forest area and loss of biodiversity particularly in the developing world. At present, the world is experiencing the largest wave of urban growth in human history, and it is estimated that this influx will be mainly taking place in developing world. Therefore, study on urban fragmentation is vital for a sustainable urban development. Landscape fragmentation is one of the most important conservation issues in the last few decades. Habitat fragmentation due to landscape alteration has caused habitat isolation, destruction in ecosystem pattern and processes. Thus, this research analyses the spatial and temporal extent of urban fragmentation using landscape indices in the Kuala Lumpur (KL) – the capital and most populous city in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to examine the urban fragmentation index in KL city. Fragmentation metrics used in the study are: a) Urban landscape ratio (the ratio of urban landscape area and build up area), b) Infill (development that occurred within urbanized open space), and c) Extension (development of exterior open space). After analyzing all three metrics, these are calculated for the combined urban fragmentation index (UFI). In this combined index, all three metrics are given an equal weight. Land cover/ land use maps of the year 1996 and 2005 have been developed from the Landsat TM 30 m resolution satellite image. The year 1996 is taken as a reference year to analyze the changes. The UFI calculated for the year of 1996 and2005 found that the KL city has undergone rapid landscape changes destructing forest ecosystem adversely. Increasing UFI for the year of 1996 compared to 2005 indicates that the developmental activities have been occupying open spaces and fragmenting natural lands and forest. This index can be implemented in other unplanned and rapidly urbanizing Asian cities for example Dhaka and Delhi to calculate the urban fragmentation rate. The findings from the study will help the stakeholders and urban planners for a sustainable urban management planning in this region.

Keywords: GIS, index, sustainable urban management, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
110 Evaluating the Impact of Expansion on Urban Thermal Surroundings: A Case Study of Lahore Metropolitan City, Pakistan

Authors: Usman Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

Urbanization directly affects the existing infrastructure, landscape modification, environmental contamination, and traffic pollution, especially if there is a lack of urban planning. Recently, the rapid urban sprawl has resulted in less developed green areas and has devastating environmental consequences. This study was aimed to study the past urban expansion rates and measure LST from satellite data. The land use land cover (LULC) maps of years 1996, 2010, 2013, and 2017 were generated using landsat satellite images. Four main classes, i.e., water, urban, bare land, and vegetation, were identified using unsupervised classification with iterative self-organizing data analysis (isodata) technique. The LST from satellite thermal data can be derived from different procedures: atmospheric, radiometric calibrations and surface emissivity corrections, classification of spatial changeability in land-cover. Different methods and formulas were used in the algorithm that successfully retrieves the land surface temperature to help us study the thermal environment of the ground surface. To verify the algorithm, the land surface temperature and the near-air temperature were compared. The results showed that, From 1996-2017, urban areas increased to about a considerable increase of about 48%. Few areas of the city also shown in a reduction in LST from the year 1996-2017 that actually began their transitional phase from rural to urban LULC. The mean temperature of the city increased averagely about 1ºC each year in the month of October. The green and vegetative areas witnessed a decrease in the area while a higher number of pixels increased in urban class.

Keywords: LST, LULC, isodata, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
109 Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Management Policies in Nasarawa State of Nigeria: Lessons from the Roots and Tuber Crops Expansion for Increased Food Production (1996-2011)

Authors: Yahaya Abdullahi Adadu, Canice Erunke Esidene

Abstract:

The problems of socio-economic development have been a major challenge bedeviling the Nigerian post-colonial state since her political independence from Britain in October I,1960. Critics have argued that the dilemma of Nigeria’s economic survival started since the early 1970s when the agricultural sector which supposedly was the economic mainstay has been literally substituted with the gains of the oil petro-dollars coming from the foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture therefore, which used to be a major player in terms of human and national upliftment in Nigeria have been given a back seat while oil and gas has taken over the front burner in virtually every aspect of Nigeria’s national life. This study is therefore an exposition of the efforts of the Nasarawa state government in reversing the dangerous trend in which the over reliance on oil wealth has caused to persons, individuals and groups in terms of the prevailing levels of poverty and other attendant vices therein. The study focuses on the management policies of the various regimes in the state since its inception in 1996, with particular reference to the regime types-military and civilian alike in propelling the needed policy change, which could transform the economy in line with international best practices. Particular emphasis will be paid to the BADA-KOSHI agricultural scheme whose interest was to recover the lost glory of rural agriculture through series of roots and tuber expansion, and particularly such crops as yam minissetts, cassava, sweet potatoes and coco-yam, respectively. The paper covers the period between 1996 -2011, a period considered to be critical in the agricultural revolution of the state. The study adopts a theoretical approach via secondary methods of analysis for the efficient explanations of the burning issues under consideration. The paper sums up with policy recommendations and conclusion.

Keywords: poverty, agriculture, Badakoshi, rural policy management

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
108 Flood Hazard Assessment and Land Cover Dynamics of the Orai Khola Watershed, Bardiya, Nepal

Authors: Loonibha Manandhar, Rajendra Bhandari, Kumud Raj Kafle

Abstract:

Nepal’s Terai region is a part of the Ganges river basin which is one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world, with recurrent monsoon flooding causing millions in damage and the death and displacement of hundreds of people and households every year. The vulnerability of human settlements to natural disasters such as floods is increasing, and mapping changes in land use practices and hydro-geological parameters is essential in developing resilient communities and strong disaster management policies. The objective of this study was to develop a flood hazard zonation map of Orai Khola watershed and map the decadal land use/land cover dynamics of the watershed. The watershed area was delineated using SRTM DEM, and LANDSAT images were classified into five land use classes (forest, grassland, sediment and bare land, settlement area and cropland, and water body) using pixel-based semi-automated supervised maximum likelihood classification. Decadal changes in each class were then quantified using spatial modelling. Flood hazard mapping was performed by assigning weights to factors slope, rainfall distribution, distance from the river and land use/land cover on the basis of their estimated influence in causing flood hazard and performing weighed overlay analysis to identify areas that are highly vulnerable. The forest and grassland coverage increased by 11.53 km² (3.8%) and 1.43 km² (0.47%) from 1996 to 2016. The sediment and bare land areas decreased by 12.45 km² (4.12%) from 1996 to 2016 whereas settlement and cropland areas showed a consistent increase to 14.22 km² (4.7%). Waterbody coverage also increased to 0.3 km² (0.09%) from 1996-2016. 1.27% (3.65 km²) of total watershed area was categorized into very low hazard zone, 20.94% (60.31 km²) area into low hazard zone, 37.59% (108.3 km²) area into moderate hazard zone, 29.25% (84.27 km²) area into high hazard zone and 31 villages which comprised 10.95% (31.55 km²) were categorized into high hazard zone area.

Keywords: flood hazard, land use/land cover, Orai river, supervised maximum likelihood classification, weighed overlay analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
107 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover of Desertification Vulnerable Areas in Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Sabo A. Babanyara, K. G. Ilellah, A. K. Mutari

Abstract:

This study used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and maps compiled from the classification of Landsat TM and Landsat ETM images of 1986 and 1999 respectively and Nigeria sat 1 images of 2007 to quantify changes in land use and land cover in selected areas of Nigeria covering 143,609 hectares that are threatened by the encroaching Sahara desert. The results of this investigation revealed a decrease in natural vegetation over the three time slices (1986, 1999 and 2007) which was characterised by an increase in high positive pixel values from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 and 0.32 in 1999 and 2007 respectively and, a decrease in natural vegetation from 74,411.60ha in 1986 to 28,591.93ha and 21,819.19ha in 1999 and 2007 respectively. The same results also revealed a periodic trend in which there was progressive increase in the cultivated area from 60,191.87ha in 1986 to 104,376.07ha in 1999 and a terminal decrease to 88,868.31ha in 2007. These findings point to expansion of vegetated and cultivated areas in in the initial period between 1988 and 1996 and reversal of these increases in the terminal period between 1988 and 1996. The study also revealed progressive expansion of built-up areas from 1, 681.68ha in 1986 to 2,661.82ha in 1999 and to 3,765.35ha in 2007. These results argue for the urgent need to protect and conserve the depleting natural vegetation by adopting sustainable human resource use practices i.e. intensive farming in order to minimize persistent depletion of natural vegetation.

Keywords: changes, classification, desertification, vegetation changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
106 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni

Abstract:

Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: acute angina, classification of primary care, primary health care, tonsillitis, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
105 India’s Strategy toward Afghanistan since 9\11

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

overall, India had friendly relation with different governments in Afghanistan except for the Taliban regime amongst the years 1996 to 2001. The terrorist attack in the United States provided India a chance to follow its strategy in Afghanistan. India support Afghanistan since 9\11. The objectives of this study to study India’s strategy towards Afghanistan and its implication to neighbor countries. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India has chosen a soft power policy to implement its strategy in Afghanistan.

Keywords: strategy, policy, soft power, Afghanistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
104 The Sustainability of Public Debt in Taiwan

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study examines whether the Taiwan’s public debt is sustainable utilizing an unrestricted two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with an autoregressive unit root. The empirical results show that Taiwan’s public debt appears as a nonlinear series and is stationary in regime 1 but not in regime 2. This result implies that while Taiwan’s public debt was mostly sustainable over the 1996 to 2013 period examined in the study, it may no longer be sustainable in the most recent two years as the public debt ratio has increased cumulatively to 3.618%.

Keywords: nonlinearity, public debt, sustainability, threshold autoregressive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
103 Population Centralization in Urban Area and Metropolitans in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Urban Centralization in Iran

Authors: Safar Ghaedrahmati, Leila Soltani

Abstract:

Population centralization in urban area and metropolitans, especially in developing countries such as Iran increase metropolitan's problems. For few decades, the population of cities in developing countries, including Iran had a higher growth rate than the total growth rate of countries’ population. While in developed countries, the development of the big cities began decades ago and generally allowed for controlled and planned urban expansion, the opposite is the case in developing countries, where rapid urbanization process is characterized by an unplanned existing urban expansion. The developing metropolitan cities have enormous difficulties in coping both with the natural population growth and the urban physical expansion. Iranian cities are usually the heart of economic and cultural changes that have occurred after the Islamic revolution in 1979. These cities are increasingly having impacts via political–economical arrangement and chiefly by urban management structures. Structural features have led to the population growth of cities and urbanization (in number, population and physical frame) and the main problems in them. On the other hand, the lack of birth control policies and the deceptive attractions of cities, particularly big cities, and the birth rate has shot up, something which has occurred mainly in rural regions and small cities. The population of Iran has increased rapidly since 1956. The 1956 and 1966 decennial censuses counted the population of Iran at 18.9 million and 25.7 million, respectively, with a 3.1% annual growth rate during the 1956–1966 period. The 1976 and 1986 decennial censuses counted Iran’s population at 33.7 and 49.4 million, respectively, a 2.7% and 3.9% annual growth rate during the 1966–1976 and 1976–1986 periods. The 1996 count put Iran’s population at 60 million, a 1.96% annual growth rate from 1986–1996 and the 2006 count put Iran population at 72 million. A recent major policy of urban economic and industrial decentralization is a persistent program of the government. The policy has been identified as a result of the massive growth of Tehran in the recent years, up to 9 million by 2010. Part of the growth of the capitally resulted from the lack of economic opportunities elsewhere and in order to redress the developing primacy of Tehran and the domestic pressures which it is undergoing, the policy of decentralization is to be implemented as quickly as possible. Type of research is applied and method of data collection is documentary and methods of analysis are; population analysis with urban system analysis and urban distribution system

Keywords: population centralization, cities of Iran, urban centralization, urban system

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
102 A Statistical Approach to Classification of Agricultural Regions

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

Turkey is a favorable country to produce a great variety of agricultural products because of her different geographic and climatic conditions which have been used to divide the country into four main and seven sub regions. This classification into seven regions traditionally has been used in order to data collection and publication especially related with agricultural production. Afterwards, nine agricultural regions were considered. Recently, the governmental body which is responsible of data collection and dissemination (Turkish Institute of Statistics-TIS) has used 12 classes which include 11 sub regions and Istanbul province. This study aims to evaluate these classification efforts based on the acreage of ten main crops in a ten years time period (1996-2005). The panel data grouped in 11 subregions has been evaluated by cluster and multivariate statistical methods. It was concluded that from the agricultural production point of view, it will be rather meaningful to consider three main and eight sub-agricultural regions throughout the country.

Keywords: agricultural region, factorial analysis, cluster analysis,

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
101 Where the Girls Are: Gender Trends in Juvenile Crime

Authors: Revital Sela-Shayovitz

Abstract:

There is growing evidence that female rates of criminal nonlethal violent offending have increased during the 1990s. However, the debate regarding whether the gender gap in violence is closing is ongoing. This paper examines the trends in juvenile violent offending in Israel between the years 1996 and 2012. The findings indicate that female-to-male offending rate ratios have increased over time for simple assaults, aggravated assault, and knife crime. Moreover, the closing of the gender gap among youth (ages 12 to 14 years), principally results from the increase in female rates of offending, which is greater than the rise in male rates of offending. These findings are discussed in the context of existing research on the gender gap in the perpetration of violence with reference to future directions in research.

Keywords: gender violence, youth violence, crime rates, juvenile delinquency, crime policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
100 Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence for Ten Asian Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and “Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in “Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve their predictions of the future economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, frequency domain, governance, granger causality

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
99 Classification of Construction Projects

Authors: M. Safa, A. Sabet, S. MacGillivray, M. Davidson, K. Kaczmarczyk, C. T. Haas, G. E. Gibson, D. Rayside

Abstract:

To address construction project requirements and specifications, scholars and practitioners need to establish a taxonomy according to a scheme that best fits their need. While existing characterization methods are continuously being improved, new ones are devised to cover project properties which have not been previously addressed. One such method, the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI), has received limited consideration strictly as a classification scheme. Developed by the Construction Industry Institute (CII) in 1996, the PDRI has been refined over the last two decades as a method for evaluating a project's scope definition completeness during front-end planning (FEP). The main contribution of this study is a review of practical project classification methods, and a discussion of how PDRI can be used to classify projects based on their readiness in the FEP phase. The proposed model has been applied to 59 construction projects in Ontario, and the results are discussed.

Keywords: project classification, project definition rating index (PDRI), risk, project goals alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
98 Rounding Technique's Application in Schnorr Signature Algorithm: Known Partially Most Significant Bits of Nonce

Authors: Wenjie Qin, Kewei Lv

Abstract:

In 1996, Boneh and Venkatesan proposed the Hidden Number Problem (HNP) and proved the most significant bits (MSB) of computational Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme and related schemes are unpredictable bits. They also gave a method which is a lattice rounding technique to solve HNP in non-uniform model. In this paper, we put forward a new concept that is Schnorr-MSB-HNP. We also reduce the problem of solving Schnorr signature private key with a few consecutive most significant bits of random nonce (used at each signature generation) to Schnorr-MSB-HNP, then we use the rounding technique to solve the Schnorr-MSB-HNP. We have come to the conclusion that if there is a ‘miraculous box’ which inputs the random nonce and outputs 2loglogq (q is a prime number) most significant bits of nonce, the signature private key will be obtained by choosing 2logq signature messages randomly. Thus we get an attack on the Schnorr signature private key.

Keywords: rounding technique, most significant bits, Schnorr signature algorithm, nonce, Schnorr-MSB-HNP

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
97 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

Abstract:

Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
96 Good Governance Complementary to Corruption Abatement: A Cross-Country Analysis

Authors: Kamal Ray, Tapati Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative definition of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. We attempted to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI) and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank like Control of Corruption (CC), rule of law (RL), regulatory quality (RQ) and government effectiveness (GE). Our empirical investigation concentrates upon the degree of reflection of governance indicators upon the CPI in order to single out the most powerful corruption-generating indicator in the selected countries. We have collected time series data on above governance indicators such as CC, RL, RQ and GE of the selected eleven countries from the year of 1996 to 2012 from World Bank data set. The countries are USA, UK, France, Germany, Greece, China, India, Japan, Thailand, Brazil, and South Africa. Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of the countries mentioned above for the period of 1996 to 2012is also collected. Graphical method of simple line diagram against the time series data on CPI is applied for quick view for the relative positions of different trend lines of different nations. The correlation coefficient is enough to assess primarily the degree and direction of association between the variables as we get the numerical data on governance indicators of the selected countries. The tool of Granger Causality Test (1969) is taken into account for investigating causal relationships between the variables, cause and effect to speak of. We do not need to verify stationary test as length of time series is short. Linear regression is taken as a tool for quantification of a change in explained variables due to change in explanatory variable in respect of governance vis a vis corruption. A bilateral positive causal link between CPI and CC is noticed in UK, index-value of CC increases by 1.59 units as CPI increases by one unit and CPI rises by 0.39 units as CC rises by one unit, and hence it has a multiplier effect so far as reduction in corruption is concerned in UK. GE causes strongly to the reduction of corruption in UK. In France, RQ is observed to be a most powerful indicator in reducing corruption whereas it is second most powerful indicator after GE in reducing of corruption in Japan. Governance-indicator like GE plays an important role to push down the corruption in Japan. In China and India, GE is proactive as well as influencing indicator to curb corruption. The inverse relationship between RL and CPI in Thailand indicates that ongoing machineries related to RL is not complementary to the reduction of corruption. The state machineries of CC in S. Africa are highly relevant to reduce the volume of corruption. In Greece, the variations of CPI positively influence the variations of CC and the indicator like GE is effective in controlling corruption as reflected by CPI. All the governance-indicators selected so far have failed to arrest their state level corruptions in USA, Germany and Brazil.

Keywords: corruption perception index, governance indicators, granger causality test, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
95 Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Perry

Abstract:

In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a "world class system of inclusive education". As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider’s voice as well as a professional in the system.

Keywords: disability studies, inclusive education, special education, working with families with children with disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
94 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
93 Saudi Arabia's Perspective over Worldwide Governance Indicators

Authors: Sultan S. Alsajjan

Abstract:

Understanding the public governance in Middle East's countries is one of the challenging matters for any researcher. The Middle East, for the last century, has been in fluctuated situations. Understating the public governance in Saudi Arabia is an extra challenge because Saudi Arabia has its unique culture and political system. The World Bank had launched 1996 Worldwide Governance Indicators. These indicators assist any country to rank its position in public governance how it is performing in this field. Saudi Arabia had ranked in some worldwide governance indicators at the bottom of indicators' list. For instance, according to the Worldwide Governance indicator (2018), Saudi Arabia had ranked in 192 out of 204 countries in 'Voice and Accountability Indicator'. In this paper, the reader will find in-depth analysis and evaluation of Saudi Arabia's positions in Worldwide Governance Indicators. Saudi Arabia had never considered the concept of public governance and worldwide governance indicators because of its economic situation, political characteristics, and social nature.

Keywords: pubic governance, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, and worldwide governance indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
92 Corporate Governance and Initial Public Offerings: Case of Croatia

Authors: Domagoj Hruska, Drazen Milkovic, Maja Darabos

Abstract:

This paper empirically investigates the performance of Croatian initial public offerings (IPOs) throughout 20 years period, from 1996 until 2016. By proving the comprehensive evaluation of reasons and consequences of IPO initiatives in Croatia we give analytic evidence on the influence of this corporate action on the development of corporate governance. Furthermore, the paper discusses the relationship between internal and external corporate governance mechanisms in companies that initialize entering the financial markets. The paper will provide a synthesis of evidence of IPO-s in Croatia based on in-depth case studies of 13 cases of IPO-s. The major findings of the paper include identification of reasons for conducting IPO-s and calculation of underpricing effect and change of market capitalization. To the best of the author's knowledge, the results of the paper provide the analytical framework for understanding the impact of IPOs on the corporate governance system in transition countries.

Keywords: corporate governance, Croatia, initial public offering, transition economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
91 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
90 Scientometrics Analysis of Food Supply Chain Risk Assessment Literature: Based On Web of Science Record 1996-2014

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Shadi Asadzandi, Micaela Demichela

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study to assess crucial aspects and the strength of the scientific basis of a typically interdisciplinary, applied field: food supply chain risk assessment research. Our approach is based on an advanced scientometrics analysis with novel elements to assess the influence and dissemination of research results and to measure interdisciplinary. This paper aims to describe the quantity and quality of the publication trends in food supply chain risk assessment. The population under study was composed of 266 articles from database web of science. The results were analyzed based on date of publication, type of document, language of the documents, source of publications, subject areas, authors and their affiliations, and the countries involved in developing the articles.

Keywords: food supply chain, risk assessment, scientometrics, web of science

Procedia PDF Downloads 280