Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1005

Search results for: 2012

1005 Levels and Trends of Under-Five Mortality in South Africa from 1998 to 2012

Authors: T. Motsima, K. Zuma, E Rapoo

Abstract:

Childhood mortality is a key sign of the coverage of child survival interventions, social and economic progressions. Although the level of under-five mortality has been declining, it is still unacceptably high. The primary aim of this paper is to establish and analyse the levels and trends of under-five mortality for the periods 1998, 2003 and 2012 in South Africa. Methods: The data used for analysis came from the 1998 SADHS, the 2003 SADHS and the 2012 SABSSM which collected information on the survival status of children. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survival function method was used to determine the probabilities of failure (death) from birth up to 59 months. Results and Conclusion: The overall U5MR declined by 28.2% from 53.1 in 1998 to 38.1 in 2012. The U5MR of male children declined from 59.2 in 1998 to 46.2 in 2003 and dropped further to 41.4 in 2012. The U5MR of children of mothers aged 40 years and older increased from 64.0 in 1998 to 89.0 in 2003 and rose further to 129.9 in 2012. The U5MR of children of mothers with education level of 12 years or more increased from 32.2 in 1998 to 35.2 in 2003 and declined substantially to 17.5 in 2012.

Keywords: demographic and health survey, Kaplan-Meier, levels and trends, under-five mortality

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1004 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

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The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1003 Iraqi Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah, Huda M. Abdul Abbas

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Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is essential for a variety of decision making processes. However, forecasting accuracy can drop due to the presence of uncertainty in the operation of energy systems or unexpected behavior of exogenous variables. Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2 FLS), with additional degrees of freedom, gives an excellent tool for handling uncertainties and it improved the prediction accuracy. The training data used in this study covers the period from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2012 for winter season and the period from July 1, 2012 to August 1, 2012 for summer season. The actual load forecasting period starts from January 22, till 28, 2012 for winter model and from July 22 till 28, 2012 for summer model. The real data for Iraqi power system which belongs to the Ministry of Electricity.

Keywords: short term load forecasting, prediction interval, type 2 fuzzy logic systems, electric, computer systems engineering

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1002 Reproduction Characteristics of Saanen Goats Raised under Intensive Conditions in Konya Province

Authors: Vahdettin Sariyel, Birol Dag

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In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of several environmental factors on adaptation and some yield parameters of Saanen goats reared under intensive conditions at a private farm in Konya province. Gestation rate, twins rate and litter size were evaluated as reproductive traits. Gestation rate was determined as 93.8% and 90.5% for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Twins rate was determined as 59.35 % and 70.00 % for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Litter size was 1.49 and 1.46 for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Survival rates of kids from birth to weaning at three months of age were found as 87.74 % and 98.54 % for 2011 and 2012 years respectively.

Keywords: gestation rate, reproduction, saanen, twins rate, vitality

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1001 3D-Vehicle Associated Research Fields for Smart City via Semantic Search Approach

Authors: Haluk Eren, Mucahit Karaduman

Abstract:

This paper presents 15-year trends for scientific studies in a scientific database considering 3D and vehicle words. Two words are selected to find their associated publications in IEEE scholar database. Both of keywords are entered individually for the years 2002, 2012, and 2016 on the database to identify the preferred subjects of researchers in same years. We have classified closer research fields after searching and listing. Three years (2002, 2012, and 2016) have been investigated to figure out progress in specified time intervals. The first one is assumed as the initial progress in between 2002-2012, and the second one is in 2012-2016 that is fast development duration. We have found very interesting and beneficial results to understand the scholars’ research field preferences for a decade. This information will be highly desirable in smart city-based research purposes consisting of 3D and vehicle-related issues.

Keywords: Vehicle, three-dimensional, smart city, scholarly search, semantic

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1000 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Haider Karar, Saghir Ahmad, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: red cotton bug, cotton, weather factors, years

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999 The Effect of Sowing Time on Phytopathogenic Characteristics and Yield of Sunflower Hybrids

Authors: Adrienn Novák

Abstract:

The field research was carried out at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen in Eastern-Hungary, on the area of the aeolain loess of the Hajdúság. We examined the effects of the sowing time on the phytopathogenic characteristics and yield production by applying various fertilizer treatments on two different sunflower genotypes (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We applied three different sowing times (early, optimal, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control = no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection). During our investigations, the studied cropyears were of different sowing time optimum in terms of yield amount (2012: early, 2013: average). By Pearson’s correlation analysis, we have found that delaying the sowing time pronouncedly decreased the extent of infection in both crop years (Diaporthe: r=0.663**, r=0.681**, Sclerotinia: r=0.465**, r=0.622**). The fungicide treatment not only decreased the extent of infection, but had yield increasing effect too (2012: r=0.498**, 2013: r=0.603**). In 2012, delaying of the sowing time increased (r=0.600**), but in 2013, it decreased (r= 0.356*) the yield amount.

Keywords: fungicide treatment, genotypes, sowing time, yield, sunflower

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998 Prime Ministers of Malaysia Musicals: Political Performances Trend in Istana Budaya (2007-2012)

Authors: Abdul Walid Ali

Abstract:

The trend of publishing political musicals in Istana Budaya has been popular since 2007 when Malaysia celebrated its 50th anniversary of independence. Istana Budaya has at least one musical of any politician since then. Normally, the politicians are former Prime Ministers and renowned ministers prior to Malaysia's independence in 1957. The first performance in Istana Budaya which represented a politician as a theme was Muzikal Cheng Lock (2007) followed by Muzikal Tun Abdul Razak (2009), Muzikal Tun Mahathir (2010), and Muzikal Tun Mahathir 2 (2011). In 2012, Lawak Ke Der has changed the trend with comic performance and put an end to politician musical. Tun Siti Hasmah the Musical (2012) is not listed in the research because she did not hold any position as a minister. This qualitative research focuses on musicals of political figures as a theme. Some factors of making this type of performance are analyzed based on Istana Budaya’s decisions during that time in Malaysia between 2007 and 2011. This research aims to document these musical themed performances in Istana Budaya for further research in the future. Political performances are listed and analyzed from 2007 to 2012 based on reports and previous research. The declination of audiences in 2012 and a new theme in theatre performances in Istana Budaya are important factors for the downfall of the political theatres' theme.

Keywords: musical, politician, Istana Budaya, theatre

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997 Causes and Effects of the 2012 Flood Disaster on Affected Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulquadri Ade Bilau, Richard Ajayi Jimoh, Adejoh Amodu Adaji

Abstract:

The increasing exposures to natural hazards have continued to severely impair on the built environment causing huge fatalities, mass damage and destruction of housing and civil infrastructure while leaving psychosocial impacts on affected communities. The 2012 flood disaster in Nigeria which affected over 7 million inhabitants in 30 of the 36 states resulted in 363 recorded fatalities with about 600,000 houses and a number of civil infrastructure damaged or destroyed. In Kogi State, over 500 thousand people were displaced in 9 out of the 21 local government affected while Ibaji and Lokoja local governments were worst hit. This study identifies the causes and 2012 flood disasters and its effect on housing and livelihood. Personal observation and questionnaire survey were instruments used in carrying out the study and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tool. Findings show that the 2012 flood disaster was aided by the gap in hydrological data, sudden dam failure, and inadequate drainage capacity to reduce flood risk. The study recommends that communities residing along the river banks in Lokoja and Ibaji LGAs must be adequately educated on their exposure to flood hazard and mitigation and risk reduction measures such as construction of adequate drainage channel are constructed in affected communities.

Keywords: flood, hazards, housing, risk reduction, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
996 Development of Market Penetration for High Energy Efficiency Technologies in Alberta’s Residential Sector

Authors: Saeidreza Radpour, Md. Alam Mondal, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Market penetration of high energy efficiency technologies has key impacts on energy consumption and GHG mitigation. Also, it will be useful to manage the policies formulated by public or private organizations to achieve energy or environmental targets. Energy intensity in residential sector of Alberta was 148.8 GJ per household in 2012 which is 39% more than the average of Canada 106.6 GJ, it was the highest amount among the provinces on per household energy consumption. Energy intensity by appliances of Alberta was 15.3 GJ per household in 2012 which is 14% higher than average value of other provinces and territories in energy demand intensity by appliances in Canada. In this research, a framework has been developed to analyze the market penetration and market share of high energy efficiency technologies in residential sector. The overall methodology was based on development of data-intensive models’ estimation of the market penetration of the appliances in the residential sector over a time period. The developed models were a function of a number of macroeconomic and technical parameters. Developed mathematical equations were developed based on twenty-two years of historical data (1990-2011). The models were analyzed through a series of statistical tests. The market shares of high efficiency appliances were estimated based on the related variables such as capital and operating costs, discount rate, appliance’s life time, annual interest rate, incentives and maximum achievable efficiency in the period of 2015 to 2050. Results show that the market penetration of refrigerators is higher than that of other appliances. The stocks of refrigerators per household are anticipated to increase from 1.28 in 2012 to 1.314 and 1.328 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. Modelling results show that the market penetration rate of stand-alone freezers will decrease between 2012 and 2050. Freezer stock per household will decline from 0.634 in 2012 to 0.556 and 0.515 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The stock of dishwashers per household is expected to increase from 0.761 in 2012 to 0.865 and 0.960 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The increase in the market penetration rate of clothes washers and clothes dryers is nearly parallel. The stock of clothes washers and clothes dryers per household is expected to rise from 0.893 and 0.979 in 2012 to 0.960 and 1.0 in 2050, respectively. This proposed presentation will include detailed discussion on the modelling methodology and results.

Keywords: appliances efficiency improvement, energy star, market penetration, residential sector

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995 X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th of September 2012

Authors: Mirabbos Mirkamalov, Zavkiddin Mirtoshev

Abstract:

The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.

Keywords: magnetic reconnection, solar atmosphere, solar flare, X-ray emission

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994 Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province

Authors: Zhankun Wang, Timothy Makubuya

Abstract:

The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.

Keywords: DEA model, public sports service, efficiency, Tobit model, Malmquist productivity index, Zhejiang

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993 An Overview of Georgia’s Economic Growth Since 2012: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities for Future Development

Authors: V. Benidze

Abstract:

After the Rose Revolution of 2003, Georgia has achieved an unparalleled socioeconomic success. However, economic growth since 2012 has been sluggish and certainly not enough to rapidly improve the county’s standard of living that still remains substantially low compared to that in developed nations. Recent poor economic performance has shown that some key challenges need to be addressed if Georgia is to achieve high future economic growth that will decrease the poverty rate and create a middle class in the country. This paper offers in detail analysis of the economic performance of Georgia since 2012 and identifies key challenges facing the country’s economy. The main challenge going forward will be transforming Georgia from a consumption-driven to a production-oriented economy. It is identified that mobilizing domestic investment through savings, attracting foreign investment in tradable sectors and expanding the country’s export base will be crucial in the facilitation of the above-mentioned structural transformation. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests a strategy for accelerating Georgia’ future economic growth and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: challenges, development, economic growth, economic policy, Georgia

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992 Investigation of Success Rate and Growth Parameters of Five Pistachio Cultivars Transplanted in March and November

Authors: H. Mohammadi Aliabadi, M. S. Mansouri

Abstract:

The effect of two different transplanting date (March and November) in five pistachio cultivars ('Ahmad Aghaei', 'Akbri', Momtaz', 'Ghazvini', and 'Ohadi') were evaluated in Rafsanjan Azad University, Iran. Seeds were planted in plastic bags in March 2012. The seedlings were transplanted to a field in November 2012 and March 2013. Vegetative growing factors such as plant length, stem diameter, number of leaves and fresh and dry weight were measured in date. The results obtained from collected data indicated that no significant differences were found for the traits of interest. Therefore, growers should not be concerned regarding these two transplanting dates.

Keywords: pistachio, seedling, success rate, transplanting date

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991 Effects of Different Organic Manures on the Antioxidant Activity, Vitamin C and Nitrate Concentrations of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica)

Authors: Sahriye Sonmez, Sedat Citak

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different organic manures on antioxidant activity, vitamin C and nitrate concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants. For this purpose, broccoli plants were grown on open field conditions in 2 successive years (2011-2013) including 4 different seasons [(Spring 1 (March-June, 2011), Autumn 1 (September 2011-January 2012), Spring 2 (March-June, 2012), Autumn 2 (September 2012-January 2013)]. Organic manures (Farm manure (FM), vermicompost (VC) and leonardite (L) and its mixture (50 % FM+50% L, 50 % VC+50% FM, 50% L+50% VC and 33% FM+33% VC+33% L), one chemical fertilizer and one control, collectively 9 applications was investigated. The results indicated that the vitamin C concentrations of broccoli plants ranged from 31.4-55.8 mg/100 g, 43-631 mg/kg in nitrate concentrations and 11.0-56.7 mg/ml as IC50 inhibition values in antioxidant activities of broccoli plants. Also, it was determined that the effective applications were at the 50 % VC+50% FM for vitamin C concentrations, at the chemical fertilizer for nitrate concentrations and at the 100 % FM for antioxidant activities.

Keywords: broccoli, chemical fertilizer, farm manure, leonardite, vermicompost

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990 Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Thiago Luiz Mello Melato

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The construction industry has been demonstrating increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV, PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under consideration.

Keywords: accounting ratios, construction, financial performance, Brazil

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989 Outbreak of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cojutepeque Military Brigade, El Salvador, July 2013

Authors: Juan Santos Garcia

Abstract:

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by a microorganism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has the capacity to spread from the lungs to other parts of the body. Globally, the rate per 100 thousand inhabitants has varied from 136 in 2007 to 122 in 2012; while in the region of the Americas has been much lower: 32 cases per 100,000 in 2007, to 29 in 2012. In El Salvador have also varied incidence rates from 2007 to 2012, from 27.4 cases per 100 000 population to 32 in the period indicated. Methods: Screening was performed with smear and chest X-ray at 80 military personnel from Military Brigade # 5 of El Salvador. Besides HIV tests were taken at the positive cases, which are also made interview, investigating demographic, clinical, laboratory and risk factors data. Frequencies, percentages and rates were calculated using Excel page. The rates were calculated for each of the 5 military bedrooms (called A, B, C, D, and E). Results: Attack rate was 18.75% in the bedroom C. the index case was identified and two secondary cases, with an exposure period of 59 days. Only the index case presented symptoms: cough, fever and weight loss. The other two cases had no symptoms. Discussion: We found a rate of tuberculosis 526 times higher than the national rate. He was also 12.5 times higher than that found in other studies in closed populations such as school facilities. It was not possible to make association analysis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, outbreak, military brigade, chronic granulomatous disease

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988 Descriptive Analysis of the Database of Poliomyelitis Surveillance System in Mauritania from 2012-2019

Authors: B. Baba Ahmed, P. Yanogo, B. Djibryl. N. Medas

Abstract:

Introduction: Polio is a highly contagious viral infection, with children under 5 years of age being the most affected. It is a public health emergency of international concern. Polio surveillance in Mauritania has been ongoing since 1998 and has achieved "polio free" status in 2007. our objective is to analyse a pidemiological surveillance database of poliomyélitis in Mauritania from 2012-2019. Method: A transversal descriptive analysis of poliomyélitis database was carried out in Mauritania from 2012-2019.An exhaustive sampling was done on all suspected polio cases recorded in the database from 2012 -2019. This study used EPI-INFO 7.4 for frequency calculation for qualitative variables, mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables. Results: We found 459 suspected cases of polio over the study period with an average rate of acute non-polio flaccid paralysis of 25.4 cases/100,000 children under 15 years of age. The age group 0-6 years represented 75.2%. Males constituted 50.2%. Females represented 49.78% with a ratio of M/F=1.Among the 422 observations, the average age is 4 years +/- 3.38. The four regions, TIRIS-ZEMMOUR, INCHIRI, TAGANT, NOUACHCHOTT OUEST recorded the lowest percentages of notifications, respectively (3.28%; 3.93%; 4.37%; 4.8%). 99.34% [98.09-99.78] of cases presented acute flaccid paralysis. And 56.77% [52.19-61.23], had limb asymmetry. We showed that 82.93% [79.21-86.10], had fever. we found that 89.5% of suspected polio cases were investigated before 48 hours. And 88.39% of suspected cases had two adequate samples taken 48 hours apart and within 14 days after the onset of symptoms. Only 30.95% of samples arrived at the referral laboratory before 72 hours. Conclusion: This study has shown that Mauritania has achieved the objectives in most of the quantitative performance indicators of polio surveillance. This study has shown a low notification of cases in the northern and central regions of the country. There is a problem with the transport of samples to the laboratory.

Keywords: analysis, data base, Epi-Info, polio

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987 Attention-Aware Group-Wise Correlation-Interlaced Stereo Network

Authors: Darshan Iyer

Abstract:

We propose an end-to-end deep learning-based stereo network for disparity estimation called attention-aware group-wise correlation-interlaced network. Our contributions include an improved attention-aware feature extraction network, cost volume based on a combination of groupwise correlation and interlaced features, and a light residual dense network for disparity refinement. We performed extensive comparative analysis using SceneFlow, KITTI 2012, and KITTI 2015 datasets, and found significant improvement of up to 9.3% in end-point-error (EPE) with respect to state-of-the-art with values of 0.682 on SceneFlow, 0.561 on KITTI 2015, and 0.477 on KITTI 2012.

Keywords: attention mechanism, convolution neural networks, deep learning, stereo disparity estimation

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986 Quality of Age Reporting from Tanzania 2012 Census Results: An Assessment Using Whipple’s Index, Myer’s Blended Index, and Age-Sex Accuracy Index

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, Hamisi F. Hamisi

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Background: Many socio-economic and demographic data are age-sex attributed. However, a variety of irregularities and misstatement are noted with respect to age-related data and less to sex data because of its biological differences between the genders. Noting the misstatement/misreporting of age data regardless of its significance importance in demographics and epidemiological studies, this study aims at assessing the quality of 2012 Tanzania Population and Housing Census Results. Methods: Data for the analysis are downloaded from Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Age heaping and digit preference were measured using summary indices viz., Whipple’s index, Myers’ blended index, and Age-Sex Accuracy index. Results: The recorded Whipple’s index for both sexes was 154.43; male has the lowest index of about 152.65 while female has the highest index of about 156.07. For Myers’ blended index, the preferences were at digits ‘0’ and ‘5’ while avoidance were at digits ‘1’ and ‘3’ for both sexes. Finally, Age-sex index stood at 59.8 where sex ratio score was 5.82 and age ratio scores were 20.89 and 21.4 for males and female respectively. Conclusion: The evaluation of the 2012 PHC data using the demographic techniques has qualified the data inaccurate as the results of systematic heaping and digit preferences/avoidances. Thus, innovative methods in data collection along with measuring and minimizing errors using statistical techniques should be used to ensure accuracy of age data.

Keywords: age heaping, digit preference/avoidance, summary indices, Whipple’s index, Myer’s index, age-sex accuracy index

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985 Rabies Surveillance Data Analysis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during 2012/13: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fantu Lombamo Untiso, Sylvia Murphy, Emily Pieracci

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Background: Rabies is a highly fatal viral disease of all warm-blooded animals including human globally. However, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened. Objective: Reviewing of recorded data and analyzing it to generate information on the status of rabies in Addis Ababa in the year 2012/13. Methods: A retrospective data were used from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute rabies case record book registered in the year 2012/13. Results: Among 1357 suspected rabid animals clinically examined; only 8.84% were positive for rabies. Out of 216 animal brains investigated in the laboratory with Fluorescent Antibody Technique, 55.5% were confirmed rabies positive. Among the laboratory confirmed positive rabies cases, high percentage of the animals came from Yeka (20%) and lower number from Kirkos subcity (3.3%). Out of 1149 humans who came to the institute seeking anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, 85.65% and 7.87% of them were exposed to suspected dogs and cats respectively. 3 human deaths due to rabies were reported in the year after exposure to dog bite of unknown vaccination status. Conclusion: The principal vector of rabies in Addis Ababa is dog. Effective rabies management and control based on confirmed cases and mass-immunization and control of stray dog populations is recommended.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, exposure, rabies, surveillance

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984 Governance Commitment and Time Differences in Aspects of Sustainability Reporting in Nigerian Banks

Authors: Nwobu Obiamaka, Owolabi Akintola

Abstract:

This study examined the extent of statistical significant difference between the economic, environmental, governance and social aspects of sustainability reporting as a result of board committee on sustainability and time (year) of reporting for business organizations in the Nigerian banking sector. The years of reporting under consideration were 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Content analysis methodology was employed through a reporting index used to score the amount of economic, environmental, governance and social indicators of sustainability reporting. The results of this study indicated that business organizations with board committee on sustainability had more indicators of sustainability reporting than those without board committees on sustainability issues. Also, sustainability reporting in 2013 was higher than that of prior years (2012, 2011 and 2010) for the economic, environmental and social indicators. The governance indicators of 2012 was highest compared to the other years (2013, 2011 and 2010) under consideration in this study. The implication of this finding is that business organizations that have board committees on sustainability are monitored by such boards to report more to their stakeholders. On the other hand, business organizations are appreciating the need to engage in sustainability reporting with each passing year. This could be due to the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Sustainability Reporting framework that business organizations in the banking sector have to adhere to. When sustainability issues are monitored from the board of directors, business organizations are likely to increase and improve on their sustainability reporting.

Keywords: governance, organizations, reporting, sustainability

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983 The Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Tehran Stock Exchange Index during Economic and Oil Sanctions between January 2006 and December 2012

Authors: Hamed Movahedizadeh, Annuar Md Nassir, Mehdi Karimimalayer, Navid Samimi Sedeh, Ehsan Bagherpour

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to evaluate Tehran’s Stock Exchange (TSE) performance regarding with impact of four macroeconomic factors including world crude Oil Price (OP), World Gold Price (GP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and total Supplied Oil by Iran (SO) from January 2006 to December 2012 that Iran faced with economic and oil sanctions. Iran's exports of crude oil and lease condensate reduced to roughly 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012, compared to 2.5 million bbl/d in 2011 due to hard sanctions. Monthly data are collected and subjected to a battery of tests through ordinary least square by EViews7. This study found that gold price and oil price are positively correlated with stock returns while total oil supplied and consumer price index have negative relationship with stock index, however, consumer price index tends to become insignificant in stock index. While gold price and consumer price index have short run relationship with TSE index at 10% of significance level this amount for oil price is significant at 5% and there is no significant short run relationship between supplied oil and Tehran stock returns. Moreover, this study found that all macroeconomic factors have long-run relationship with Tehran Stock Exchange Index.

Keywords: consumer price index, gold price, macroeconomic, oil price, sanction, stock market, supplied oil

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982 Transparency of Audit Firms in Croatia

Authors: Marko Čular

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The aim of this paper is to raise general awareness of transparency importance for audit firms and for audit services’ users. This paper analyses transparency of audit firms that audited financial statements of listed companies, for year 2011 and 2012. We use this two years because in the meantime Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants has been adopted. This paper investigates whether transparency reports of audit firms are in accordance with the Croatian Audit Act and whether there is a difference on transparency in observed years. For this paper, quality index of transparency report and financial indicators of audit firms are used to get conclusion about condition of audit firms transparency reporting. Results of our study indicate that audit firms are not fully transparent, looking for both years. Transparency of audit firms in 2012 has improved significantly, compared with transparency in 2011.

Keywords: transparency report, index quality of transparency report, Croatian audit act, code of ethics for professional accountants

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981 Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013

Authors: Wesam Mohamed Abdel Khalek Ibrahim

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This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, political discourse, news discourse, Egyptian political situation

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980 From Text to Data: Sentiment Analysis of Presidential Election Political Forums

Authors: Sergio V Davalos, Alison L. Watkins

Abstract:

User generated content (UGC) such as website post has data associated with it: time of the post, gender, location, type of device, and number of words. The text entered in user generated content (UGC) can provide a valuable dimension for analysis. In this research, each user post is treated as a collection of terms (words). In addition to the number of words per post, the frequency of each term is determined by post and by the sum of occurrences in all posts. This research focuses on one specific aspect of UGC: sentiment. Sentiment analysis (SA) was applied to the content (user posts) of two sets of political forums related to the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016. Sentiment analysis results in deriving data from the text. This enables the subsequent application of data analytic methods. The SASA (SAIL/SAI Sentiment Analyzer) model was used for sentiment analysis. The application of SASA resulted with a sentiment score for each post. Based on the sentiment scores for the posts there are significant differences between the content and sentiment of the two sets for the 2012 and 2016 presidential election forums. In the 2012 forums, 38% of the forums started with positive sentiment and 16% with negative sentiment. In the 2016 forums, 29% started with positive sentiment and 15% with negative sentiment. There also were changes in sentiment over time. For both elections as the election got closer, the cumulative sentiment score became negative. The candidate who won each election was in the more posts than the losing candidates. In the case of Trump, there were more negative posts than Clinton’s highest number of posts which were positive. KNIME topic modeling was used to derive topics from the posts. There were also changes in topics and keyword emphasis over time. Initially, the political parties were the most referenced and as the election got closer the emphasis changed to the candidates. The performance of the SASA method proved to predict sentiment better than four other methods in Sentibench. The research resulted in deriving sentiment data from text. In combination with other data, the sentiment data provided insight and discovery about user sentiment in the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, text mining, user generated content, US presidential elections

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979 Exploring the Dynamics in the EU-Association of Southeast Asia Nations Interregional Relationship, 2012-2017

Authors: Xuechen Chen

Abstract:

The EU-ASEAN relations which can be dated back to 1972 represents one of the oldest group-to-group relationship in international politics. Despite a longstanding dialogue partnership, the EU and ASEAN have long been reluctant to forge deeper and substantial cooperation in political and security domains. However, the year of 2012 witnessed a salient shift in EU-ASEAN relations, with the EU significantly elevating ASEAN's profile in its external relations. Given the limited scholarly attention that has been devoted to this change in ASEAN-EU relations, this article explores why there has been a greater level of engagement and approximation between the EU and ASEAN. In particular, it asks why the EU, which had long been reluctant to recognize ASEAN as a strategic partner, has changed its policy towards ASEAN. Drawing on social constructivism, this article argues that the EU’s and ASEAN’s evolving identity-formation processes have played a significant role in reshaping their mutual perceptions, which subsequently leads to the modification of the interregional policies of both actors. The methodology of this study is based on content analysis of a wide range of official documents and policy papers from the EU and ASEAN, as well as more than 20 in-depth elite interviews with diplomats and experts working on the EU-ASEAN relationship from both organisations. Departing from the existing works which mainly adopt a Eurocentric perspective when analysing the EU-ASEAN interregionalism, this study suggests that the approximation of the EU-ASEAN relationship between 2012 and 2017 is driven by both actors’ adjustment of international identities, together with the internal dynamics and systematic changes within both regions.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asia Nations, European Union, EU foreign policy, interregionalism

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978 Fish Catch Composition from Gobind Sagar Reservoir during 2006-2012

Authors: Krishan Lal, Anish Dua

Abstract:

Gobind Sagar Reservoir has been created in Himachal Pradesh, India (31° 25´ N and 76 ° 25´E) by damming River Sutlej at village Bhakra in 1963. The average water spread area of this reservoir is 10,000 hectares. Fishermen have organized themselves in the form of co-operative societies. 26 fisheries co-operative societies were working in Gobind Sagar Reservoir up till 2012. June and July months were observed as closed season, no fishing was done during this period. Proper record maintaining of fish catch was done at different levels by the state fisheries department. Different measures like minimum harvestable size, mesh size regulation and prohibition of illegal fishing etc. were taken for fish conservation. Fishermen were actively involved in the management. Gill nets were used for catching fishes from this reservoir. State fisheries department is realizing 15% royalty of the sold fish. Data used in this paper is about the fish catch during 2006-2012 and were obtained from the state fisheries department, Himachal Pradesh. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Sperata seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Tor putitora, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Ctenopharyngodon idella etc., were the fish species exploited for commercial purposes. Total number of individuals of all species caught was 3141236 weighing 5637108.9 kg during 2006-2012. H. molitrix was introduced accidently in this reservoir and was making a good share of fish catch in this reservoir. The annual catch of this species was varying between 161279.6 kg, caught in 2011 and 788030.8 kg caught in 2009. Total numbers of individuals of C. idella caught were 8966 weighing 64320.2 kg. The catch of Cyprinus carpio was varying between 144826.1 kg caught in 2006 and 214480.1 kg caught in 2010. Total catch of Tor putitora was 180263.2 kg during 2006-2012. Total catch of L. dero, S. seenghala and Catla catla remained 100637.4 kg, 75297.8 kg and 561802.9 kg, respectively, during 2006-2012. Maximum fish catch was observed during the months of August (after observing Closed Season). Maximum catch of exotic carps was from Bhakra area of the reservoir which has fewer fluctuations in water levels. The reservoir has been divided into eight beats for administrative purpose, to avoid conflicts between operating fisheries co-operative societies for area of operation. Fish catch was more by co-operative societies operating in the area of reservoir having fewer fluctuations in water level and catch was less by co-operative societies operating in the area of more fluctuations in water level. Species-wise fish catch by different co-operative societies from their allotted area was studied. This reservoir is one of most scientifically managed reservoirs.

Keywords: co-operative societies, fish catch, fish species, reservoir

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977 Application of Forensic Entomology to Estimate the Post Mortem Interval

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa

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Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the post mortem interval or PMI. Three days after the death, insect evidence is often the most accurate and sometimes the only method of determining elapsed time since death. This work presents the estimation of the PMI in an experiment to test the reliability of the accumulated degree days (ADD) method and the application of this method in a real case. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, Algeria. The domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. was selected as the animal model. On 08th July 2012, the animal was killed. Larvae were collected and raised to adulthood. Estimation of oviposition time was calculated by summing up average daily temperatures minus minimum development temperature (also specific to each species). When the sum is reached, it corresponds to the oviposition day. Weather data were obtained from the nearest meteorological station. After rearing was accomplished, three species emerged: Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya albiceps, and Sarcophaga africa. For Chrysomya albiceps species, a cumulation of 186°C is necessary. The emergence of adults occured on 22nd July 2012. A value of 193.4°C is reached on 9th August 2012. Lucilia sericata species require a cumulation of 207°C. The emergence of adults occurred on 23rd, July 2012. A value of 211.35°C is reached on 9th August 2012. We should also consider that oviposition may occur more than 12 hours after death. Thus, the obtained PMI is in agreement with the actual time of death. We illustrate the use of this method during the investigation of a case of a decaying human body found on 03rd March 2015 in Bechar, South West of Algerian desert. Maggots were collected and sent to the Laboratory of Entomology. Lucilia sericata adults were identified on 24th March 2015 after emergence. A sum of 211.6°C was reached on 1st March 2015 which corresponds to the estimated day of oviposition. Therefore, the estimated date of death is 1st March 2015 ± 24 hours. The estimated PMI by accumulated degree days (ADD) method seems to be very precise. Entomological evidence should always be used in homicide investigations when the time of death cannot be determined by other methods.

Keywords: forensic entomology, accumulated degree days, postmortem interval, diptera, Algeria

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976 Analysis of the Evolution of Social and Economic Indicators of the Mercosur´s Members: 1980-2012

Authors: L. Aparecida Bastos, J. Leige Lopes, J. Crepaldi, R. Monteiro da Silva

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The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of some social and economic indicators of Mercosur´s economies from 1980 to 2012, based on the statistics of the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). The objective is to observe if after the accession of these economies to Mercosur (the first accessions occurred in 1994) these indicators showed better performance, in order to demonstrate if economic integration contributed to improved trade, macroeconomic performance, and level of social and economic development of member countries. To this end, the methodologies used will be a literature review and descriptive statistics. The theoretical framework that guides the work are the theories of Integration: Classical Liberal, Marxist and structural-proactive. The results reveal that most social and economic indicators showed better performance in those economies that joined Mercosur after 1994. This work is the result of an investigation already completed.

Keywords: economic integration, Mercosur, social indicators, economic indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 173