Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: pp.1544–1548. [2] Xia

2 The Influence of Torquato Tasso's Poetry on Monteverdi's Madrigals

Authors: Christian Giddings

Abstract:

Using rhetorical analysis, this paper analyzes thirteen madrigalian settings of Torquato Tasso's (1544-1595) poetry by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) published between 1587 (Book One) and 1619 (Book Seven). Such analysis suggests that the composer consistently responded to the expressivity and increased formal freedom typical of Tasso's poetry by making greater use of musico-rhetorical figures, as described by the German theorist Joachim Burmeister (1564-1629) in his treatise Musica poetica (1606). The use of rhetorical analysis when examining the influence of the poet Tasso on Monteverdi can illustrate the influence of literary components on music. One cannot overestimate the importance of these texts and their influence on composers of the day. The evidence presented in this paper strongly suggests that exposure to the poems of Torquato Tasso early in his career encouraged Claudio Monteverdi to increasingly adopt a more rhetorical approach in his madrigal compositions.

Keywords: Claudio Monteverdi, musico-rhetorical analysis, renaissance, torquato tasso

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1 An Empirical Analysis of Farmers Field Schools and Effect on Tomato Productivity in District Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Mahmood Iqbal, Khalid Nawab, Tachibana Satoshi

Abstract:

Farmer Field School (FFS) is constantly aims to assist farmers to determine and learn about field ecology and integrated crop management. The study was conducted to examine the change in productivity of tomato crop in the study area; to determine increase in per acre yield of the crop, and find out reduction in per acre input cost. A study of tomato crop was conducted in ten villages namely Jabban, Bijligar Colony, Palonow, Heroshah, Zara Maira, Deghar Ghar, Sidra Jour, Anar Thangi, Miangano Korona and Wartair of district Malakand. From each village 15 respondents were selected randomly on the basis of identical allocation making sample size of 150 respondents. The research was based on primary as well as secondary data. Primary data was collected from farmers while secondary data were taken from Agriculture Extension Department Dargai, District Malakand. Interview schedule was planned and each farmer was interviewed personally. The study was based on comparison of cost, yield and income of tomato before and after FFS. Paired t-test and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analysis; outcome of the study show that integrated pest management project has brought a positive change in the attitude of farmers of the project area through FFS approach. In district Malakand 66.0% of the respondents were between the age group of 31-50 years, 11.3% of respondents had primary level of education, 12.7% of middle level, 28.7% metric level, 3.3% of intermediate level and 2.0% of graduate level of education while 42.0% of respondents were illiterate and have no education. Average land holding size of farmers was 6.47 acres, cost of seed, crop protection from insect pest and crop protection from diseases was reduced by Rs. 210.67, Rs. 2584.43 and Rs. 3044.16 respectively, the cost of fertilizers and cost of farm yard manure was increased by Rs.1548.87 and Rs. 1151.40 respectively while tomato yield was increased by 1585.03 kg/acre from 7663.87 to 9248.90 kg/acre. The role of FFS initiate by integrated pest management project through department of agriculture extension for the development of agriculture was worth mentioning. It has brought enhancement in crop yield of tomato and their income through FFS approach. On the basis of results of the research studies, integrated pest management project should spread their developmental activities for maximum participation of the complete rural masses through participatory FFS approach.

Keywords: agriculture, Farmers field schools, extension education, tomato

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