Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8101

Search results for: deterministic finite state automata

8101 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar


In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence or pattern recognition/ classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: hybrid systems, hidden markov models, recurrent neural networks, deterministic finite state automata

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8100 The Different Ways to Describe Regular Languages by Using Finite Automata and the Changing Algorithm Implementation

Authors: Abdulmajid Mukhtar Afat


This paper aims at introducing finite automata theory, the different ways to describe regular languages and create a program to implement the subset construction algorithms to convert nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) to deterministic finite automata (DFA). This program is written in c++ programming language. The program reads FA 5tuples from text file and then classifies it into either DFA or NFA. For DFA, the program will read the string w and decide whether it is acceptable or not. If accepted, the program will save the tracking path and point it out. On the other hand, when the automation is NFA, the program will change the Automation to DFA so that it is easy to track and it can decide whether the w exists in the regular language or not.

Keywords: finite automata, subset construction, DFA, NFA

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8099 Using ε Value in Describe Regular Languages by Using Finite Automata, Operation on Languages and the Changing Algorithm Implementation

Authors: Abdulmajid Mukhtar Afat


This paper aims at introducing nondeterministic finite automata with ε value which is used to perform some operations on languages. a program is created to implement the algorithm that converts nondeterministic finite automata with ε value (ε-NFA) to deterministic finite automata (DFA).The program is written in c++ programming language. The program inputs are FA 5-tuples from text file and then classifies it into either DFA/NFA or ε -NFA. For DFA, the program will get the string w and decide whether it is accepted or rejected. The tracking path for an accepted string is saved by the program. In case of NFA or ε-NFA automation, the program changes the automation to DFA to enable tracking and to decide if the string w exists in the regular language or not.

Keywords: DFA, NFA, ε-NFA, eclose, finite automata, operations on languages

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8098 Classification of Sequential Sports Using Automata Theory

Authors: Aniket Alam, Sravya Gurram


This paper proposes a categorization of sport that is based on the system of rules that a sport must adhere to. We focus on these systems of rules to examine how a winner is produced in different sports. The rules of a sport dictate the game play and the direction it takes. We propose to break down the game play into events. At this junction, we observe two kinds of events that constitute the game play of a sport –ones that follow sequential logic and ones that do not. Our focus is pertained to sports that are comprised of sequential events. To examine these events further, to understand how a winner emerges, we take the help of finite-state automaton from the theory of computation (Automata theory). We showcase how sequential sports are eligible to be represented as finite state machines. We depict these finite state machines as state diagrams. We examine these state diagrams to observe how a team/player reaches the final states of the sport, with a special focus on one final state –the final state which determines the winner. This exercise has been carried out for the following sports: Hurdles, Track, Shot Put, Long Jump, Bowling, Badminton, Pacman and Weightlifting (Snatch). Based on our observations of how this final state of winning is achieved, we propose a categorization of sports.

Keywords: sport classification, sport modelling, ontology, automata theory

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8097 Glushkov's Construction for Functional Subsequential Transducers

Authors: Aleksander Mendoza


Glushkov's construction has many interesting properties, and they become even more evident when applied to transducers. This article strives to show the vast range of possible extensions and optimisations for this algorithm. Special flavour of regular expressions is introduced, which can be efficiently converted to e-free functional subsequential weighted finite state transducers. Produced automata are very compact, as they contain only one state for each symbol (from input alphabet) of original expression and only one transition for each range of symbols, no matter how large. Such compactified ranges of transitions allow for efficient binary search lookup during automaton evaluation. All the methods and algorithms presented here were used to implement open-source compiler of regular expressions for multitape transducers.

Keywords: weighted automata, transducers, Glushkov, follow automata, regular expressions

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8096 2D Hexagonal Cellular Automata: The Complexity of Forms

Authors: Vural Erdogan


We created two-dimensional hexagonal cellular automata to obtain complexity by using simple rules same as Conway’s game of life. Considering the game of life rules, Wolfram's works about life-like structures and John von Neumann's self-replication, self-maintenance, self-reproduction problems, we developed 2-states and 3-states hexagonal growing algorithms that reach large populations through random initial states. Unlike the game of life, we used six neighbourhoods cellular automata instead of eight or four neighbourhoods. First simulations explained that whether we are able to obtain sort of oscillators, blinkers, and gliders. Inspired by Wolfram's 1D cellular automata complexity and life-like structures, we simulated 2D synchronous, discrete, deterministic cellular automata to reach life-like forms with 2-states cells. The life-like formations and the oscillators have been explained how they contribute to initiating self-maintenance together with self-reproduction and self-replication. After comparing simulation results, we decided to develop the algorithm for another step. Appending a new state to the same algorithm, which we used for reaching life-like structures, led us to experiment new branching and fractal forms. All these studies tried to demonstrate that complex life forms might come from uncomplicated rules.

Keywords: hexagonal cellular automata, self-replication, self-reproduction, self- maintenance

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8095 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: fractional integral, cellular automata, memory, learning

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8094 Improving Taint Analysis of Android Applications Using Finite State Machines

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott


We present a taint analysis that can automatically detect when string operations result in a string that is free of taints, where all the tainted patterns have been removed. This is an improvement on the conservative behavior of previous taint analyzers, where a string operation on a tainted string always leads to a tainted string unless the operation is manually marked as a sanitizer. The taint analysis is built on top of a string analysis that uses finite state automata to approximate the sets of values that string variables can take during the execution of a program. The proposed approach has been implemented as an extension of FlowDroid and experimental results show that the resulting taint analyzer is much more precise than the original FlowDroid.

Keywords: android, static analysis, string analysis, taint analysis

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8093 Design and Development of Morphological Analyzer for Tigrigna Nouns Using Finite State Transducer Techniques

Authors: Gebremeskel Hagos Gebremedhin, Feng Chong, Huang Heyan


A morphological analyzer is an important component of most natural language processing tasks. It is the process of returning one or more surface forms from a sequence of underlying (lexical) forms, can provide fine-grained parts of speech information, and help resolve necessary syntactic agreements. It is used to analyze surface word forms, which are the ones that are found in everyday communication, is the segmentation of words into their component morphemes and the assignment of grammatical morphemes to grammatical categories and lexical morphemes to lexemes. In addition, morphological analysis systems are used as components in many applications, including machine translation, spell-checker, speech recognition, lexicon compilation, POS tagging, conversational systems, automatic sentence construction, and many others. Morphological analyzers have been developed for many local/European languages like English and Amharic. However, there is no such system for Tigrigna. This study develops a rule-based morphological analyzer for Tigrigna nouns. A rule-based morphological analyzer is designed and developed based on the Finite State Transducer Techniques. The FOMA tool is employed for the experiment analysis. The performance of the system is 82.85%. The result obtained encourages the undertaking of further research in the area, especially with the aim of developing a full-fledged Tigrigna morphological analyzer.

Keywords: morphology, Tigrigna, finite state transducer, finite state automata, FOMA

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8092 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj


Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: routing, ant colony algorithm, NDFA, IoT

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8091 Automatic Approach for Estimating the Protection Elements of Electric Power Plants

Authors: Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-Suod, Ushkarenko O. Alexander, Dorogan I. Olga


New algorithms using microprocessor systems have been proposed for protection the diesel-generator unit in autonomous power systems. The software structure is designed to enhance the control automata of the system, in which every protection module of diesel-generator encapsulates the finite state machine.

Keywords: diesel-generator unit, protection, state diagram, control system, algorithm, software components

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8090 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification

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8089 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi


A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

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8088 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model

Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen


The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.

Keywords: cost, finite state, Markov model, operation and maintenance

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8087 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott


We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis

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8086 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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8085 Cellular Automata Modelling of Titanium Alloy

Authors: Jyoti Jha, Asim Tewari, Sushil Mishra


The alpha-beta Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is the most common alloy in the aerospace industry. The hot workability of Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated by means of hot compression tests carried out in the 750–950 °C temperature range and 0.001–10s-1 strain rate range. Stress-strain plot obtained from the Gleeble 3800 test results show the dynamic recrystallization at temperature 950 °C. The effect of microstructural characteristics of the deformed specimens have been studied and correlated with the test temperature, total strain and strain rate. Finite element analysis in DEFORM 2D has been carried out to see the effect of flow stress parameters in different zones of deformed sample. Dynamic recrystallization simulation based on Cellular automata has been done in DEFORM 2D to simulate the effect of hardening and recovery during DRX. Simulated results well predict the grain growth and DRX in the deformed sample.

Keywords: compression test, Cellular automata, DEFORM , DRX

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8084 A Graph SEIR Cellular Automata Based Model to Study the Spreading of a Transmittable Disease

Authors: Natasha Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri


Cellular Automata are discrete dynamical systems which are based on local character and spatial disparateness of the spreading process. These factors are generally neglected by traditional models based on differential equations for epidemic spread. The aim of this work is to introduce an SEIR model based on cellular automata on graphs to imitate epidemic spreading. Distinctively, it is an SEIR-type model where the population is divided into susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered individuals. The results obtained from simulations are in accordance with the spreading behavior of a real time epidemics.

Keywords: cellular automata, epidemic spread, graph, susceptible

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8083 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: rough sets, rough neural networks, cellular automata, image processing

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8082 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev


Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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8081 Application of the MOOD Technique to the Steady-State Euler Equations

Authors: Gaspar J. Machado, Stéphane Clain, Raphael Loubère


The goal of the present work is to numerically study steady-state nonlinear hyperbolic equations in the context of the finite volume framework. We will consider the unidimensional Burgers' equation as the reference case for the scalar situation and the unidimensional Euler equations for the vectorial situation. We consider two approaches to solve the nonlinear equations: a time marching algorithm and a direct steady-state approach. We first develop the necessary and sufficient conditions to obtain the existence and unicity of the solution. We treat regular examples and solutions with a steady shock and to provide very-high-order finite volume approximations we implement a method based on the MOOD technology (Multi-dimensional Optimal Order Detection). The main ingredient consists in using an 'a posteriori' limiting strategy to eliminate non physical oscillations deriving from the Gibbs phenomenon while keeping a high accuracy for the smooth part.

Keywords: Euler equations, finite volume, MOOD, steady-state

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8080 Drying Modeling of Banana Using Cellular Automata

Authors: M. Fathi, Z. Farhaninejad, M. Shahedi, M. Sadeghi


Drying is one of the oldest preservation methods for food and agriculture products. Appropriate control of operation can be obtained by modeling. Limitation of continues models for complex boundary condition and non-regular geometries leading to appearance of discrete novel methods such as cellular automata, which provides a platform for obtaining fast predictions by rule-based mathematics. In this research a one D dimensional CA was used for simulating thin layer drying of banana. Banana slices were dried with a convectional air dryer and experimental data were recorded for validating of final model. The model was programmed by MATLAB, run for 70000 iterations and von-Neumann neighborhood. The validation results showed a good accordance between experimental and predicted data (R=0.99). Cellular automata are capable to reproduce the expected pattern of drying and have a powerful potential for solving physical problems with reasonable accuracy and low calculating resources.

Keywords: banana, cellular automata, drying, modeling

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8079 Solving SPDEs by Least Squares Method

Authors: Hassan Manouzi


We present in this paper a useful strategy to solve stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) involving stochastic coefficients. Using the Wick-product of higher order and the Wiener-Itˆo chaos expansion, the SPDEs is reformulated as a large system of deterministic partial differential equations. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. To obtain the chaos coefficients in the corresponding deterministic equations, we use a least square formulation. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.

Keywords: least squares, wick product, SPDEs, finite element, wiener chaos expansion, gradient method

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8078 Characterization of Optical Communication Channels as Non-Deterministic Model

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford


Increasingly telecommunications sectors are adopting optical technologies, due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects, telecommunication

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8077 The Impact of Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis on the Incidence: The Case of Algeria

Authors: Schehrazad Selmane


We present a deterministic model which describes the dynamics of tuberculosis in Algerian population where the vaccination program with BCG is in place since 1969 and where the WHO recommendations regarding the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) strategy are in application. The impact of an intervention program, targeting recently infected people among all close contacts of active cases and their treatment to prevent endogenous reactivation, on the incidence of tuberculosis, is investigated. We showed that a widespread treatment of latently infected individuals for some years is recommended to shift from higher to lower equilibrium state and thereafter relaxation is recommended.

Keywords: deterministic model, reproduction number, stability, tuberculosis

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8076 Analysis of Cardiac Health Using Chaotic Theory

Authors: Chandra Mukherjee


The prevalent knowledge of the biological systems is based on the standard scientific perception of natural equilibrium, determination and predictability. Recently, a rethinking of concepts was presented and a new scientific perspective emerged that involves complexity theory with deterministic chaos theory, nonlinear dynamics and theory of fractals. The unpredictability of the chaotic processes probably would change our understanding of diseases and their management. The mathematical definition of chaos is defined by deterministic behavior with irregular patterns that obey mathematical equations which are critically dependent on initial conditions. The chaos theory is the branch of sciences with an interest in nonlinear dynamics, fractals, bifurcations, periodic oscillations and complexity. Recently, the biomedical interest for this scientific field made these mathematical concepts available to medical researchers and practitioners. Any biological network system is considered to have a nominal state, which is recognized as a homeostatic state. In reality, the different physiological systems are not under normal conditions in a stable state of homeostatic balance, but they are in a dynamically stable state with a chaotic behavior and complexity. Biological systems like heart rhythm and brain electrical activity are dynamical systems that can be classified as chaotic systems with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In biological systems, the state of a disease is characterized by a loss of the complexity and chaotic behavior, and by the presence of pathological periodicity and regulatory behavior. The failure or the collapse of nonlinear dynamics is an indication of disease rather than a characteristic of health.

Keywords: HRV, HRVI, LF, HF, DII

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8075 Multilevel Gray Scale Image Encryption through 2D Cellular Automata

Authors: Rupali Bhardwaj


Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data; the data are converted into some other gibberish form, and then the encrypted data are transmitted. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide two levels of security through a two-step process, rather than transmitted the message bits directly, first encrypted it using 2D cellular automata and then scrambled with Arnold Cat Map transformation; it provides an additional layer of protection and reduces the chance of the transmitted message being detected. A comparative analysis on effectiveness of scrambling technique is provided by scrambling degree measurement parameters i.e. Gray Difference Degree (GDD) and Correlation Coefficient.

Keywords: scrambling, cellular automata, Arnold cat map, game of life, gray difference degree, correlation coefficient

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8074 Finite State Markov Chain Model of Pollutants from Service Stations

Authors: Amina Boukelkoul, Rahil Boukelkoul, Leila Maachia


The cumulative vapors emitted from the service stations may represent a hazard to the environment and the population. Besides fuel spill and their penetration into deep soil layers are the main contributors to soil and ground-water contamination in the vicinity of the petrol stations. The amount of the effluents from the service stations depends on strategy of maintenance and the policy adopted by the management to reduce the pollution. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of managing the effluents from the service stations which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating a probabilistic percentage of the amount of emitted pollutants is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the amount according to various options of operation.

Keywords: environment, markov modeling, pollution, service station

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8073 The Use of Random Set Method in Reliability Analysis of Deep Excavations

Authors: Arefeh Arabaninezhad, Ali Fakher


Since the deterministic analysis methods fail to take system uncertainties into account, probabilistic and non-probabilistic methods are suggested. Geotechnical analyses are used to determine the stress and deformation caused by construction; accordingly, many input variables which depend on ground behavior are required for geotechnical analyses. The Random Set approach is an applicable reliability analysis method when comprehensive sources of information are not available. Using Random Set method, with relatively small number of simulations compared to fully probabilistic methods, smooth extremes on system responses are obtained. Therefore random set approach has been proposed for reliability analysis in geotechnical problems. In the present study, the application of random set method in reliability analysis of deep excavations is investigated through three deep excavation projects which were monitored during the excavating process. A finite element code is utilized for numerical modeling. Two expected ranges, from different sources of information, are established for each input variable, and a specific probability assignment is defined for each range. To determine the most influential input variables and subsequently reducing the number of required finite element calculations, sensitivity analysis is carried out. Input data for finite element model are obtained by combining the upper and lower bounds of the input variables. The relevant probability share of each finite element calculation is determined considering the probability assigned to input variables present in these combinations. Horizontal displacement of the top point of excavation is considered as the main response of the system. The result of reliability analysis for each intended deep excavation is presented by constructing the Belief and Plausibility distribution function (i.e. lower and upper bounds) of system response obtained from deterministic finite element calculations. To evaluate the quality of input variables as well as applied reliability analysis method, the range of displacements extracted from models has been compared to the in situ measurements and good agreement is observed. The comparison also showed that Random Set Finite Element Method applies to estimate the horizontal displacement of the top point of deep excavation. Finally, the probability of failure or unsatisfactory performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the threshold displacement with reliability analysis results.

Keywords: deep excavation, random set finite element method, reliability analysis, uncertainty

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8072 Reconsidering Taylor’s Law with Chaotic Population Dynamical Systems

Authors: Yuzuru Mitsui, Takashi Ikegami


The exponents of Taylor’s law in deterministic chaotic systems are computed, and their meanings are intensively discussed. Taylor’s law is the scaling relationship between the mean and variance (in both space and time) of population abundance, and this law is known to hold in a variety of ecological time series. The exponents found in the temporal Taylor’s law are different from those of the spatial Taylor’s law. The temporal Taylor’s law is calculated on the time series from the same locations (or the same initial states) of different temporal phases. However, with the spatial Taylor’s law, the mean and variance are calculated from the same temporal phase sampled from different places. Most previous studies were done with stochastic models, but we computed the temporal and spatial Taylor’s law in deterministic systems. The temporal Taylor’s law evaluated using the same initial state, and the spatial Taylor’s law was evaluated using the ensemble average and variance. There were two main discoveries from this work. First, it is often stated that deterministic systems tend to have the value two for Taylor’s exponent. However, most of the calculated exponents here were not two. Second, we investigated the relationships between chaotic features measured by the Lyapunov exponent, the correlation dimension, and other indexes with Taylor’s exponents. No strong correlations were found; however, there is some relationship in the same model, but with different parameter values, and we will discuss the meaning of those results at the end of this paper.

Keywords: chaos, density effect, population dynamics, Taylor’s law

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