Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1356

Search results for: biomass combustion

1356 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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1355 Research Facility Assessment for Biomass Combustion in Moving Grate Furnaces

Authors: Francesco Gallucci, Mariangela Salerno, Ettore Guerriero, Manfredi Amalfi, Giancarlo Chiatti, Fulvio Palmieri


The paper deals with the experimental activities on a biomass combustion test-bed. More in detail, experimental campaigns have been devoted to investigate the operation of a biomass moving grate furnace. A research-oriented facility based on a moving grate furnace (350kW) has been set up in order to perform experimental activities in a wide range of test configurations. The paper reports the description of the complete biomass-plant and the assessment of the system operation. As the first step, the chemical and physical properties of the used wooden biomass have been preliminarily investigated. Once the biomass fuel has been characterized, investigations have been devoted to point out the operation of the furnace. It has been operated at full load, highlighting the influence of biomass combustion parameters on particulate matter and gaseous emission.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, experimental, pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1354 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna


There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1353 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando


Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, fluidized bed

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1352 A Review on Benzo(a)pyrene Emission Factors from Biomass Combustion

Authors: Franziska Klauser, Manuel Schwabl, Alexander Weissinger, Christoph Schmidl, Walter Haslinger, Anne Kasper-Giebl


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is the most widely investigated representative of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as one of the most toxic compounds in this group. Since 2013 in the European Union a limit value for BaP concentration in the ambient air is applied, which was set to a yearly average value of 1 ng m-3. Several reports show that in some regions, even where industry and traffic are of minor impact this threshold is regularly exceeded. This is taken as proof that biomass combustion for heating purposes contributes significantly to BaP pollution. Several investigations have been already carried out on the BaP emission behavior of biomass combustion furnaces, mostly focusing on a certain aspect like the influences from wood type, of operation type or of technology type. However, a superior view on emission patterns of BaP from biomass combustion and the aggregation of determined values also from recent studies is not presented so far. The combination of determined values allows a better understanding of the BaP emission behavior from biomass combustion. In this work the review conclusions are driven from the combination of outcomes from different publication. In two examples it was shown that technical progress leads to 10 to 100 fold lower BaP emission from modern furnaces compared to old technologies of equivalent type. It was also indicated that the operation with pellets or wood chips exhibits clearly lower BaP emission factors compared to operation with log wood. Although, the BaP emission level from automatic furnaces is strongly impacted by the kind of operation. This work delivers an overview on BaP emission factors from different biomass combustion appliances, from different operation modes and from the combustion of different fuel and wood types. The main impact factors are depicted, and suggestions for low BaP emission biomass combustion are derived. As one result possible investigation fields concerning BaP emissions from biomass combustion that seem to be most important to be clarified are suggested.

Keywords: benzo(a)pyrene, biomass, combustion, emission, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1351 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics

Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, R. Valdmanis, A. Kolmickovs


Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3 % and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10 % increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10 %

Keywords: biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasification

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1350 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian


Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

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1349 Combustion Characteristics of Wet Woody Biomass in a Grate Furnace: Including Measurements within the Bed

Authors: Narges Razmjoo, Hamid Sefidari, Michael Strand


Biomass combustion is a growing technique for heat and power production due to the increasing stringent regulations with CO2 emissions. Grate-fired systems have been regarded as a common and popular combustion technology for burning woody biomass. However, some grate furnaces are not well optimized and may emit significant amount of unwanted compounds such as dust, NOx, CO, and unburned gaseous components. The combustion characteristics inside the fuel bed are of practical interest, as they are directly related to the release of volatiles and affect the stability and the efficiency of the fuel bed combustion. Although numerous studies have been presented on the grate firing of biomass, to the author’s knowledge, none of them have conducted a detailed experimental study within the fuel bed. It is difficult to conduct measurements of temperature and gas species inside the burning bed of the fuel in full-scale boilers. Results from such inside bed measurements can also be applied by the numerical experts for modeling the fuel bed combustion. The current work presents an experimental investigation into the combustion behavior of wet woody biomass (53 %) in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler, by focusing on the gas species distribution along the height of the fuel bed. The local concentrations of gases (CO, CO2, CH4, NO, and O2) inside the fuel bed were measured through a glass port situated on the side wall of the furnace. The measurements were carried out at five different heights of the fuel bed, by means of a bent stainless steel probe containing a type-k thermocouple. The sample gas extracted from the fuel bed, through the probe, was filtered and dried and then was analyzed using two infrared spectrometers. Temperatures of about 200-1100 °C were measured close to the grate, indicating that char combustion is occurring at the bottom of the fuel bed and propagates upward. The CO and CO2 concentration varied in the range of 15-35 vol % and 3-16 vol %, respectively, and NO concentration varied between 10-140 ppm. The profile of the gas concentrations distribution along the bed height provided a good overview of the combustion sub-processes in the fuel bed.

Keywords: experimental, fuel bed, grate firing, wood combustion

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1348 Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials

Authors: P. Ninduangdee, V. I. Kuprianov


Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behaviour of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.

Keywords: palm kernel shell, fluidized-bed combustion, alternative bed materials, combustion and emission performance, bed agglomeration prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1347 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
1346 EZOB Technology, Biomass Gasification, and Microcogeneration Unit

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála


This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot air turbo set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1345 Biomass Gasification and Microcogeneration Unit–EZOB Technology

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála


This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot-air turbo-set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
1344 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López


In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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1343 Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment

Authors: Mahidin, Yanna Syamsuddin, Samsul Rizal


In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.

Keywords: biomass, low-rank coal, bio-briquette, new and renewable energy, palm kernel shell

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1342 Development of a Feedback Control System for a Lab-Scale Biomass Combustion System Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: Samuel O. Alamu, Seong W. Lee, Blaise Kalmia, Marc J. Louise Caballes, Xuejun Qian


The application of combustion technologies for thermal conversion of biomass and solid wastes to energy has been a major solution to the effective handling of wastes over a long period of time. Lab-scale biomass combustion systems have been observed to be economically viable and socially acceptable, but major concerns are the environmental impacts of the process and deviation of temperature distribution within the combustion chamber. Both high and low combustion chamber temperature may affect the overall combustion efficiency and gaseous emissions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a control system which measures the deviations of chamber temperature from set target values, sends these deviations (which generates disturbances in the system) in the form of feedback signal (as input), and control operating conditions for correcting the errors. In this research study, major components of the feedback control system were determined, assembled, and tested. In addition, control algorithms were developed to actuate operating conditions (e.g., air velocity, fuel feeding rate) using ladder logic functions embedded in the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The developed control algorithm having chamber temperature as a feedback signal is integrated into the lab-scale swirling fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) to investigate the temperature distribution at different heights of the combustion chamber based on various operating conditions. The air blower rates and the fuel feeding rates obtained from automatic control operations were correlated with manual inputs. There was no observable difference in the correlated results, thus indicating that the written PLC program functions were adequate in designing the experimental study of the lab-scale SFBC. The experimental results were analyzed to study the effect of air velocity operating at 222-273 ft/min and fuel feeding rate of 60-90 rpm on the chamber temperature. The developed temperature-based feedback control system was shown to be adequate in controlling the airflow and the fuel feeding rate for the overall biomass combustion process as it helps to minimize the steady-state error.

Keywords: air flow, biomass combustion, feedback control signal, fuel feeding, ladder logic, programmable logic controller, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1341 Energy Conversion from Waste Paper Industry Using Fluidized Bed Combustion

Authors: M. Dyah Ayu Yuli, S. Faisal Dhio, P. Johandi, P. Muhammad Sofyan


Pulp and paper mills generate various quantities of energy-rich biomass as wastes, depending on technological level, pulp and paper grades and wood quality. These wastes are produced in all stages of the process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, waste water treatment. Energy recovery from wastes of different origin has become a generally accepted alternative to their disposal. Pulp and paper industry expresses an interest in adapting and integrating advanced biomass energy conversion technologies into its mill operations using Fluidized Bed Combustion. Industrial adoption of these new technologies has the potential for higher efficiency, lower capital cost, and safer operation than conventional operations that burn fossil fuels for energy. Incineration with energy recovery has the advantage of hygienic disposal, volume reduction, and the recovery of thermal energy by means of steam or super heated water that can be used for heating and power generation.

Keywords: biomass, fluidized bed combustion, pulp and paper mills, waste

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1340 Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production

Authors: S. Šupić, M. Malešev, V. Radonjanin, M. Radeka, M. Laban


The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and would provide a waste valorization by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes: wheat straw ash and mixture of wheat and soya straw ash in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.

Keywords: biomass, ash, cementitious material, mortar

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1339 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Aysen Caliskan, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman


Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: burnout performance, co-combustion, thermal analysis, torrefaction pretreatment

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1338 Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Palm Kernel Shell Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Kanit Manatura


The combustion and pyrolysis behavior of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A 10 mg sample of each biomass was heated from 30 °C to 800 °C at four heating rates (within 5, 10, 15 and 30 °C/min) in nitrogen and dry air flow of 20 ml/min instead of pyrolysis and combustion process respectively. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition occurred on three different stages include dehydration, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin decomposition on each temperature range. The TG/DTG curves showed the degradation behavior and the pyrolysis/combustion characteristics of the PKS samples which led to apply in thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetic factors including activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined by the Coats-Redfern method. The obtained kinetic factors are used to simulate the thermal decomposition and compare with experimental data. Rising heating rate leads to shift the mass loss towards higher temperature.

Keywords: combustion, palm kernel shell, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analyzer

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1337 Feasibility Study of Plant Design with Biomass Direct Chemical Looping Combustion for Power Generation

Authors: Reza Tirsadi Librawan, Tara Vergita Rakhma


The increasing demand for energy and concern of global warming are intertwined issues of critical importance. With the pressing needs of clean, efficient and cost-effective energy conversion processes, an alternative clean energy source is needed. Biomass is one of the preferable options because it is clean and renewable. The efficiency for biomass conversion is constrained by the relatively low energy density and high moisture content from biomass. This study based on bio-based resources presents the Biomass Direct Chemical Looping Combustion Process (BDCLC), an alternative process that has a potential to convert biomass in thermal cracking to produce electricity and CO2. The BDCLC process using iron-based oxygen carriers has been developed as a biomass conversion process with in-situ CO2 capture. The BDCLC system cycles oxygen carriers between two reactor, a reducer reactor and combustor reactor in order to convert coal for electric power generation. The reducer reactor features a unique design: a gas-solid counter-current moving bed configuration to achieve the reduction of Fe2O3 particles to a mixture of Fe and FeO while converting the coal into CO2 and steam. The combustor reactor is a fluidized bed that oxidizes the reduced particles back to Fe2O3 with air. The oxidation of iron is an exothermic reaction and the heat can be recovered for electricity generation. The plant design’s objective is to obtain 5 MW of electricity with the design of the reactor in 900 °C, 2 ATM for the reducer and 1200 °C, 16 ATM for the combustor. We conduct process simulation and analysis to illustrate the individual reactor performance and the overall mass and energy management scheme of BDCLC process that developed by Aspen Plus software. Process simulation is then performed based on the reactor performance data obtained in multistage model.

Keywords: biomass, CO2 capture, direct chemical looping combustion, power generation

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1336 Increased Efficiency during Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste in an Industrial Scaled Circulating Fluidized Bed-Boiler

Authors: Angelica Corcoran, Fredrik Lind, Pavleta Knutsson, Henrik Thunman


Solid waste volumes are at current predominately deposited on landfill. Furthermore, the impending climate change requires new solutions for a sustainable future energy mix. Currently, solid waste is globally utilized to small extent as fuel during combustion for heat and power production. Due to its variable composition and size, solid waste is considered difficult to combust and requires a technology with high fuel flexibility. One of the commercial technologies used for combustion of such difficult fuels is circulating fluidized beds (CFB). In a CFB boiler, fine particles of a solid material are used as 'bed material', which is accelerated by the incoming combustion air that causes the bed material to fluidize. The chosen bed material has conventionally been silica sand with the main purpose of being a heat carrier, as it transfers heat released by the combustion to the heat-transfer surfaces. However, the release of volatile compounds occurs rapidly in comparison with the lateral mixing in the combustion chamber. To ensure complete combustion a surplus of air is introduced, which decreases the total efficiency of the boiler. In recent years, the concept of partly or entirely replacing the silica sand with an oxygen carrier as bed material has been developed. By introducing an oxygen carrier to the combustion chamber, combustion can be spread out both temporally and spatially in the boiler. Specifically, the oxygen carrier can take up oxygen from the combustion air where it is in abundance and release it to combustible gases where oxygen is in deficit. The concept is referred to as oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) where the natural ore ilmenite (FeTiO3) has been the oxygen carrier used. The authors have validated the oxygen buffering ability of ilmenite during combustion of biomass in Chalmers 12-MWth CFB boiler in previous publications. Furthermore, the concept has been demonstrated on full industrial scale during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in E.ON’s 75 MWth CFB boiler. The experimental campaigns have showed increased mass transfer of oxygen inside the boiler when combustion both biomass and MSW. As a result, a higher degree of burnout is achieved inside the combustion chamber and the plant can be operated at a lower surplus of air. Moreover, the buffer of oxygen provided by the oxygen carrier makes the system less sensitive to disruptions in operation. In conclusion, combusting difficult fuels with OCAC results in higher operation stability and an increase in boiler efficiency.

Keywords: OCAC, ilmenite, combustion, CFB

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1335 Uncertainty Quantification of Fuel Compositions on Premixed Bio-Syngas Combustion at High-Pressure

Authors: Kai Zhang, Xi Jiang


Effect of fuel variabilities on premixed combustion of bio-syngas mixtures is of great importance in bio-syngas utilisation. The uncertainties of concentrations of fuel constituents such as H2, CO and CH4 may lead to unpredictable combustion performances, combustion instabilities and hot spots which may deteriorate and damage the combustion hardware. Numerical modelling and simulations can assist in understanding the behaviour of bio-syngas combustion with pre-defined species concentrations, while the evaluation of variabilities of concentrations is expensive. To be more specific, questions such as ‘what is the burning velocity of bio-syngas at specific equivalence ratio?’ have been answered either experimentally or numerically, while questions such as ‘what is the likelihood of burning velocity when precise concentrations of bio-syngas compositions are unknown, but the concentration ranges are pre-described?’ have not yet been answered. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods can be used to tackle such questions and assess the effects of fuel compositions. An efficient probabilistic UQ method based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) techniques is employed in this study. The method relies on representing random variables (combustion performances) with orthogonal polynomials such as Legendre or Gaussian polynomials. The constructed PCE via Galerkin Projection provides easy access to global sensitivities such as main, joint and total Sobol indices. In this study, impacts of fuel compositions on combustion (adiabatic flame temperature and laminar flame speed) of bio-syngas fuel mixtures are presented invoking this PCE technique at several equivalence ratios. High-pressure effects on bio-syngas combustion instability are obtained using detailed chemical mechanism - the San Diego Mechanism. Guidance on reducing combustion instability from upstream biomass gasification process is provided by quantifying the significant contributions of composition variations to variance of physicochemical properties of bio-syngas combustion. It was found that flame speed is very sensitive to hydrogen variability in bio-syngas, and reducing hydrogen uncertainty from upstream biomass gasification processes can greatly reduce bio-syngas combustion instability. Variation of methane concentration, although thought to be important, has limited impacts on laminar flame instabilities especially for lean combustion. Further studies on the UQ of percentage concentration of hydrogen in bio-syngas can be conducted to guide the safer use of bio-syngas.

Keywords: bio-syngas combustion, clean energy utilisation, fuel variability, PCE, targeted uncertainty reduction, uncertainty quantification

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1334 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

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1333 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar


This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

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1332 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada


A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

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1331 Numerical Simulation of Different Configurations for a Combined Gasification/Carbonization Reactors

Authors: Mahmoud Amer, Ibrahim El-Sharkawy, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Elwardany


Gasification and carbonization are two of the most common ways for biomass utilization. Both processes are using part of the waste to be accomplished, either by incomplete combustion or for heating for both gasification and carbonization, respectively. The focus of this paper is to minimize the part of the waste that is used for heating biomass for gasification and carbonization. This will occur by combining both gasifiers and carbonization reactors in a single unit to utilize the heat in the product biogas to heating up the wastes in the carbonization reactors. Three different designs are proposed for the combined gasification/carbonization (CGC) reactor. These include a parallel combination of two gasifiers and carbonized syngas, carbonizer and combustion chamber, and one gasifier, carbonizer, and combustion chamber. They are tested numerically using ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics to ensure homogeneity of temperature distribution inside the carbonization part of the CGC reactor. 2D simulations are performed for the three cases after performing both mesh-size and time-step independent solutions. The carbonization part is common among the three different cases, and the difference among them is how this carbonization reactor is heated. The simulation results showed that the first design could provide only partial homogeneous temperature distribution, not across the whole reactor. This means that the produced carbonized biomass will be reduced as it will only fill a specified height of the reactor. To keep the carbonized product production high, a series combination is proposed. This series configuration resulted in a uniform temperature distribution across the whole reactor as it has only one source for heat with no temperature distribution on any surface of the carbonization section. The simulations provided a satisfactory result that either the first parallel combination of gasifier and carbonization reactor could be used with a reduced carbonized amount or a series configuration to keep the production rate high.

Keywords: numerical simulation, carbonization, gasification, biomass, reactor

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1330 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan


Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: combustion duration (CD), crank angle (CA), mass fraction burnt (MFB), producer sas (PG), Wiebe Combustion Model (WCM), wide open throttle (WOT)

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1329 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy


Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potential

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1328 Torrefaction of Biomass Pellets: Modeling of the Process in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Authors: Ekaterina Artiukhina, Panagiotis Grammelis


Torrefaction of biomass pellets is considered as a useful pretreatment technology in order to convert them into a high quality solid biofuel that is more suitable for pyrolysis, gasification, combustion and co-firing applications. In the course of torrefaction the temperature varies across the pellet, and therefore chemical reactions proceed unevenly within the pellet. However, the uniformity of the thermal distribution along the pellet is generally assumed. The torrefaction process of a single cylindrical pellet is modeled here, accounting for heat transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. The drying sub-model was also introduced. The non-stationary process of wood pellet decomposition is described by the system of non-linear partial differential equations over the temperature and mass. The model captures well the main features of the experimental data.

Keywords: torrefaction, biomass pellets, model, heat, mass transfer

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1327 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

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