Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: B. Chern

11 Chern-Simons Equation in Financial Theory and Time-Series Analysis

Authors: Ognjen Vukovic

Abstract:

Chern-Simons equation represents the cornerstone of quantum physics. The question that is often asked is if the aforementioned equation can be successfully applied to the interaction in international financial markets. By analysing the time series in financial theory, it is proved that Chern-Simons equation can be successfully applied to financial time-series. The aforementioned statement is based on one important premise and that is that the financial time series follow the fractional Brownian motion. All variants of Chern-Simons equation and theory are applied and analysed. Financial theory time series movement is, firstly, topologically analysed. The main idea is that exchange rate represents two-dimensional projections of three-dimensional Brownian motion movement. Main principles of knot theory and topology are applied to financial time series and setting is created so the Chern-Simons equation can be applied. As Chern-Simons equation is based on small particles, it is multiplied by the magnifying factor to mimic the real world movement. Afterwards, the following equation is optimised using Solver. The equation is applied to n financial time series in order to see if it can capture the interaction between financial time series and consequently explain it. The aforementioned equation represents a novel approach to financial time series analysis and hopefully it will direct further research.

Keywords: Brownian motion, Chern-Simons theory, financial time series, econophysics

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10 The Gasification of Acetone via Partial Oxidation in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Kai-Ting Hsieh

Abstract:

Organic solvents find various applications in many industrial sectors and laboratories as dilution solvents, dispersion solvents, cleaners and even lubricants. Millions of tons of Spent Organic Solvents (SOS) are generated each year worldwide, prompting the need for more efficient, cleaner and safer methods for the treatment and resource recovery of SOS. As a result, acetone, selected as a model compound for SOS, was gasified in supercritical water to assess the feasibility of resource recovery of SOS by means of supercritical water processes. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product is mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4. The effects of three major operating parameters, the reaction temperature, from 673 to 773K, the dosage of oxidizing agent, from 0.3 to 0.5 stoichiometric oxygen, and the concentration of acetone in the feed, 0.1 and 0.2M, on the product gas composition, yield and heating value were evaluated with the water density fixed at about 0.188g/ml.

Keywords: acetone, gasification, SCW, supercritical water

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9 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng

Abstract:

Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

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8 Tuning Cubic Equations of State for Supercritical Water Applications

Authors: Shyh Ming Chern

Abstract:

Cubic equations of state (EoS), popular due to their simple mathematical form, ease of use, semi-theoretical nature and, reasonable accuracy are normally fitted to vapor-liquid equilibrium P-v-T data. As a result, They often show poor accuracy in the region near and above the critical point. In this study, the performance of the renowned Peng-Robinson (PR) and Patel-Teja (PT) EoS’s around the critical area has been examined against the P-v-T data of water. Both of them display large deviations at critical point. For instance, PR-EoS exhibits discrepancies as high as 47% for the specific volume, 28% for the enthalpy departure and 43% for the entropy departure at critical point. It is shown that incorporating P-v-T data of the supercritical region into the retuning of a cubic EoS can improve its performance above the critical point dramatically. Adopting a retuned acentric factor of 0.5491 instead of its genuine value of 0.344 for water in PR-EoS and a new F of 0.8854 instead of its original value of 0.6898 for water in PT-EoS reduces the discrepancies to about one third or less.

Keywords: equation of state, EoS, supercritical water, SCW

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7 Endometriosis: The Optimal Treatment of Recurrent Endometrioma in Infertile Patients

Authors: Smita Lakhotia, C. Kew, S. H. M. Siraj, B. Chern

Abstract:

Up to 50% of those with endometriosis may suffer from infertility due to either distorted pelvic anatomy/impaired oocyte release or inhibit ovum pickup and transport, altered peritoneal function, endocrine and anovulatory disorders, including LUF, impaired implantation, progesterone resistance or decreased levels of cellular immunity. The dilemma continues as to whether the surgery or IVF is the optimal management for such recurrent endometriomas. The core question is whether surgery adds anything of value for infertile women with recurrent endometriosis or not. Complete and detailed information on risks and benefits of treatment alternatives must be offered to patients, giving a realistic estimate of chances of success of repetitive surgery and of multiple IVF cycles in order to allow unbiased choices between different possible optionsAn individualized treatment plan should be developed taking into account patient age, duration of infertility, previous pregnancies and specific clinical conditions and wish.

Keywords: recurrent endometriosis, infertility, oocyte release, pregnancy

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6 The Thermochemical Conversion of Lactic Acid in Subcritical and Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Hung-Chi Tu

Abstract:

One way to utilize biomass is to thermochemically convert it into gases and chemicals. For conversion of biomass, glucose is a particularly popular model compound for cellulose, or more generally for biomass. The present study takes a different approach by employing lactic acid as the model compound for cellulose. Since lactic acid and glucose have identical elemental composition, they are expected to produce similar results as they go through the conversion process. In the current study, lactic acid was thermochemically converted to assess its reactivity and reaction mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water, by using a 16-ml autoclave reactor. The major operating parameters investigated include: The reaction temperature, from 673 to 873 K, the reaction pressure, 10 and 25 MPa, the dosage of oxidizing agent, 0 and 0.5 chemical oxygen demand, and the concentration of lactic acid in the feed, 0.5 and 1.0 M. Gaseous products from the conversion were generally found to be comparable to those derived from the conversion of glucose.

Keywords: lactic acid, subcritical water, supercritical water, thermochemical conversion

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5 Data Analytics of Electronic Medical Records Shows an Age-Related Differences in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Maryam Panahiazar, Andrew M. Bishara, Yorick Chern, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Dexter Hadleye, Ramin E. Beygui

Abstract:

Early detection plays a crucial role in enhancing the outcome for a patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). We utilized a big data analytics platform on ~23,000 patients with CAD from a total of 960,129 UCSF patients in 8 years. We traced the patients from their first encounter with a physician to diagnose and treat CAD. Characteristics such as demographic information, comorbidities, vital, lab tests, medications, and procedures are included. There are statistically significant gender-based differences in patients younger than 60 years old from the time of the first physician encounter to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a p-value=0.03. There are no significant differences between the patients between 60 and 80 years old (p-value=0.8) and older than 80 (p-value=0.4) with a 95% confidence interval. This recognition would affect significant changes in the guideline for referral of the patients for diagnostic tests expeditiously to improve the outcome by avoiding the delay in treatment.

Keywords: electronic medical records, coronary artery disease, data analytics, young women

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4 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical

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3 Association of Maternal Age, Ethnicity and BMI with Gestational Diabetes Prevalence in Multi-Racial Singapore

Authors: Nur Atiqah Adam, Mor Jack Ng, Bernard Chern, Kok Hian Tan

Abstract:

Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with short and long-term health consequences for both mother and fetus. Factors such as family history of diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity, maternal age, ethnicity and parity have been reported to influence the risk of GDM. In a multi-racial country like Singapore, it is worthwhile to study the GDM prevalences of different ethnicities. We aim to investigate the influence of ethnicity on the racial prevalences of GDM in Singapore. This is important as it may help us to improve guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to significant risk factors unique to Singapore. Materials and Methods: Obstetric cohort data of 926 singleton deliveries in KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH) from 2011 to 2013 was obtained. Only patients aged 18 and above and without complicated pregnancies or chronic illnesses were targeted. Factors such as ethnicity, maternal age, parity and maternal body mass index (BMI) at booking visit were studied. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine which of these factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. Results: The overall GDM prevalence rate based on WHO 1999 criteria & at risk screening (race alone not a risk factor) was 8.86%. GDM rates were higher among women above 35 years old (15.96%), obese (15.15%) and multiparous women (10.12%). Indians had a higher GDM rate (13.0 %) compared to the Chinese (9.57%) and Malays (5.20%). However, using multiple logistic regression model, variables that are significantly related to GDM rates were maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal BMI at booking visit (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal booking BMI (p = 0.006) are the strongest risk factors for GDM. Ethnicity per se does not seem to have a significant influence on the prevalence of GDM in Singapore (p = 0.064). Hence we should tailor guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to maternal age and booking BMI rather than ethnicity.

Keywords: ethnicity, gestational diabetes, healthcare, pregnancy

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2 Subcritical and Supercritical Water Gasification of Xylose

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Te-Hsiu Tang

Abstract:

Hemicellulose is one of the major constituents of all plant cell walls, making up 15-25% of dry wood. It is a biopolymer from many different sugar monomers, including pentoses, like xylose, and hexoses, like mannose. In an effort to gasify real biomass in subcritical and supercritical water in a single process, it is necessary to understand the gasification of hemicellulose, in addition to cellulose and lignin, in subcritical and supercritical water. In the present study, xylose is chosen as the model compound for hemicellulose, since it has the largest amount in most hardwoods. Xylose is gasified in subcritical and supercritical water for the production of higher-valued gaseous products. Experiments were conducted with a 16-ml autoclave batch-type reactor. Hydrogen peroxide is adopted as the oxidant in an attempt to promote the gasification yield. The major operating parameters for the gasification include reaction temperature (400 - 600°C), reaction pressure (5 - 25 MPa), the concentration of xylose (0.05 and 0.30 M), and level of oxidant added (0 and 0.25 chemical oxygen demand). 102 experimental runs were completed out of 46 different set of experimental conditions. Product gases were analyzed with a GC-TCD and determined to be mainly composed of H₂ (10 – 74 mol. %), CO (1 – 56 mol. %), CH₄ (1 – 27 mol. %), CO₂ (10 – 50 mol. %), and C₂H₆ (0 – 8 mol. %). It has been found that the gas yield (amount of gas produced per gram of xylose gasified), higher heating value (HHV) of the dry product gas, and energy yield (energy stored in the product gas divided by the energy stored in xylose) all increase significantly with rising temperature and moderately with reducing pressure. The overall best operating condition occurred at 873 K and 10 MPa, with a gas yield of 54 mmol/g of xylose, a gas HHV of 440 kJ/mol, and an energy yield of 1.3. A seemingly unreasonably energy yield of greater than unity resulted from the external heating employed in the experiments to drive the gasification process. It is concluded that xylose can be completely gasified in subcritical and supercritical water under proper operating conditions. The addition of oxidant does not promote the gasification of xylose.

Keywords: gasification, subcritical water, supercritical water, xylose

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1 Malaysian Knowledge, Belief and Attitude towards Hypnosis as a Health Intervention: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Ying Chern Yeoh, Mark J. Forshaw

Abstract:

Although hypnosis has been widely endorsed in Europe since 1950s, it was still viewed as a typically new therapy in Asia. There are very little findings regarding hypnosis in Asian countries, especially in culturally diverse countries such as Malaysia. The knowledge of the beneficial effects of hypnosis was not widespread to the public, however knowledge of the negative effects was frequently being highlighted. Therefore, the acceptance of hypnosis as a new effective health treatment can be a challenge in Malaysia. Recognising Malaysian’s perception, belief and attitude towards hypnosis could increase the public awareness of hypnosis, which in turn will alter their misconception and increase acceptance of hypnosis as an effective therapy. Eight individuals (N = 8) from the general public with different background, ethnicity (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and religion (Islamic, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christianity, free-thinker) and two local experienced practitioners with minimum of five years experiences (N = 2) were being interviewed to determine their views, beliefs and level of acceptance towards hypnosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed with pseudonyms and analyzed by using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The three emergent themes were illustrated under the captions of ‘traditional vs mainstream’, ‘myths vs truth’, and ‘dissemination and public awareness’. The finding suggested that individual knowledge and personal experience primarily influenced people’s level of acceptance towards hypnosis as a beneficial health treatment, rather than the diversity of cultural and religious background. Subsequent findings regarding hypnosis and the effort of promoting it will provide the society an opportunity to increase public education and health awareness. Several associations had started to advance its development by organizing conferences and setting up therapeutic centers. However, health promotion on hypnosis is yet to be conducted to raise public awareness of its beneficial effects. By requesting for hypnosis to be included as a subject in medical education and psychology curriculum and formatting it under Ministry of Health’s legislation body might enhance the knowledge of hypnosis for Malaysian as one of the health intervention in the future.

Keywords: awareness, hypnosis, intervention, Malaysian, promotion

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