Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2733

Search results for: foundry waste sand

2733 Incorporation of Foundry Sand in Asphalt Pavement

Authors: L. P. Nascimento, M. Soares, N. Valério, A. Ribeiro, J. R. M. Oliveira, J. Araújo, C. Vilarinho, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

With the growing need to save natural resources and value waste that was previously worthless, waste recycling becomes imperative. Thus, with the techno-scientific growth and in the perspective of sustainability, it is observed that waste has the potential to replace significant percentages of materials considered “virgin”. An example is the replacement of crushed aggregates with foundry sand. In this work, a mix design study of two asphalt mixes, a base mix (AC 20) and a surface mix (AC14) was carried out to evaluate the maximum amount of foundry sand residue that could be used. Water sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of these mixtures. For the superficial mixture with foundry sand (AC14FS), the maximum of sand used was 5%, with satisfactory results of sensitivity to water. In the base mixture with sand (AC20FS), the maximum of sand used was 12%, which had less satisfactory results. However, from an environmental point of view, the re-incorporation of this residue in the pavement is beneficial because it prevents it from being deposited in landfills.

Keywords: foundry sand, hot mix asphalt, industrial waste, waste valorization, sustainability

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2732 Assessing the Suitability of South African Waste Foundry Sand as an Additive in Clay Masonry Products

Authors: Nthabiseng Portia Mahumapelo, Andre van Niekerk, Ndabenhle Sosibo, Nirdesh Singh

Abstract:

The foundry industry generates large quantities of solid waste in the form of waste foundry sand. The ever-increasing quantities of this type of industrial waste put pressure on land-filling space and its proper management has become a global concern. The South African foundry industry is not different when it comes to this solid waste generation. Utilizing the foundry waste sand in other applications has become an attractive avenue to deal with this waste stream. In the present paper, an evaluation was done on the suitability of foundry waste sand as an additive in clay masonry products. Purchased clay was added to the foundry waste sand sample in a 50/50 ratio. The mixture was named FC sample. The FC sample was mixed with water in a pan mixer until the mixture was consistent and suitable for extrusion. The FC sample was extruded and cut into briquettes. Water absorption, shrinkage and modulus of rupture tests were conducted on the resultant briquettes. Foundry waste sand and FC samples were respectively characterized mineralogically using X-Ray Diffraction, and the major and trace elements were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Adding purchased clay to the foundry waste sand positively influenced the workability of the test sample. Another positive characteristic was the low linear shrinkage, which indicated that products manufactured from the FC sample would not be susceptible to cracking. The water absorption values were acceptable and the unfired and fired strength values of the briquette’s samples were acceptable. In conclusion, tests showed that foundry waste sand can be used as an additive in masonry clay bricks, provided it is blended with good quality clay.

Keywords: foundry waste sand, masonry clay bricks, modulus of rupture, shrinkage

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2731 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav

Abstract:

Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: chemical reclamation, clay content, environmental concerns, recycle, waste foundry sand

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2730 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing

Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan

Abstract:

This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.

Keywords: alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand

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2729 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi

Abstract:

The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

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2728 Evaluating the Use of Swedish by-Product Foundry Sand in Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Dina Kuttah

Abstract:

It is well known that recycling of by-product materials saves natural resources, reduces by-product volumes, and reduces the need for virgin materials. The steel industry produces a myriad of metal components for industrial chains, which in turn generates mineral discarded sand molds. Although these sands are clean before their use, after casting, they may contain contaminants. Therefore, huge quantities of excess by-product foundry sand (BFS) end up occupying large volumes in landfills. In Sweden, approximately 200000 tonnes of excess BFS end up in landfills. The transportation and construction industries have the greatest potential for reuse by-products because they use vast quantities of earthen materials annually. Accordingly, experimental work has been undertaken to evaluate the possible use of two chosen BFS from two Swedish foundries in a conventional Swedish asphalt mixture. The experimental procedure of this research has focused on the dosage, environmental and technical properties of the same mixture type ABT 11 and the same bitumen (160/220) but at different replacement proportions of the conventional fine sand with the two BFS. The environmental requirements, in addition to the technical requirements, namely, void ratio, static indirect tensile strength ratio, and resilient modulus before and after moisture-induced sensitivity tests of the asphalt mixtures, have been investigated in the current study. The test results demonstrated that the BFS from both foundries can be incorporated in the selected asphalt mixture at specified replacement proportions of the conventional fine sand fraction 0-2 mm, as discussed in the paper.

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, by-product foundry sand, indirect tensile strength, moisture induced sensitivity tests, resilient modulus

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2727 A Review on Parametric Optimization of Casting Processes Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Bhrugesh Radadiya, Jaydeep Shah

Abstract:

In Indian foundry industry, there is a need of defect free casting with minimum production cost in short lead time. Casting defect is a very large issue in foundry shop which increases the rejection rate of casting and wastage of materials. The various parameters influences on casting process such as mold machine related parameters, green sand related parameters, cast metal related parameters, mold related parameters and shake out related parameters. The mold related parameters are most influences on casting defects in sand casting process. This paper review the casting produced by foundry with shrinkage and blow holes as a major defects was analyzed and identified that mold related parameters such as mold temperature, pouring temperature and runner size were not properly set in sand casting process. These parameters were optimized using different optimization techniques such as Taguchi method, Response surface methodology, Genetic algorithm and Teaching-learning based optimization algorithm. Finally, concluded that a Teaching-learning based optimization algorithm give better result than other optimization techniques.

Keywords: casting defects, genetic algorithm, parametric optimization, Taguchi method, TLBO algorithm

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2726 Use of Fine Marble in Concrete Based On Sand Dune

Authors: M. Belachia, R. Djebien

Abstract:

In the development that our country has in all areas and especially in the field of Building and Construction, the development of new building materials is a current problem where researchers are trying to find the right materials for each region and returning cheapest countries. Enhancement of crushed sand and sand dunes and reuse of waste as additions in concrete can help to overcome the deficit in aggregates. This work focuses on the development of concrete made from sand, knowing that our country has huge potential in sand dune. This study is complemented by a review of the possibility of using certain recycled wastes in concrete sand, including the effect of fines (marble powders) on the rheological and mechanical properties of concrete and sand to the outcome optimal formulation. After the characterization phase of basic materials, we proceeded to carry out the experimental program was to search the optimum characteristics by adding different percentages of fines. The aim is to show that the possibility of using local materials (sand dune) for the manufacture of concrete and reuse of waste (marble powders) in the implementation of concrete.

Keywords: sand dune, mechanical properties, rheological properties, fine marble

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2725 Evaluation of Corrosion in Steel Reinforced Concrete with Brick Waste

Authors: Julieta Daniela Chelaru, Maria Gorea

Abstract:

The massive demolition of old buildings in recent years has generated tons of waste, especially brick waste. Thus, a concern of recent research is the use of this waste for the production of environmentally friendly concrete. At the same time, corrosion in classical concrete is a current problem. In this context, in the present paper a study was carried out on the corrosion of metal reinforcement in cement mortars with brick waste. The corrosion process was analyzed on four compositions of mortars without and with 15 %, 25 % and 35 % bricks waste replacing the sand. The brick waste has a majority content in SiO2, Al₂O₃, FeO₃ and CaO. The grain size distribution of brick waste was close to that of the sand (dₘₐₓ = 3 mm). The preparation method of the samples was similar to ordinary mortars. The corrosion properties of concrete, at different waste bricks concentrations, on rebar, were investigated by electrochemical measurements (Tafel curves and EIS) at 1 and 6 months. The results obtained at 6 months revealed that the addition of the bricks waste in mortar are improved the anticorrosion properties, in the case of all samples compared with the sample with 0% bricks waste. The best results were obtained in the case of the sample with 15% bricks waste (the efficiency was ≈ 90 %). The corrosion intermediary layer formed on the rebar surface was determined by SEM-EDX.

Keywords: EIS, steel corrosion, steel reinforced concrete, waste materials

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2724 A Sustainable and Low-Cost Filter to Treat Pesticides in Water

Authors: T. Abbas, J. McEvoy, E. Khan

Abstract:

Pesticide contamination in water supply is a common environmental problem in rural agricultural communities. Advanced water treatment processes such as membrane filtration and adsorption on activated carbon only remove pesticides from water without degrading them into less toxic/easily degradable compounds leaving behind contaminated brine and activated carbon that need to be managed. Rural communities which normally cannot afford expensive water treatment technologies need an economical and sustainable filter which not only treats pesticides from water but also degrades them into benign products. In this study, iron turning waste experimented as potential point-of-use filtration media for the removal/degradation of a mixture of six chlorinated pesticides (lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT) in water. As a common and traditional medium for water filtration, sand was also tested along with iron turning waste. Iron turning waste was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer. Four glass columns with different filter media layer configurations were set up: (1) only sand, (2) only iron turning, (3) sand and iron turning (two separate layers), and (4) sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers). The initial pesticide concentration and flow rate were 2 μg/L and 10 mL/min. Results indicate that sand filtration was effective only for the removal of DDT (100%) and endosulfan (94-96%). Iron turning filtration column effectively removed endosulfan, endrin, and dieldrin (85-95%) whereas the lindane and DDT removal were 79-85% and 39-56%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for heptachlor, endosulfan, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT were 90-100% when sand and iron turning waste (two separate layers) were used. However, better removal efficiencies (93-100%) for five out of six pesticides were achieved, when sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers) were used as filtration media. Moreover, the effects of water pH, amounts of media, and minerals present in water such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, and nitrate on the removal of pesticides were examined. Results demonstrate that iron turning waste efficiently removed all the pesticides under studied parameters. Also, it completely de-chlorinated all the pesticides studied and based on the detection of by-products, the degradation mechanisms for all six pesticides were proposed.

Keywords: pesticide contamination, rural communities, iron turning waste, filtration

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2723 Contribution of Algerians Local Materials on the Compressive Strengths of Concrete: Experimental and Numerical Study

Authors: Mohamed Lyes Kamel Khouadjia, Bouzidi Mezghiche

Abstract:

The evolution in the civil engineering and carried out more consumption of aggregates and particularly the sand. Due to the depletion of natural reserves of sand, it is necessary to focus on the use of local materials such as crushed sand, river sand and dune sand, mineral additions. The aim of this work is to improve the state of knowledge on the compressive strengths of crushed sands with several mixtures (dune sand, river sand, pozzolan, and slag). The obtained results were compared with numerical results obtained with the software Béton Lab Pro 3.

Keywords: crushed sand, river sand, dune sand, pouzzolan, slag, compressive strengths, Béton Lab Pro 3

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2722 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor

Abstract:

The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

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2721 Testing Plastic-Sand Construction Blocks Made from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET)

Authors: Cassi Henderson, Lucia Corsini, Shiv Kapila, Egle Augustaityte, Tsemaye Uwejamomere Zinzan Gurney, Aleyna Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastic pollution is a major threat to human and planetary health. In Low- and Middle-Income Countries, plastic waste poses a major problem for marginalized populations who lack access to formal waste management systems. This study explores the potential for converting waste plastic into construction blocks. It is the first study to analyze the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder in plastic-sand bricks. Unlike previous studies of plastic sand-bricks, this research tests the properties of bricks that were made using a low-cost kiln technology that was co-designed with a rural, coastal community in Kenya.  The mechanical strength, resistance to fire and water absorption properties of the bricks are tested in this study. The findings show that the bricks meet structural standards for mechanical performance, fire resistance and water absorption. It was found that 30:70 PET to sand demonstrated the best overall performance.

Keywords: recycling, PET, plastic, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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2720 Influence of Thermal History on the Undrained Shear Strength of the Bentonite-Sand Mixture

Authors: K. Ravi, Sabu Subhash

Abstract:

Densely compacted bentonite or bentonite–sand mixture has been identified as a suitable buffer in the deep geological repository (DGR) for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) due to its favourable physicochemical and hydro-mechanical properties. The addition of sand to the bentonite enhances the thermal conductivity and compaction properties and reduces the drying shrinkage of the buffer material. The buffer material may undergo cyclic wetting and drying upon ingress of groundwater from the surrounding rock mass and from evaporation due to high temperature (50–210 °C) derived from the waste canister. The cycles of changes in temperature may result in thermal history, and the hydro-mechanical properties of the buffer material may be affected. This paper examines the influence of thermal history on the undrained shear strength of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture. Bentonite from Rajasthan state and sand from the Assam state of India are used in this study. The undrained shear strength values are obtained by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical specimens (dry densities 1.30 and 1.5 Mg/m3) of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture consisting of 30 % bentonite+ 70 % sand. The specimens are preheated at temperatures varying from 50-150 °C for one, two and four hours in hot air oven. The results indicate that the undrained shear strength is increased by the thermal history of the buffer material. The specimens of bentonite-sand mixture exhibited more increase in strength compared to the pure bentonite specimens. This indicates that the sand content of the mixture plays a vital role in taking the thermal stresses of the bentonite buffer in DGR conditions.

Keywords: bentonite, deep geological repository, thermal history, undrained shear strength

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2719 Shear Strength Characteristics of Sand Mixed with Particulate Rubber

Authors: Firas Daghistani, Hossam Abuel Naga

Abstract:

Waste tyres is a global problem that has a negative effect on the environment, where there are approximately one billion waste tyres discarded worldwide yearly. Waste tyres are discarded in stockpiles, where they provide harm to the environment in many ways. Finding applications to these materials can help in reducing this global problem. One of these applications is recycling these waste materials and using them in geotechnical engineering. Recycled waste tyre particulates can be mixed with sand to form a lightweight material with varying shear strength characteristics. Contradicting results were found in the literature on the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand, where some experiments found that the inclusion of particulate rubber can increase the shear strength of the mixture, while other experiments stated that the addition of particulate rubber decreases the shear strength of the mixture. This research further investigates the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand and whether it can increase or decrease the shear strength characteristics of the mixture. For the experiment, a series of direct shear tests were performed on a poorly graded sand with a mean particle size of 0.32 mm mixed with recycled poorly graded particulate rubber with a mean particle size of 0.51 mm. The shear tests were performedon four normal stresses 30, 55, 105, 200 kPa at a shear rate of 1 mm/minute. Different percentages ofparticulate rubber content were used in the mixture i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% of sand dry weight at three density states, namely loose, slight dense, and dense state. The size ratio of the mixture,which is the mean particle size of the particulate rubber divided by the mean particle size of the sand, was 1.59. The results identified multiple parameters that can influence the shear strength of the mixture. The parameters were: normal stress, particulate rubber content, mixture gradation, mixture size ratio, and the mixture’s density. The inclusion of particulate rubber tosand showed a decrease to the internal friction angle and an increase to the apparent cohesion. Overall, the inclusion of particulate rubber did not have a significant influenceon the shear strength of the mixture. For all the dense states at the low normal stresses 33 and 55 kPa, the inclusion of particulate rubber showed aslight increase in the shear strength where the peak was at 20% rubber content of the sand’s dry weight. On the other hand, at the high normal stresses 105, and 200 kPa, there was a slight decrease in the shear strength.

Keywords: shear strength, direct shear, sand-rubber mixture, waste material, granular material

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2718 Evaluating the Cost of Quality: A Case Study of a South African Foundry Business

Authors: Chipo Mugova, Zuko Mjobo

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost of quality (COQ) at a local foundry business to identify the contribution of its units and processes to quality costs within the foundry’s operations. The foundry selected for detailed case study is one of major businesses that have been targeted by the government to produce components for building and re-furbishing wagons and trains. The study aimed at identifying areas in the foundry’s processes in which investment needs to be made to reduce quality costs. This is in alignment with government’s vision of promoting local business to support local markets leading to creation of jobs, and hence reduction of unemployment rate in South Africa. The methodology adopted used cost of quality models. Results from the study indicated that internal failure costs were significantly higher than all other cost of quality categories, taking more than 60% of the business’s income.

Keywords: appraisal costs, cost of quality, failure costs, local content, prevention costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2717 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho

Abstract:

This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: pretreatment, sewage, solid waste, wastewater

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2716 Evaluation on Mechanical Stabilities of Clay-Sand Mixtures Used as Engineered Barrier for Radioactive Waste Disposal

Authors: Ahmet E. Osmanlioglu

Abstract:

In this study, natural bentonite was used as natural clay material and samples were taken from the Kalecik district in Ankara. In this research, bentonite is the subject of an analysis from standpoint of assessing the basic properties of engineered barriers with respect to the buffer material. Bentonite and sand mixtures were prepared for tests. Some of clay minerals give relatively higher hydraulic conductivity and lower swelling pressure. Generally, hydraulic conductivity of these type clays is lower than <10-12 m/s. The hydraulic properties of clay-sand mixtures are evaluated to design engineered barrier specifications. Hydraulic conductivities of bentonite-sand mixture were found in the range of 1.2x10-10 to 9.3x10-10 m/s. Optimum B/S mixture ratio was determined as 35% in terms of hydraulic conductivity and mechanical stability. At the second stage of this study, all samples were compacted into cylindrical shape molds (diameter: 50 mm and length: 120 mm). The strength properties of compacted mixtures were better than the compacted bentonite. In addition, the larger content of the quartz sand in the mixture has the greater thermal conductivity.

Keywords: engineered barriers, mechanical stability, clay, nuclear waste disposal

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2715 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand

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2714 Study for Utilization of Industrial Solid Waste, Generated by the Discharge of Casting Sand Agglomeration with Clay, Blast Furnace Slag and Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash in Concrete Composition

Authors: Mario Sergio de Andrade Zago, Javier Mazariegos Pablos, Eduvaldo Paulo Sichieri

Abstract:

This research project accomplished a study on the technical feasibility of recycling industrial solid waste generated by the discharge of casting sand agglomeration with clay, blast furnace slag and sugar cane bagasse ash. For this, the plan proposed a methodology that initially establishes a process of solid waste encapsulation, by using solidification/stabilization technique on Portland cement matrices, in which the residuals act as small and large aggregates on the composition of concrete, and later it presents the possibility of using this concrete in the manufacture of concrete pieces (concrete blocks) for paving. The results obtained in this research achieved the objective set with great success, regarding the manufacturing of concrete pieces (blocks) for paving urban roads, whenever there is special vehicle traffic or demands capable of producing accentuated abrasion effects (surpassing the 50 MPa required by the regulation), which probes the technical practicability of using waste from sand casting agglomeration with clay and blast furnace slag used in this study, unlocking usage possibilities for construction.

Keywords: industrial solid waste, solidification/stabilization, Portland cement, reuse, bagasse ash in the sugar cane, concrete

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2713 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

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2712 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed

Abstract:

In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: repair mortar, dune sand, crushed limestone sand, adhesion, mechanical strength

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2711 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal

Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Add to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similarly to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance

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2710 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site

Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi

Abstract:

The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.

Keywords: construction-waste, effective management, reduce, reuse

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2709 Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Olesia Mikhailova

Abstract:

In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste, (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste, (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength, while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water absorption.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymers, polyester waste, composites

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2708 An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: S. R. Shamili, C. Natarajan, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.

Keywords: dumping, electronic waste, landfill, toxic chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2707 Evaluation of Eco Cement as a Stabilizer of Clayey Sand

Authors: Jeeja Menon, M. S. Ravikumar

Abstract:

With the advent of green technology and the concept of zero energy buildings, there is an emerging trend in the utilization of indigenous materials like soil as a construction material. However, fine soils like clays and sand have undesirable properties and stabilization of these soils is essential before it is used to develop a building unit. Eco cement or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), a waste byproduct formed during the manufacture of iron has cementitious properties and has the potential of replacing cement which is the most common stabilizer used for improving the geotechnical properties of soil. This paper highlights the salient observations obtained by the investigations into the effect of GGBS as a stabilizer for clayey sand. The index and engineering properties of the soil on the addition of different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 5% & 6% of the dry weight of the soil) of GGBS are tested to arrive at the optimum binder content. The criteria chosen for evaluation are the unconfined compressive strength values of different soil- binder composition. The test results indicate that there are significant strength improvements by the addition of GGBS in the soil, and the optimum GGBS content was determined as 5%. Moreover, utilizing waste binders for developing an ecofriendly, less energy induced building units as well as for stabilizing soil will also contribute to the solid waste management, which is the current environmental crisis of the world.

Keywords: eco cement, GGBS, index properties, stabilization, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2706 A Review on the Use of Plastic Waste with Viable Materials in Composite Construction Block

Authors: Mohan T. Harish, Masson Lauriane, Sreevalsa Kolathayar

Abstract:

Environmental issues raise alarm in the constructional field which implies a need for exploring new construction materials derived from the waste and residual products. This paper presents a detailed review of the alternatives approaches employed in the construction field using plastic waste in mixture with mixed with fillers. A detailed analysis of the plastic waste used in concrete, with soil, sand, clay and natural residues like sawdust, rice husk etc are presented. The different process carried forward was also discussed along with the scrutiny of the change in mechanical properties. The effect of coupling agents in the proposed mixture has been appraised in detail which gives implications for its future application in the field of plastic waste with viable materials in composite construction blocks.

Keywords: plastic waste, composite materials, construction block, concrete, natural residue, coupling agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2705 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani

Abstract:

Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
2704 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 309