Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 797

Search results for: crushed limestone sand

797 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed

Abstract:

In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: repair mortar, dune sand, crushed limestone sand, adhesion, mechanical strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
796 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: seashells, limestone, sand, self-compacting concrete, fluidity, compressive strength, flexural strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
795 Contribution of Algerians Local Materials on the Compressive Strengths of Concrete: Experimental and Numerical Study

Authors: Mohamed Lyes Kamel Khouadjia, Bouzidi Mezghiche

Abstract:

The evolution in the civil engineering and carried out more consumption of aggregates and particularly the sand. Due to the depletion of natural reserves of sand, it is necessary to focus on the use of local materials such as crushed sand, river sand and dune sand, mineral additions. The aim of this work is to improve the state of knowledge on the compressive strengths of crushed sands with several mixtures (dune sand, river sand, pozzolan, and slag). The obtained results were compared with numerical results obtained with the software Béton Lab Pro 3.

Keywords: crushed sand, river sand, dune sand, pouzzolan, slag, compressive strengths, Béton Lab Pro 3

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794 Experimental Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Several Local Sand Exposed to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Mlk. Khouadjia, B. Mezghiche

Abstract:

The environment protection has led to a growing interest in the use of crushed sand, which is not correctly exploited due to the high rate of fine particles that it contains and which affect concrete properties. This study will examine the variation of the compressive strength of concrete with several local areas of sand exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and chemical solutions. The experiments have been realized on crushed, river, and dune sands. We use software (MATLAB) to find the coefficient of particle shape. Finally, we have found a relationship between the reference concrete without modification and concrete modified with river and dune sands to predict the variations of resistance after curing in different environments. The results showed that the behavior of concrete is different according to the types of sand and the environment of exposition.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, freeze-thaw, MATLAB, dune sand, river sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
793 Use of Fine Marble in Concrete Based On Sand Dune

Authors: M. Belachia, R. Djebien

Abstract:

In the development that our country has in all areas and especially in the field of Building and Construction, the development of new building materials is a current problem where researchers are trying to find the right materials for each region and returning cheapest countries. Enhancement of crushed sand and sand dunes and reuse of waste as additions in concrete can help to overcome the deficit in aggregates. This work focuses on the development of concrete made from sand, knowing that our country has huge potential in sand dune. This study is complemented by a review of the possibility of using certain recycled wastes in concrete sand, including the effect of fines (marble powders) on the rheological and mechanical properties of concrete and sand to the outcome optimal formulation. After the characterization phase of basic materials, we proceeded to carry out the experimental program was to search the optimum characteristics by adding different percentages of fines. The aim is to show that the possibility of using local materials (sand dune) for the manufacture of concrete and reuse of waste (marble powders) in the implementation of concrete.

Keywords: sand dune, mechanical properties, rheological properties, fine marble

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
792 Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand

Authors: Asis Kumar Khan, Rajeev Kumar Goel

Abstract:

Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, geopolymer concrete, split tensile strength, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance

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791 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya

Abstract:

In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: crushed palm kernel shell, fine aggregate, lightweight concrete, non-structural concrete

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790 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
789 Dissolution of South African Limestone for Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization

Authors: Lawrence Koech, Ray Everson, Hein Neomagus, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

Wet Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems are commonly used to remove sulphur dioxide from flue gas by contacting it with limestone in aqueous phase which is obtained by dissolution. Dissolution is important as it affects the overall performance of a wet FGD system. In the present study, effects of pH, stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the dissolution of limestone using an organic acid (adipic acid) were investigated. This was investigated using the pH stat apparatus. Calcium ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine.

Keywords: desulphurization, limestone, dissolution, pH stat apparatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
788 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing

Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan

Abstract:

This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.

Keywords: alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
787 Characteristics of the Mortars Obtained by Radioactive Recycled Sand

Authors: Claudiu Mazilu, Ion Robu, Radu Deju

Abstract:

At the end of 2011 worldwide there were 124 power reactors shut down, from which: 16 fully decommissioned, 50 power reactors in a decommissioning process, 49 reactors in “safe enclosure mode”, 3 reactors “entombed”, for other 6 reactors it was not yet have specified the decommissioning strategy. The concrete radioactive waste that will be generated from dismantled structures of VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele (e.g.: biological shield of the reactor core and hot cells) represents an estimated amount of about 70 tons. Until now the solid low activity radioactive waste (LLW) was pre-placed in containers and cementation with mortar made from cement and natural fine aggregates, providing a fill ratio of the container of approximately 50 vol. % for concrete. In this paper is presented an innovative technology in which radioactive concrete is crushed and the mortar made from recycled radioactive sand, cement, water and superplasticizer agent is poured in container with radioactive rubble (that is pre-placed in container) for cimentation. Is achieved a radioactive waste package in which the degree of filling of radioactive waste increases substantially. The tests were carried out on non-radioactive material because the radioactive concrete was not available in a good time. Waste concrete with maximum size of 350 mm were crushed in the first stage with a Liebhher type jaw crusher, adjusted to nominal size of 50 mm. Crushed concrete less than 50 mm was sieved in order to obtain useful sort for preplacement, 10 to 50 mm. The rest of the screening > 50 mm obtained from primary crushing of concrete was crushed in the second stage, with different working principles crushers at size < 2.5 mm, in order to produce recycled fine aggregate (sand) for the filler mortar and which fulfills the technical specifications proposed: –jaw crusher, Retsch type, model BB 100; –hammer crusher, Buffalo Shuttle model WA-12-H; presented a series of characteristics of recycled concrete aggregates by predefined class (the granulosity, the granule shape, the absorption of water, behavior to the Los Angeles test, the content of attached mortar etc.), most in comparison with characteristics of natural aggregates. Various mortar recipes were used in order to identify those that meet the proposed specification (flow-rate: 16-50s, no bleeding, min. 30N/mm2 compressive strength of the mortar after 28 days, the proportion of recycled sand used in mortar: min. 900kg/m3) and allow obtaining of the highest fill ratio for mortar. In order to optimize the mortars following compositional factors were varied: aggregate nature, water/cement (W/C) ratio, sand/cement (S/C) ratio, nature and proportion of additive. To confirm the results obtained on a small scale, it made an attempt to fill the mortar in a container that simulates the final storage drums. Was measured the mortar fill ratio (98.9%) compared with the results of laboratory tests and targets set out in the proposed specification. Although fill ratio obtained on the mock-up is lower by 0.8 vol. % compared to that obtained in the laboratory tests (99.7%), the result meets the specification criteria.

Keywords: characteristics, radioactive recycled concrete aggregate, mortars, fill ratio

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786 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan

Abstract:

Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: In situ, packer, permeability, rock, quality

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785 Discrete Element Method Simulation of Crushable Pumice Sand

Authors: Sayed Hessam Bahmani, Rolsndo P. Orense

Abstract:

From an engineering point of view, pumice particles are problematic because of their crushability and compressibility due to their vesicular nature. Currently, information on the geotechnical characteristics of pumice sands is limited. While extensive empirical and laboratory tests can be implemented to characterize their behavior, these are generally time-consuming and expensive. These drawbacks have motivated attempts to study the effects of particle breakage of pumice sand through the Discrete Element Method (DEM). This method provides insights into the behavior of crushable granular material at both the micro and macro-level. In this paper, the results of single-particle crushing tests conducted in the laboratory are simulated using DEM through the open-source code YADE. This is done to better understand the parameters necessary to represent the pumice microstructure that governs its crushing features, and to examine how the resulting microstructure evolution affects a particle’s properties. The DEM particle model is then used to simulate the behavior of pumice sand during consolidated drained triaxial tests. The results indicate the importance of incorporating particle porosity and unique surface textures in the material characterization and show that interlocking between the crushed particles significantly influences the drained behavior of the pumice specimen.

Keywords: pumice sand, triaxial compression, simulation, particle breakage

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784 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
783 Development of Green Cement, Based on Partial Replacement of Clinker with Limestone Powder

Authors: Yaniv Knop, Alva Peled

Abstract:

Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the development of Portland Composite Cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with mineral additives. The motivations to reduce the clinker content are threefold: (1) Ecological - due to lower emission of CO2 to the atmosphere; (2) Economical - due to cost reduction; and (3) Scientific\Technology – improvement of performances. Among the mineral additives being used and investigated, limestone is one of the most attractive, as it is considered natural, available, and with low cost. The goal of the research is to develop green cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with limestone powder while improving the performances of the cement paste. This work studied blended cements with three limestone powder particle diameters: smaller than, larger than, and similarly sized to the clinker particle. Blended cement with limestone consisting of one particle size distribution and limestone consisting of a combination of several particle sizes were studied and compared in terms of hydration rate, hydration degree, and water demand to achieve normal consistency. The performances of these systems were also compared with that of the original cement (without added limestone). It was found that the ability to replace an active material with an inert additive, while achieving improved performances, can be obtained by increasing the packing density of the cement-based particles. This may be achieved by replacing the clinker with limestone powders having a combination of several different particle size distributions. Mathematical and physical models were developed to simulate the setting history from initial to final setting time and to predict the packing density of blended cement with limestone having different sizes and various contents. Besides the effect of limestone, as inert additive, on the packing density of the blended cement, the influence of the limestone particle size on three different chemical reactions were studied; hydration of the cement, carbonation of the calcium hydroxide and the reactivity of the limestone with the hydration reaction products. The main results and developments will be presented.

Keywords: packing density, hydration degree, limestone, blended cement

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782 A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete

Authors: N. N. M. Pauzi, M. R. Karim, M. Jamil, R. Hamid, M. F. M. Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.

Keywords: cathode ray tube, glass, coarse aggregate, compressive strength

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781 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment

Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybean

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780 Effects of Particle Size Distribution of Binders on the Performance of Slag-Limestone Ternary Cement

Authors: Zhuomin Zou, Elke Gruyaert, Thijs Van Landeghem

Abstract:

Using supplementary cementitious materials, such as blast-furnace slag and limestone, to replace cement clinker is a promising method to reduce the carbon emissions from cement production. To efficiently use slag and limestone, it is necessary to carefully select the particle size distribution (PSD) of the binders. This study investigated the effects of the PSD of binders on the performance of slag-limestone ternary cement. The Portland cement (PC) was prepared by grinding 95% clinker + 5% gypsum. Based on the PSD parameters of the binders, three types of ternary cements with a similar overall PSD were designed, i.e., NO.1 fine slag, medium PC, and coarse limestone; NO.2 fine limestone, medium PC, and coarse slag; NO.3. fine PC, medium slag, and coarse limestone. The binder contents in the ternary cements were (a) 50 % PC, 40 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called high cement group) or (b) 35 % PC, 55 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called low cement group). The pure PC and binary cement with 50% slag and 50% PC prepared with the same binders as the ternary cement were considered as reference cements. All these cements were used to investigate the mortar performance in terms of workability, strength at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days, carbonation resistance, and non-steady state chloride migration resistance at 28 and 56 days. Results show that blending medium PC with fine slag could exhibit comparable performance to blending fine PC with medium/coarse slag in binary cement. For the three ternary cements in the high cement group, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the lowest strength, carbonation, and chloride migration performance. Ternary cements with fine slag (NO.1) and with fine PC (NO.3) show the highest flexural strength at early and late ages, respectively. In addition, compared with ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3), ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) has a similar carbonation resistance and a better chloride migration resistance. For the low cement group, three ternary cements have a similar flexural and compressive strength before 7 days. After 28 days, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the highest flexural strength while fine PC (NO.3) has the highest compressive strength. In addition, ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) shows a better chloride migration resistance but a lower carbonation resistance compared with the other two ternary cements. Moreover, the durability performance of ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3) is better than that of fine limestone (NO.2).

Keywords: limestone, particle size distribution, slag, ternary cement

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779 PM10 Concentration Emitted from Blasting and Crushing Processes of Limestone Mines in Saraburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Kanokrat Makkwao, Tassanee Prueksasit

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate PM10 emitted from different limestone mines in Saraburi province, Thailand. The blasting and crushing were the main processes selected for PM10 sampling. PM10 was collected in two mines including, a limestone mine for cement manufacturing (mine A) and a limestone mine for construction (mine B). The IMPACT samplers were used to collect PM10. At blasting, the points aligning with the upwind and downwind direction were assigned for the sampling. The ranges of PM10 concentrations at mine A and B were 0.267-5.592 and 0.130-0.325 mg/m³, respectively, and the concentration at blasting from mine A was significantly higher than mine B (p < 0.05). During crushing at mine A, the PM10 concentration with the range of 1.153-3.716 and 0.085-1.724 mg/m³ at crusher and piles in respectively were observed whereas the PM10 concentration measured at four sampling points in mine B, including secondary crusher, tertiary crusher, screening point, and piles, were ranged 1.032-16.529, 10.957-74.057, 0.655-4.956, and 0.169-1.699 mg/m³, respectively. The emission of PM10 concentration at the crushing units was different in the ranges depending on types of machine, its operation, dust collection and control system, and environmental conditions.

Keywords: PM₁₀ concentration, limestone mines, blasting, crushing

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778 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

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777 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian

Abstract:

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
776 Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization

Authors: André C. Silva, Mariana R. Barros, Elenice M. S. Silva, Douglas. Y. Marinho, Diego F. Lopes, Débora N. Sousa, Raphael S. Tomáz

Abstract:

Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.

Keywords: agglomeration, briquetting, limestone, soil acidity correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
775 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash

Abstract:

Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
774 Influence of Physical Properties on Estimation of Mechanical Strength of Limestone

Authors: Khaled Benyounes

Abstract:

Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah(Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Others correlations UCS-tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus-static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: limestone, mechanical strength, Young’s modulus, porosity

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773 Rupture Probability of Type of Coarse Aggregate on Fracture Surface of Concrete

Authors: B. Ramakrishna, S. Sivamurthy Reddy

Abstract:

The various types of aggregates such as granite, dolerite, Quartzite, dolomitic limestone, limestone and river gravel were used to produce the concrete with 28-day target compressive strength of 35, 60, and 80 Mpa. The compressive strength of concrete, as well as aggregates, was measured to study the effect of rupture probability of aggregate on the fracture surface of the concrete. Also, the petrographic studies were carried out to study the texture, type of minerals present and their relative proportions in various types of aggregates. The concrete of various grades produced with the same aggregate has shown a rise in RPCA with strength. However, the above relationship has ceased to exist in the concretes of the same grade, made of different types of aggregates. The carbonate aggregates namely Limestone and Dolomitic limestone have produced concrete with higher RPCA irrespective of the strength of concrete. The mode of origin, texture and mineralogical composition of aggregates have a significant impact on their pulse velocity and thereby the pulse velocity of concrete.

Keywords: RPCA, DL, G, LS, RG

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772 Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Limestone in the Quarry of Meftah (Algeria)

Authors: Khaled Benyounes

Abstract:

Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah (Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Other correlations, UCS - tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus - static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: limestone, mechanical strength, Young’s modulus, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 551
771 Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain

Authors: M. N. Yahaya, K. A. Salako, U. Z. Magawata

Abstract:

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, resistivity, geo-electric, resistivity, aquifer and groundwater

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770 Utilization of Waste Crushed Tile as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Harkaranjit Singh, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and industrialization involving construction of infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, bricks, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viable substitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing of crushed tiles as a coarse aggregate. The waste crushed tiles can be used as coarse aggregates with the replacement ratio of 0, 50, 75 and 100% were used. Mechanical and physical tests were conducted on specimens. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, and flexure.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, waste crushed tile, concrete

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769 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav

Abstract:

Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: chemical reclamation, clay content, environmental concerns, recycle, waste foundry sand

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768 Foraminiferal Description and Biostratigraphy of Eocene Deposits in Zagros Basin (Izeh and Interior Fars Sub-Basins) in South-West of Iran

Authors: Ronak Gravand

Abstract:

Eocene deposits in Zagros basin in tow zones of interior Fars and Izeh include limestone and marly limestone succession along with abundant fossils. The significance of this area is due to its hydro carbonic resources. In Dashte Kuh section, limestone and marly limestone deposits with medium to thick creamy layers containing benthic foraminifera could be seen. Bio-zones identified in such deposits include Opertorbitolites Subzone, Somalina Subzone, Alveolina Nummulites Assemblage Subzone and Nummulites fabianii Silvestriella tetraedra Assembelage Zone. In Nil Kuh section, marly limestone of the succession contain abundant plagic foraminifera. The zones identified in this succession include Morozovella aragonesis Range Zone, Hantkenina nuttalli Range Zone, Hantkenina nuttalli Turborotalia cerro-azulensis Interval Zone, Turborotalia cerro-azulensis Range Zone and Morozovella aragonesis Range Zone.

Keywords: zagros basin, foraminifera , biozone, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 430