Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25648

Search results for: fixed point analysis

25648 A New Fixed Point Theorem for Almost θ-Contraction

Authors: Hichem Ramoul


In this work, we introduce a new type of contractive maps and we establish a new fixed point theorem for the class of almost θ-contractions (more general than the class of almost contractions) in a complete generalized metric space. The major novelty of our work is to prove a new fixed point result by weakening some hypotheses imposed on the function θ which will change completely the classical technique used in the literature review to prove fixed point theorems for almost θ-contractions in a complete generalized metric space.

Keywords: almost contraction, almost θ-contraction, fixed point, generalized metric space

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25647 [Keynote Talk]: Existence of Random Fixed Point Theorem for Contractive Mappings

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


Random fixed point theory has received much attention in recent years, and it is needed for the study of various classes of random equations. The study of random fixed point theorems was initiated by the Prague school of probabilistic in the 1950s. The existence and uniqueness of fixed points for the self-maps of a metric space by altering distances between the points with the use of a control function is an interesting aspect in the classical fixed point theory. In a new category of fixed point problems for a single self-map with the help of a control function that alters the distance between two points in a metric space which they called an altering distance function. In this paper, we prove the results of existence of random common fixed point and its uniqueness for a pair of random mappings under weakly contractive condition for generalizing alter distance function in polish spaces using Random Common Fixed Point Theorem for Generalized Weakly Contractions.

Keywords: Polish space, random common fixed point theorem, weakly contractive mapping, altering function

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25646 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji


The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced.

Keywords: damping, Duffing's equation, fixed point analysis, second order differential, stability analysis

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25645 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain


The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

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25644 Analysis of Chatterjea Type F-Contraction in F-Metric Space and Application

Authors: Awais Asif


This article investigates fixed point theorems of Chatterjea type F-contraction in the setting of F-metric space. We relax the conditions of F-contraction and define modified F-contraction for two mappings. The study provides fixed point results for both single-valued and multivalued mappings. The results are further extended to common fixed point theorems for two mappings. Moreover, to discuss the applicability of our results, an application is provided, which shows the role of our results in finding the solution to functional equations in dynamic programming. Our results generalize and extend the existing results in the literature.

Keywords: Chatterjea type F-contraction, F-cauchy sequence, F-convergent, multi valued mappings

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25643 Existence Solutions for Three Point Boundary Value Problem for Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Houas, Maamar Benbachir


In this paper, under weak assumptions, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a nonlinear fractional boundary value problem. New existence and uniqueness results are established using Banach contraction principle. Other existence results are obtained using scheafer and krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem. At the end, some illustrative examples are presented.

Keywords: caputo derivative, boundary value problem, fixed point theorem, local conditions

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25642 Common Fixed Point Results and Stability of a Modified Jungck Iterative Scheme

Authors: Hudson Akewe


In this study, we introduce a modified Jungck (Dual Jungck) iterative scheme and use the scheme to approximate the unique common fixed point of a pair of generalized contractive-like operators in a Banach space. The iterative scheme is also shown to be stable with respect to the maps (S,T). An example is taken to justify the convergence of the scheme. Our result is a generalization and improvement of several results in the literature on single map T.

Keywords: generalized contractive-like operators, modified Jungck iterative scheme, stability results, weakly compatible maps, unique common fixed point

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25641 Neural Network in Fixed Time for Collision Detection between Two Convex Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari


In this paper, a different architecture of a collision detection neural network (DCNN) is developed. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons, linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. The study of the collision detection is divided into two sections, the collision between a point and a polyhedron and then the collision between two convex polyhedra. The aim of this research is to determine through the AMAXNET network a mini maximum point in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: collision identification, fixed time, convex polyhedra, neural network, AMAXNET

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25640 Nadler's Fixed Point Theorem on Partial Metric Spaces and its Application to a Homotopy Result

Authors: Hemant Kumar Pathak


In 1994, Matthews (S.G. Matthews, Partial metric topology, in: Proc. 8th Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications, in: Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 728, 1994, pp. 183-197) introduced the concept of a partial metric as a part of the study of denotational semantics of data flow networks. He gave a modified version of the Banach contraction principle, more suitable in this context. In fact, (complete) partial metric spaces constitute a suitable framework to model several distinguished examples of the theory of computation and also to model metric spaces via domain theory. In this paper, we introduce the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric. We prove a fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings on partial metric space using the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric and prove an analogous to the well-known Nadler’s fixed point theorem. In the sequel, we derive a homotopy result as an application of our main result.

Keywords: fixed point, partial metric space, homotopy, physical sciences

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25639 A Survey on Fixed Point Iterations in Modular Function Spaces and an Application to Ode

Authors: Hudson Akewe


This research presents complementary results with wider applications on convergence and rate of convergence of classical fixed point theory in Banach spaces to the world of the theory of fixed points of mappings defined in classes of spaces of measurable functions, known in the literature as modular function spaces. The study gives a comprehensive survey of various iterative fixed point results for the classes of multivalued ρ-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive, ρ-Zamfirescu and ρ-contraction mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the implicit-type iterative schemes to the system of ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, numerical examples are given to show the rate of convergence of the various explicit Kirk-type and implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes under consideration. Our results complement the results obtained on normed and metric spaces in the literature. Also, our methods of proof serve as a guide to obtain several similar improved results for nonexpansive, pseudo-contractive, and accretive type mappings.

Keywords: implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes, multivalued mappings, convergence results, fixed point

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25638 Fractal Analysis of Some Bifurcations of Discrete Dynamical Systems in Higher Dimensions

Authors: Lana Horvat Dmitrović


The main purpose of this paper is to study the box dimension as fractal property of bifurcations of discrete dynamical systems in higher dimensions. The paper contains the fractal analysis of the orbits near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points in discrete dynamical systems. It is already known that in one-dimensional case the orbit near the hyperbolic fixed point has the box dimension equal to zero. On the other hand, the orbit near the non-hyperbolic fixed point has strictly positive box dimension which is connected to the non-degeneracy condition of certain bifurcation. One of the main results in this paper is the generalisation of results about box dimension near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points to higher dimensions. In the process of determining box dimension, the restriction of systems to stable, unstable and center manifolds, Lipschitz property of box dimension and the notion of projective box dimension are used. The analysis of the bifurcations in higher dimensions with one multiplier on the unit circle is done by using the normal forms on one-dimensional center manifolds. This specific change in box dimension of an orbit at the moment of bifurcation has already been explored for some bifurcations in one and two dimensions. It was shown that specific values of box dimension are connected to appropriate bifurcations such as fold, flip, cusp or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. This paper further explores this connection of box dimension as fractal property to some specific bifurcations in higher dimensions, such as fold-flip and flip-Neimark-Sacker. Furthermore, the application of the results to the unit time map of continuous dynamical system near hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic singularities is presented. In that way, box dimensions which are specific for certain bifurcations of continuous systems can be obtained. The approach to bifurcation analysis by using the box dimension as specific fractal property of orbits can lead to better understanding of bifurcation phenomenon. It could also be useful in detecting the existence or nonexistence of bifurcations of discrete and continuous dynamical systems.

Keywords: bifurcation, box dimension, invariant manifold, orbit near fixed point

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25637 Explicit Iterative Scheme for Approximating a Common Solution of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem and Fixed Point Problem for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Hilbert Space

Authors: Mohammad Farid


In this paper, we introduce and study an explicit iterative method based on hybrid extragradient method to approximate a common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup in Hilbert space. Further, we prove that the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme converge strongly to the common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup. This common solution is the unique solution of a variational inequality problem and is the optimality condition for a minimization problem. The results presented in this paper are the supplement, extension and generalization of the previously known results in this area.

Keywords: generalized mixed equilibrium problem, fixed-point problem, nonexpansive semigroup, variational inequality problem, iterative algorithms, hybrid extragradient method

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25636 On Tarski’s Type Theorems for L-Fuzzy Isotone and L-Fuzzy Relatively Isotone Maps on L-Complete Propelattices

Authors: František Včelař, Zuzana Pátíková


Recently a new type of very general relational structures, the so called (L-)complete propelattices, was introduced. These significantly generalize complete lattices and completely lattice L-ordered sets, because they do not assume the technically very strong property of transitivity. For these structures also the main part of the original Tarski’s fixed point theorem holds for (L-fuzzy) isotone maps, i.e., the part which concerns the existence of fixed points and the structure of their set. In this paper, fundamental properties of (L-)complete propelattices are recalled and the so called L-fuzzy relatively isotone maps are introduced. For these maps it is proved that they also have fixed points in L-complete propelattices, even if their set does not have to be of an awaited analogous structure of a complete propelattice.

Keywords: fixed point, L-complete propelattice, L-fuzzy (relatively) isotone map, residuated lattice, transitivity

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25635 Existence of Positive Solutions for Second-Order Difference Equation with Discrete Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Thanin Sitthiwirattham, Jiraporn Reunsumrit


We study the existence of positive solutions to the three points difference summation boundary value problem. We show the existence of at least one positive solution if f is either superlinear or sublinear by applying the fixed point theorem due to Krasnoselskii in cones.

Keywords: positive solution, boundary value problem, fixed point theorem, cone

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25634 Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of a Reaction Diffusion System of Lambda-Omega Type

Authors: Hassan Al Salman, Ahmed Al Ghafli


In this study we consider a nonlinear in time finite element approximation of a reaction diffusion system of lambda-omega type. We use a fixed point theorem to prove existence of the approximations. Then, we derive some essential stability estimates and discuss the uniqueness of the approximations. Also, we prove an optimal error bound in time for d=1, 2 and 3 space dimensions. Finally, we present some numerical experiments to verify the theoretical results.

Keywords: reaction diffusion system, finite element approximation, fixed point theorem, an optimal error bound

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25633 Existence Theory for First Order Functional Random Differential Equations

Authors: Rajkumar N. Ingle


In this paper, the existence of a solution of nonlinear functional random differential equations of the first order is proved under caratheodory condition. The study of the functional random differential equation has got importance in the random analysis of the dynamical systems of universal phenomena. Objectives: Nonlinear functional random differential equation is useful to the scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, who are engaged in N.F.R.D.E. analyzing a universal random phenomenon, govern by nonlinear random initial value problems of D.E. Applications of this in the theory of diffusion or heat conduction. Methodology: Using the concepts of probability theory, functional analysis, generally the existence theorems for the nonlinear F.R.D.E. are prove by using some tools such as fixed point theorem. The significance of the study: Our contribution will be the generalization of some well-known results in the theory of Nonlinear F.R.D.E.s. Further, it seems that our study will be useful to scientist, engineers, economists and mathematicians in their endeavors to analyses the nonlinear random problems of the universe in a better way.

Keywords: Random Fixed Point Theorem, functional random differential equation, N.F.R.D.E., universal random phenomenon

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25632 Criterion-Referenced Test Reliability through Threshold Loss Agreement: Fuzzy Logic Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alavidoost, Hossein Bozorgian


Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. The reliability of such tests cannot be based on internal reliability. Threshold loss agreement is one way to calculate the reliability of CRTs. However, the selection of master and non-master in such agreement is determined by the threshold point. The problem is if the threshold point witnesses a minute change, the selection of master and non-master may have a drastic change, leading to the change in reliability results. Therefore, in this study, the Fuzzy logic approach is employed as a remedial procedure for data analysis to obviate the threshold point problem. Forty-one Iranian students were selected; the participants were all between 20 and 30 years old. A quantitative approach was used to address the research questions. In doing so, a quasi-experimental design was utilized since the selection of the participants was not randomized. Based on the Fuzzy logic approach, the threshold point would be more stable during the analysis, resulting in rather constant reliability results and more precise assessment.

Keywords: criterion-referenced tests, threshold loss agreement, threshold point, fuzzy logic approach

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25631 Evaluation of Quasi-Newton Strategy for Algorithmic Acceleration

Authors: T. Martini, J. M. Martínez


An algorithmic acceleration strategy based on quasi-Newton (or secant) methods is displayed for address the practical problem of accelerating the convergence of the Newton-Lagrange method in the case of convergence to critical multipliers. Since the Newton-Lagrange iteration converges locally at a linear rate, it is natural to conjecture that quasi-Newton methods based on the so called secant equation and some minimal variation principle, could converge superlinearly, thus restoring the convergence properties of Newton's method. This strategy can also be applied to accelerate the convergence of algorithms applied to fixed-points problems. Computational experience is reported illustrating the efficiency of this strategy to solve fixed-point problems with linear convergence rate.

Keywords: algorithmic acceleration, fixed-point problems, nonlinear programming, quasi-newton method

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25630 Existence of Positive Solutions to a Dirichlet Second Order Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Muhammad Sufian Jusoh, Mesliza Mohamed


In this paper, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for a Dirichlet second order boundary value problem by applying the Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem on compression and expansion of cones.

Keywords: Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem, positive solutions, Dirichlet boundary value problem, Dirichlet second order boundary problem

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25629 Weak Convergence of Mann Iteration for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings in a Banach Space

Authors: Alemayehu Geremew Geremew


We prove the weak convergence of Mann iteration for a hybrid pair of maps to a common fixed point of a selfmap f and a multivalued f nonexpansive mapping T in Banach space E.

Keywords: common fixed point, Mann iteration, multivalued mapping, weak convergence

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25628 Basis Theorem of Equivalence of Explicit-Type Iterations for the Class of Multivalued Phi-Quasi-Contrative Maps in Modular Function Spaces

Authors: Hudson Akewe


We prove that the convergence of explicit Mann, explicit Ishikawa, explicit Noor, explicit SP, explicit multistep and explicit multistep-SP fixed point iterative procedures are equivalent for the classes of multi-valued phi-contraction, phi-Zamfirescu and phi-quasi-contractive mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. Our results complement equivalence results on normed and metric spaces in the literature as they elegantly cut out the triangle inequality.

Keywords: multistep iterative procedures, multivalued mappings, equivalence results, fixed point

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25627 Existence of positive periodic solutions for certain delay differential equations

Authors: Farid Nouioua, Abdelouaheb Ardjouni


In this article, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of certain delay differential equations. In the process we convert the differential equation into an equivalent integral equation after which appropriate mappings are constructed. We then employ Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem to obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of a positive periodic solution of the differential equation. The obtained results improve and extend the results in the literature. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.

Keywords: delay differential equations, positive periodic solutions, integral equations, Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem

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25626 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

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25625 Total Controllability of the Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equation with Delay and Non-Instantaneous Impulses

Authors: Muslim Malik, Avadhesh Kumar


A stronger concept of exact controllability which is called Total Controllability is introduced in this manuscript. Sufficient conditions have been established for the total controllability of a control problem, governed by second order nonlinear differential equation with delay and non-instantaneous impulses in a Banach space X. The results are obtained using the strongly continuous cosine family and Banach fixed point theorem. Also, the total controllability of an integrodifferential problem is investigated. At the end, some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the analytical findings.

Keywords: Banach fixed point theorem, non-instantaneous impulses, strongly continuous cosine family, total controllability

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25624 A Coupled System of Caputo-Type Katugampola Fractional Differential Equations with Integral Boundary Conditions

Authors: Yacine Arioua


In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a coupled system of nonlinear Caputo-type Katugampola fractional differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Based upon a contraction mapping principle, Schauders fixed point theorems, some new existence and uniqueness results of solutions for the given problems are obtained. For application, some examples are given to illustrate the usefulness of our main results.

Keywords: fractional differential equations, coupled system, Caputo-Katugampola derivative, fixed point theorems, existence, uniqueness

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25623 Design of Reconfigurable Fixed-Point LMS Adaptive FIR Filter

Authors: S. Padmapriya, V. Lakshmi Prabha


In this paper, an efficient reconfigurable fixed-point Least Mean Square Adaptive FIR filter is proposed. The proposed architecture has two methods of operation: one is area efficient design and the other is optimized power. Pipelining of the adder blocks and partial product generator are used to achieve low area and reversible logic is used to obtain low power design. Depending upon the input samples and filter coefficients, one of the techniques is chosen. Least-Mean-Square adaptation is performed to update the weights. The architecture is coded using Verilog and synthesized in cadence encounter 0.18μm technology. The synthesized results show that the area reduction ratio of the proposed when compared with conventional technique is about 1.2%.

Keywords: adaptive filter, carry select adder, least mean square algorithm, reversible logic

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25622 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa


Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis

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25621 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended

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25620 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves and generalizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: the iterative process is faster, operators are more general. In the end, we indicate that the results can also be proved with the iterative process with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence

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25619 Study on 3D FE Analysis on Normal and Osteoporosis Mouse Models Based on 3-Point Bending Tests

Authors: Tae-min Byun, Chang-soo Chon, Dong-hyun Seo, Han-sung Kim, Bum-mo Ahn, Hui-suk Yun, Cheolwoong Ko


In this study, a 3-point bending computational analysis of normal and osteoporosis mouse models was performed based on the Micro-CT image information of the femurs. The finite element analysis (FEA) found 1.68 N (normal group) and 1.39 N (osteoporosis group) in the average maximum force, and 4.32 N/mm (normal group) and 3.56 N/mm (osteoporosis group) in the average stiffness. In the comparison of the 3-point bending test results, the maximum force and the stiffness were different about 9.4 times in the normal group and about 11.2 times in the osteoporosis group. The difference between the analysis and the test was greatly significant and this result demonstrated improvement points of the material properties applied to the computational analysis of this study. For the next study, the material properties of the mouse femur will be supplemented through additional computational analysis and test.

Keywords: 3-point bending test, mouse, osteoporosis, FEA

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