Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: quadrotor

13 Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Controller For Quadrotor UAV

Authors: Vahid Tabrizi, Reza GHasemi, Ahmadreza Vali


This paper presents robust nonlinear control law for a quadrotor UAV using fast terminal sliding mode control. Fast terminal sliding mode idea is used for introducing a nonlinear sliding variable that guarantees the finite time convergence in sliding phase. Then, in reaching phase for removing chattering and producing smooth control signal, continuous approximation idea is used. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against parameter uncertainty and has better performance than conventional sliding mode for controlling a quadrotor UAV.

Keywords: quadrotor UAV, fast terminal sliding mode, second order sliding mode t

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12 Visual Servoing for Quadrotor UAV Target Tracking: Effects of Target Information Sharing

Authors: Jason R. King, Hugh H. T. Liu


This research presents simulation and experimental work in the visual servoing of a quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to stabilize overtop of a moving target. Most previous work in the field assumes static or slow-moving, unpredictable targets. In this experiment, the target is assumed to be a friendly ground robot moving freely on a horizontal plane, which shares information with the UAV. This information includes velocity and acceleration information of the ground target to aid the quadrotor in its tracking task. The quadrotor is assumed to have a downward-facing camera which is fixed to the frame of the quadrotor. Only onboard sensing for the quadrotor is utilized for the experiment, with a VICON motion capture system in place used only to measure ground truth and evaluate the performance of the controller. The experimental platform consists of an ArDrone 2.0 and a Create Roomba, communicating using Robot Operating System (ROS). The addition of the target’s information is demonstrated to help the quadrotor in its tracking task using simulations of the dynamic model of a quadrotor in Matlab Simulink. A nested PID control loop is utilized for inner-loop control the quadrotor, similar to previous works at the Flight Systems and Controls Laboratory (FSC) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Experiments are performed with ground truth provided by an indoor motion capture system, and the results are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a velocity controller which incorporates the additional information is able to perform better than the controllers which do not have access to the target’s information.

Keywords: quadrotor, target tracking, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV, UAS, visual servoing

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11 Trajectory Tracking Control for Quadrotor Helicopter by Controlled Lagrangian Method

Authors: Ce Liu, Wei Huo


A nonlinear trajectory tracking controller for quadrotor helicopter based on controlled Lagrangian (CL) method is proposed in this paper. A Lagrangian system with virtual angles as generated coordinates rather than Euler angles is developed. Based on the model, the matching conditions presented by nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified and explicitly solved. Smooth tracking control laws and the range of control parameters are deduced based on the controlled energy of closed-loop system. Besides, a constraint condition for reference accelerations is deduced to identify the trackable reference trajectories by the proposed controller and to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed method in this paper does not rely on the division of the quadrotor system, and the design of the control torques does not depend on the thrust as in backstepping or hierarchical control method. Simulations for a quadrotor model demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the theoretical results.

Keywords: quadrotor, trajectory tracking control, controlled lagrangians, underactuated system

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10 Iterative Linear Quadratic Regulator (iLQR) vs LQR Controllers for Quadrotor Path Tracking

Authors: Wesam Jasim, Dongbing Gu


This paper presents an iterative linear quadratic regulator optimal control technique to solve the problem of quadrotors path tracking. The dynamic motion equations are represented based on unit quaternion representation and include some modelled aerodynamical effects as a nonlinear part. Simulation results prove the ability and effectiveness of iLQR to stabilize the quadrotor and successfully track different paths. It also shows that iLQR controller outperforms LQR controller in terms of fast convergence and tracking errors.

Keywords: iLQR controller, optimal control, path tracking, quadrotor UAVs

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9 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson


A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive control, unlike a fixed gain control, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture results in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, robotic arm augmentation, model reference adaptive control, LQR control

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8 Quadrotor in Horizontal Motion Control and Maneuverability

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi


In this paper, controller design for the attitude and altitude dynamics of an outdoor quadrotor, which is constructed with low cost actuators and drivers, is aimed. Before designing the controller, the quadrotor is modeled mathematically in Matlab-Simulink environment. To control attitude dynamics, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based controllers are designed, simulated and applied to the system. Two different proportional-integral-derivative action (PID) controllers are designed to control yaw and altitude dynamics. During the implementation of the designed controllers, different test setups are used. Designed controllers are implemented and tuned on the real system using xPC Target. Tests show that these basic control structures are successful to control the attitude and altitude dynamics.

Keywords: helicopter balance, flight dynamics, autonomous landing, control robotics

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7 Smooth Second Order Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a 6 DOF Quadrotor UAV

Authors: V. Tabrizi, A. Vali, R. GHasemi, V. Behnamgol


In this article, a nonlinear model of an under actuated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) quadrotor UAV is derived on the basis of the Newton-Euler formula. The derivation comprises determining equations of the motion of the quadrotor in three dimensions and approximating the actuation forces through the modeling of aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics. The robust nonlinear control strategy includes a smooth second order non-singular terminal sliding mode control which is applied to stabilizing this model. The control method is on the basis of super twisting algorithm for removing the chattering and producing smooth control signal. Also, nonsingular terminal sliding mode idea is used for introducing a nonlinear sliding variable that guarantees the finite time convergence in sliding phase. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against uncertainty or disturbance and guarantees a fast and precise control signal.

Keywords: quadrotor UAV, nonsingular terminal sliding mode, second order sliding mode t, electronics, control, signal processing

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6 Internet Based Teleoperation of the Quad Rotor with Force Feedback Using Smith Predictor

Authors: K. Senthil Kumar, A. Vasumalaikannan


In this paper, teleoperation of the quadrotor using Internet with Force feedback is addressed. Teleoperation with Force feedback is the ability to remotely control a robot, where contact (obstacle) or environment (wind gust etc) information (force feedback) is communicated from the quadrotor to the master joystick and thus giving the operator a sense of telepresence. The stability and performance of such a teleoperator is highly dependent on the amount of time delay present in the control loop. This problem is further complicated given the fact that for network based communication the time delay is itself time varying and highly non deterministic. In this paper, a novel method using Neural based Smith Predictor at the master side the stability is achieved. The performance of the system even during worst case scenario is within acceptable.

Keywords: teleoperation, quadrotor, neural smith predictor, time delay

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5 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz


In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: quadrotor, UAS applications, control architectures, PID

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4 Super-ellipsoidal Potential Function for Autonomous Collision Avoidance of a Teleoperated UAV

Authors: Mohammed Qasim, Kyoung-Dae Kim


In this paper, we present the design of the super-ellipsoidal potential function (SEPF), that can be used for autonomous collision avoidance of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a 3-dimensional space. In the design of SEPF, we have the full control over the shape and size of the potential function. In particular, we can adjust the length, width, height, and the amount of flattening at the tips of the potential function so that the collision avoidance motion vector generated from the potential function can be adjusted accordingly. Based on the idea of the SEPF, we also propose an approach for the local autonomy of a UAV for its collision avoidance when the UAV is teleoperated by a human operator. In our proposed approach, a teleoperated UAV can not only avoid collision autonomously with other surrounding objects but also track the operator’s control input as closely as possible. As a result, an operator can always be in control of the UAV for his/her high-level guidance and navigation task without worrying too much about the UAVs collision avoidance while it is being teleoperated. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a human-in-the-loop simulation of quadrotor UAV teleoperation using virtual robot experimentation platform (v-rep) and Matlab programs.

Keywords: artificial potential function, autonomous collision avoidance, teleoperation, quadrotor

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3 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda


In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi


Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: octorotor, design, PID controller, autonomous, trajectory tracking

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1 Brain-Computer Interface Based Real-Time Control of Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Ravi Vishwanath, Saumya Kumaar, S. N. Omkar


Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is a technology that is almost four decades old, and it was developed solely for the purpose of developing and enhancing the impact of neuroprosthetics. However, in the recent times, with the commercialization of non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, the technology has seen a wide variety of applications like home automation, wheelchair control, vehicle steering, etc. One of the latest developed applications is the mind-controlled quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications, however, do not require a very high-speed response and give satisfactory results when standard classification methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLPC). Issues are faced when there is a requirement for high-speed control in the case of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles where such methods are rendered unreliable due to the low speed of classification. Such an application requires the system to classify data at high speeds in order to retain the controllability of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method of classification which uses a combination of Common Spatial Paradigm and Linear Discriminant Analysis that provides an improved classification accuracy in real time. A non-linear SVM based classification technique has also been discussed. Further, this paper discusses the implementation of the proposed method on a fixed-wing and VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, classification, machine learning, unmanned aerial vehicles

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