Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1022

Search results for: Muhammad Umair Shahid

1022 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman

Abstract:

The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector

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1021 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

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1020 Simulation of Flow through Dam Foundation by FEM and ANN Methods Case Study: Shahid Abbaspour Dam

Authors: Mehrdad Shahrbanozadeh, Gholam Abbas Barani, Saeed Shojaee

Abstract:

In this study, a finite element (Seep3D model) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model were developed to simulate flow through dam foundation. Seep3D model is capable of simulating three-dimensional flow through a heterogeneous and anisotropic, saturated and unsaturated porous media. Flow through the Shahid Abbaspour dam foundation has been used as a case study. The FEM with 24960 triangular elements and 28707 nodes applied to model flow through foundation of this dam. The FEM being made denser in the neighborhood of the curtain screen. The ANN model developed for Shahid Abbaspour dam is a feedforward four layer network employing the sigmoid function as an activator and the back-propagation algorithm for the network learning. The water level elevations of the upstream and downstream of the dam have been used as input variables and the piezometric heads as the target outputs in the ANN model. The two models are calibrated and verified using the Shahid Abbaspour’s dam piezometric data. Results of the models were compared with those measured by the piezometers which are in good agreement. The model results also revealed that the ANN model performed as good as and in some cases better than the FEM.

Keywords: seepage, dam foundation, finite element method, neural network, seep 3D model

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1019 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris

Abstract:

Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

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1018 Artificial Intelligence Based Online Monitoring System for Cardiac Patient

Authors: Syed Qasim Gilani, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Noman, Syed Bilawal Shah, Aqib Abbasi, Muhammad Waheed

Abstract:

Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD's) are the major cause of death in the world. The main reason for these deaths is the unavailability of first aid for heart failure. In many cases, patients die before reaching the hospital. We in this paper are presenting innovative online health service for Cardiac Patients. The proposed online health system has two ends. Users through device developed by us can communicate with their doctor through a mobile application. This interface provides them with first aid.Also by using this service, they have an easy interface with their doctors for attaining medical advice. According to the proposed system, we developed a device called Cardiac Care. Cardiac Care is a portable device which a patient can use at their home for monitoring heart condition. When a patient checks his/her heart condition, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood Pressure(BP), Temperature are sent to the central database. The severity of patients condition is checked using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm at the database. If the patient is suffering from the minor problem, our algorithm will suggest a prescription for patients. But if patient's condition is severe, patients record is sent to doctor through the mobile Android application. Doctor after reviewing patients condition suggests next step. If a doctor identifies the patient condition as critical, then the message is sent to the central database for sending an ambulance for the patient. Ambulance starts moving towards patient for bringing him/her to hospital. We have implemented this model at prototype level. This model will be life-saving for millions of people around the globe. According to this proposed model patients will be in contact with their doctors all the time.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, classification, electrocardiogram, blood pressure

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1017 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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1016 Effect of Weave Structure and Picking Sequence on the Comfort Properties of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Tanveer Hussain, Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Maqsood, Madeha Jabbar

Abstract:

The term comfort is defined as 'the absence of unpleasantness or discomfort' or 'a neutral state compared to the more active state'. Comfort mainly is of three types: sensorial (tactile) comfort, psychological comfort and thermo-physiological comfort. Thermophysiological comfort is determined by the air permeability and moisture management properties of the garment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weave structure and picking sequence on the comfort properties of woven fabrics. Six woven fabrics with two different weave structures i.e. 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill and three different picking sequences: (SPI, DPI, 3PI) were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, wetting time, wicking behavior and overall moisture management capability (OMMC) of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and picking sequence on the response variables. It was found that fabrics woven in twill weave design and with simultaneous triple pick insertion (3PI) give significantly better air permeability, shorter wetting time and better water spreading rate, as compared to plain woven fabrics and those with double pick insertion (DPI) or single pick insertion (SPI). It could be concluded that the thermophysiological comfort of woven fabrics may be significantly improved simply by selecting a suitable weave design and picking sequence.

Keywords: air permeability, picking sequence, thermophysiological comfort, weave design

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1015 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

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1014 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal

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Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

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1013 Interpreting the Conflicted Self: A Reading of Agha Shahid Ali's Verses

Authors: Javeria Khurshid

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to bring forth the interpretation that Agha Shahid Ali in his verses exhibits. The study will focus on the conflict and chaos in his verses, reflecting the sense of identity attached to Kashmir. His verse advertently depicts the political turmoil and social dissent in the 'un-silent' valley, and ultimately, it expresses the chaos, anguish, and suffering, a sense of longing and belonging to this conflicted state of 'being' as well as 'mind.' Agha Shahid Ali, Kashmiri- American poet who writes of Kashmiri tragedies that continue to remain unarticulated and unheard to the major parts of world, articulates the narrative that showcases the conflicted self of Kashmiris in general and Ali’s in particular. The focus of the paper will be his poetry that debunks the claims of civility and how Kashmiri identity is kept either maligned or obscured in the major narratives that arise from the mainstream writers. However, Ali’s verses are substantially broad and clear, and very brilliantly, he rewrites Kashmir in his avid and novel voice, his verses embracing the Kashmiri self, effectively anew in English language. The paper will clearly indicate how Ali remains true to his name, 'shaheed' and 'shahid,' both a martyr and witness. Ali’s fate has been intricately entangled with Kashmir, even after his untimely death. He has fully and beautifully immersed himself in the surreal world of the conflict prevalent in the Valley, and this paper will examine the grotesque and gory history that has been spanning over the years in Kashmir with never ending cycle of conflict. The originality and innovation of his poetry surfaces from the anarchy of Kashmir, spanning between its culture, historical context, the art of memory and imagery.

Keywords: identity, self, turmoil, Kashmir

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1012 Comparative Demography of Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Respect to Different Aphid Species

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad R. Shahid, M. Shakeel, A. Iftikhar, M. Sagheer, Riaz A. Kainth

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Comparative demography of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied with respect to four host aphid species viz; Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Sitobion avenae, and Shizaphis graminum under laboratory conditions using Two-sex Age-stage life table instead of traditional age specific life table which considers only female. Results revealed that developmental period from egg to adult of C. septempunctata were shorter on R. padi (16.49 days) whereas longer on R. maidis (22.83 days). Net reproductive rate varied from 110.01 offspring on R. maidis to 288.78 offspring on R. padi. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 29.02 d on R. padi to 39.788 d on R. maidis. Highest to lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were recorded on R. padi, S. graminum, S. avenae, and R. maidis (0.194, 0.143, 0.140 and 0.117 d⁻¹, respectively). Highest finite rate of increase was observed on R. padi (1.214 d⁻¹) followed by S. graminum (1.154 d⁻¹) whereas lowest values were obtained on R. maidis and S. avenae (1.124 and 1.150 d⁻¹, respectively). In this study, the data on the life table of both predator and prey provide useful information in the mass rearing and practical application of a natural agent to biological control systems.

Keywords: C. septempunctata, two-sex age-stage life table, population parameters, aphid species

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1011 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed

Abstract:

Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richness

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1010 Screening of the Sunflower Genotypes for Drought Stress at Seedling Stage by Polyethylene Glycol under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Uzma Ayaz, Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan

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Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under water-stressed conditions. A total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested against drought stress at Seedling stages by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principal component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency are positively linked with each other hence, these traits were responsible for most of the variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-3, line-2, and 17578, line-1, line-7, line-6 and 17562 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of drought-tolerant inbreed lines which could be subsequently used in future heterosis breeding programs.

Keywords: sunflower, drought, stress, polyethylene- glycol, screening

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1009 Exploiting Fast Independent Component Analysis Based Algorithm for Equalization of Impaired Baseband Received Signal

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani

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A technique using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for blind receiver signal processing is investigated. The problem of the receiver signal processing is viewed as of signal equalization and implementation imperfections compensation. Based on this, a model similar to a general ICA problem is developed for the received signal. Then, the use of ICA technique for blind signal equalization in the time domain is presented. The equalization is regarded as a signal separation problem, since the desired signal is separated from interference terms. This problem is addressed in the paper by over-sampling of the received signal. By using ICA for equalization, besides channel equalization, other transmission imperfections such as Direct current (DC) bias offset, carrier phase and In phase Quadrature phase imbalance will also be corrected. Simulation results for a system using 16-Quadraure Amplitude Modulation(QAM) are presented to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: blind equalization, blind signal separation, equalization, independent component analysis, transmission impairments, QAM receiver

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1008 Antagonistic Effect of Indigenous Plant Extracts toward Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Ali Hassan, Umm-e- Rubab, Muhammad Nadeem

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Insecticidal property of plant extracts was assessed toward dusky bug of cotton. Plant extracts consisted of bari pata (Ziziphus jajuba), Ak (Calotropis gigantean), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Bakine (Melia azedarach),Kanar (Nerium oleander),Kurtuma (Mitragyna speciosa) and one Control was also included with distilled water treatment. Forced feeding experiment was used to determine the antibiotic effect of bug plant extracts on dusky bug whereas Multi-choice experiment to determine the antixenosis/ repellent property of botanicals. It is evident from the results that mortality and antibiosis percentage of dusky bug due to the use of botanicals ranged from 15-95% and 20-87.3% respectively that was maximum in tobacoo extract followed by bakain and kurtama, minimum was on Ak, kanair and bakain extract. Non preference ranged from 14.28 to 85.7 where maximum non preference of dusky bug was found on bakain and kurtama followed by ak and kanair however minimum was on Bari pata extract. It was further found that local plant extract possessed insecticidal property toward dusky bug as well as also possesses repellency effect toward dusky bug, thus should be included in integrated pest management program of cotton in order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides it is compulsory to adopt eco-friendly methods of insect pest management.

Keywords: botanical extract, insecticidal and repellency activity, Gossypium hirsutum, oxycarenus laetus

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1007 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik

Abstract:

Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

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1006 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

Abstract:

Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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1005 Induction Melting as a Fabrication Route for Aluminum-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Mansoor

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Increasing demands of contemporary applications for high strength and lightweight materials prompted the development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). After the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 (revealing an excellent set of mechanical properties) became one of the most promising strengthening materials for MMC applications. Additionally, the relatively low density of the nanotubes imparted high specific strengths, making them perfect strengthening material to reinforce MMCs. In the present study, aluminum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Al-MWCNTs) composite was prepared in an air induction furnace. The dispersion of the nanotubes in molten aluminum was assisted by inherent string action of induction heating at 790°C. During the fabrication process, multifunctional fluxes were used to avoid oxidation of the nanotubes and molten aluminum. Subsequently, the melt was cast in to a copper mold and cold rolled to 0.5 mm thickness. During metallographic examination using a scanning electron microscope, it was observed that the nanotubes were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly increased as compared to pure aluminum specimen i.e. the yield strength from 65 to 115 MPa, the tensile strength from 82 to 125 MPa and hardness from 27 to 30 HV for pure aluminum and Al-CNTs composite, respectively. To recognize the associated strengthening mechanisms in the nanocomposites, three foremost strengthening models i.e. shear lag model, Orowan looping and Hall-Petch have been critically analyzed; experimental data were found to be closely satisfying the shear lag model.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, induction melting, strengthening mechanism, nanocomposite

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1004 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

Abstract:

The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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1003 Assessment of Germination Loss Due to Dusky Cotton Bug (Oxycarenus laetus) in Relation to Cotton Boll Stage and Bug Intensity

Authors: Ali Hassan, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Rafique Shahid, Farazia Hassan, Shumaila Rasool

Abstract:

Dusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus laetus) has attained the status of major insect pest of cotton. It is also known as seed bug due to its property of feeding on seeds. It causes floral abscission at flowering stage and reduction in seed germination. Present study was carried out to assess germination loss caused by dusky bug with respect to crop stage and insect intensity. Treatments consisted of three stages immature boll, mature boll and opened boll as well three levels of dusky bug i.e., 50 bugs per boll, 40 bugs per boll along with zero level kept as control. Results showed that the germination percentage was highest in control treatment where no insect was released followed by treatment where 40 insects released and minimum germination showed by treatment in which 50 insects were released. The germination percentage of seeds surpassed after control treatment in the treatment where dusky bugs exposure was given at boll opening stage than on mature boll stage. Minimum germination was observed in immature boll stage. Interaction between crop stages and dusky bug levels showed that germination percentage of seeds was maximum in control treatment then boll opening stage followed by mature boll stage. Minimum seed germination was recorded in dusky bug treatment at immature boll stage which was 34% where 50 insects were released. From the results it is clear that dusky bug should be managed properly at all reproductive stages but immature stage is most critical.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Oxycarenus laetus, seed bug, seed germination

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1002 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmala

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1001 Political Behavior and Democratic Values: Framing Analysis of Political Discussion Programs in Pakistan

Authors: Umair Nadeem, Sidra Umair

Abstract:

Political behavior of voters and democratic values have been observed an emerging phenomenon in recent years in Pakistan. Privatized TV news channels are taking one sided position on the political issues, corresponding with respective political parties. Since last decade, TV News Channels have undermined this monopoly. Elections 2013 were unique in Pakistan with reference to political behavior and democratic values. Partisan narratives and counter narratives have been witnessed on different TV channels, in last few years. These mediated events seem very important to study the political behavior and democratic values as the country is approaching towards elections 2018. This endeavor is an attempt to capture the framing of the parties, issues in the partisan media culture and framing effects on political behavior of voters. Data for this research come from two data set. Content analysis of selected representative talks shows broadcast on mainstream news channels provide an assessment of the framing while quantitative survey of the discussion program’s viewers from Lahore city provide an evidence of framing effects on political behavior on voters and on democratic values. Regression results help us to argue that the highly partisan shows are strong predictors of polarized views among the audience. Study also grasp the attention of scholars towards the implications of this phenomenon.

Keywords: democratic values, partisan media, polarized views, political behavior

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1000 The Investigation of Cracking on the Shell of Dryers (tag No. 2DR-1745 and DR-1402) in Shahid Tondguyan Petrochemical Company (STPC)

Authors: Ali Haghiri

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This research has been to investigate the cause of the stress corrosion cracking on dryer equipment (2DR-1745 and DR-1402) in Shahid Tondguyan Petrochemical Company (STPC). These dryers are as a drying powder Terphetalic acid in CTA2 and CTA1 unit. After passing through RVF equipment, wet cake moisture content of about 14% and temperature of 90C changed into a dry cake with a moisture content of less than 0.1% and the final temperature of about 140C and sent out Final Silo (FS-1820). After the declaration of the operation department concerning the observation of acid leakage under the primary insulation was decided that at the first opportunity, this issue must be investigated. So, after the shutdown of a unit at the date 2012/10/20 (2DR-1745) and 2021/11/24 (DR-1402) and after washing the dryer wall, insulation around the wall opened and it was found to crack and leakage from some points.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, residual stress, austenitic stainless steel, Br- ion

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999 The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Hadith Thematical Study

Authors: Nurzarimah Jamil, Mohd Nazaruddin Jamil

Abstract:

This paper is a preliminary study about The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Ḥadīth Thematical Study by showing the concept and proper ways to advice to politician based on hadith Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The unique of political advice in Islam that Muslim already have the strong and fulfil example that can be apply in nowadays governance that is the way of political and leadership Prophet Muhammad show in his time. As a political leader, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a great state whose capital was Madinah. However, his real political leadership was in the realm of morality and spirituality in which he conducted himself perfectly in situations of weakness as well as strength. His way of dealing in Makkah and Madinah indicates his great political leadership. Based on fact nowadays some of the country not practicing the proper way to advice to rulers or governance that make a lot of madness around them. This paper also aims the concept and the proper way that can be following to all Muslim to advising by the politeness, justice and kindness.

Keywords: Hadith, leadership, political advice, Prophet Muhammad

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998 Global Climate Change and Insect Pollinators

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Muhammad Ibrahim Shahid, Muhammad Ashfaq

Abstract:

The foundation of human life on earth relies on many ecosystem services provided by insects of which pollination owes a vital role. The pollination service offered by insects has annual worth of approximately €153 billion. The majority of the flowering plants depends on entomophiles pollination for their reproduction and formation of seeds and fruits. The quantity and quality of insect pollination have multiple implications for stable ecosystem, diverse species level, food security and climate change resilience. The rapidly mounting human population, depletion of natural resources and the global climate change forced us to enter an era of pollination crisis. Climate change not only alters the phenology, population abundance and geographic ranges of different pollinators but also hinders their pollination activities. The successful pollination process relies heavily on the synchronization of biological events of pollinators with the phenological stages of the flowering plants. However, there are possibilities that impending climatic changes may result in asynchrony between plant-pollinators interactions and also mitigate the extent of pollination. The trophic mismatch mostly occurs when pollinators and plants inhabiting the same environment use different environmental cues to regulate their biological events, as these cues are not equally affected by climate change. Synchrony has also been disrupted when one of the interacting species has migratory nature and depend on cues for migration. Moreover, irregular rainfalls and up-surging temperature also disrupts the foraging behaviour of pollinators resulting in reduced flowers visits by insect. Climate change has a direct impact on the behavior and physiology of honey bees, the best known pollinators owing to their extreme floral fidelity. Rising temperature not only alleviates the quantity and quality of floral environment but also alters the bee’s colony harvesting and development ability. Furthermore, a possible earlier decline of flowers is expected in a growing season due to this rising temperature. This may also lead to disrupt the efficiency bumblebee queen that require a constant and adequate nectar and pollen supply throughout the entire growing season for healthy colony production. Considering the role of insect pollination in our ecosystem, their associated risks regarding climate change should be addressed properly for devising a well-focused research needed for their conservation.

Keywords: climate change, phenological, pollination, synchronization

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997 Lennox-gastaut Syndrome Associated with Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum

Authors: A. Bruce Janati, Muhammad Umair Khan, Naif Alghassab, Ibrahim Alzeir, Assem Mahmoud, M. Sammour

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Rationale: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(LGS) is an electro-clinical syndrome composed of the triad of mental retardation, multiple seizure types, and the characteristic generalized slow spike-wave complexes in the EEG. In this article, we report on two patients with LGS whose brain MRI showed dysgenesis of corpus callosum(CC). We review the literature and stress the role of CC in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony(SBS). Method: This was a clinical study conducted at King Khalid Hospital. Results: The EEG was consistent with LGS in patient 1 and unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in patient 2. The MRI showed hypoplasia of the splenium of CC in patient 1, and global hypoplasia of CC combined with Joubert syndrome in patient 2. Conclusion: Based on the data, we proffer the following hypotheses: 1-Hypoplasia of CC interferes with functional integrity of this structure. 2-The genu of CC plays a pivotal role in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony. 3-Electrodecremental seizures in LGS emanate from pacemakers generated in the brain stem, in particular the mesencephalon projecting abnormal signals to the cortex via thalamic nuclei. 4-Unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in the context of mental retardation and multiple seizure types may represent a variant of LGS, justifying neuroimaging studies.

Keywords: EEG, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, corpus callosum , MRI

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996 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

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Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: hadith, Prophet Muhammad, ritual, supernatural beings

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995 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak

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Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

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994 Designing of Tooling Solution for Material Handling in Highly Automated Manufacturing System

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yuri Nikolaev, Denis Artemov, Ighor Uzhinsky

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A flexible manufacturing system is an integral part of a smart factory of industry 4.0 in which every machine is interconnected and works autonomously. Robots are in the process of replacing humans in every industrial sector. As the cyber-physical-system (CPS) and artificial intelligence (AI) are advancing, the manufacturing industry is getting more dependent on computers than human brains. This modernization has boosted the production with high quality and accuracy and shifted from classic production to smart manufacturing systems. However, material handling for such automated productions is a challenge and needs to be addressed with the best possible solution. Conventional clamping systems are designed for manual work and not suitable for highly automated production systems. Researchers and engineers are trying to find the most economical solution for loading/unloading and transportation workpieces from a warehouse to a machine shop for machining operations and back to the warehouse without human involvement. This work aims to propose an advanced multi-shape tooling solution for highly automated manufacturing systems. The currently obtained result shows that it could function well with automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and modern conveyor belts. The proposed solution is following requirements to be automation-friendly, universal for different part geometry and production operations. We used a bottom-up approach in this work, starting with studying different case scenarios and their limitations and finishing with the general solution.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, cyber physics system, Industry 4.0, material handling, smart factory, flexible manufacturing system

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993 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Rashid Iqbal, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Imran Haider, Muhammad Adnan Nazar, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: antioxidants, leaf water relations, Mulches, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, photosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 95