Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3283

Search results for: iterative algorithm

3283 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

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3282 Implementation of Iterative Algorithm for Earthquake Location

Authors: Hussain K. Chaiel


The development in the field of the digital signal processing (DSP) and the microelectronics technology reduces the complexity of the iterative algorithms that need large number of arithmetic operations. Virtex-Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are programmable silicon foundations which offer an important solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP designer. In this work, Virtex-7 FPGA technology is used to implement an iterative algorithm to estimate the earthquake location. Simulation results show that an implementation based on block RAMB36E1 and DSP48E1 slices of Virtex-7 type reduces the number of cycles of the clock frequency. This enables the algorithm to be used for earthquake prediction.

Keywords: DSP, earthquake, FPGA, iterative algorithm

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3281 Description of the Non-Iterative Learning Algorithm of Artificial Neuron

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, S. T. Akhmetova, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin


The problem of training of a network of artificial neurons in biometric appendices is that this process has to be completely automatic, i.e. the person operator should not participate in it. Therefore, this article discusses the issues of training the network of artificial neurons and the description of the non-iterative learning algorithm of artificial neuron.

Keywords: artificial neuron, biometrics, biometrical applications, learning of neuron, non-iterative algorithm

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3280 An Improved Method to Compute Sparse Graphs for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang


The Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is NP-hard in combinatorial optimization. The research shows the algorithms for TSP on the sparse graphs have the shorter computation time than those for TSP according to the complete graphs. We present an improved iterative algorithm to compute the sparse graphs for TSP by frequency graphs computed with frequency quadrilaterals. The iterative algorithm is enhanced by adjusting two parameters of the algorithm. The computation time of the algorithm is O(CNmaxn2) where C is the iterations, Nmax is the maximum number of frequency quadrilaterals containing each edge and n is the scale of TSP. The experimental results showed the computed sparse graphs generally have less than 5n edges for most of these Euclidean instances. Moreover, the maximum degree and minimum degree of the vertices in the sparse graphs do not have much difference. Thus, the computation time of the methods to resolve the TSP on these sparse graphs will be greatly reduced.

Keywords: frequency quadrilateral, iterative algorithm, sparse graph, traveling salesman problem

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3279 New Iterative Algorithm for Improving Depth Resolution in Ionic Analysis: Effect of Iterations Number

Authors: N. Dahraoui, M. Boulakroune, D. Benatia


In this paper, the improvement by deconvolution of the depth resolution in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analysis is considered. Indeed, we have developed a new Tikhonov-Miller deconvolution algorithm where a priori model of the solution is included. This is a denoisy and pre-deconvoluted signal obtained from: firstly, by the application of wavelet shrinkage algorithm, secondly by the introduction of the obtained denoisy signal in an iterative deconvolution algorithm. In particular, we have focused the light on the effect of the iterations number on the evolution of the deconvoluted signals. The SIMS profiles are multilayers of Boron in Silicon matrix.

Keywords: DRF, in-depth resolution, multiresolution deconvolution, SIMS, wavelet shrinkage

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3278 Iterative Solver for Solving Large-Scale Frictional Contact Problems

Authors: Thierno Diop, Michel Fortin, Jean Deteix


Since the precise formulation of the elastic part is irrelevant for the description of the algorithm, we shall consider a generic case. In practice, however, we will have to deal with a non linear material (for instance a Mooney-Rivlin model). We are interested in solving a finite element approximation of the problem, leading to large-scale non linear discrete problems and, after linearization, to large linear systems and ultimately to calculations needing iterative methods. This also implies that penalty method, and therefore augmented Lagrangian method, are to be banned because of their negative effect on the condition number of the underlying discrete systems and thus on the convergence of iterative methods. This is in rupture to the mainstream of methods for contact in which augmented Lagrangian is the principal tool. We shall first present the problem and its discretization; this will lead us to describe a general solution algorithm relying on a preconditioner for saddle-point problems which we shall describe in some detail as it is not entirely standard. We will propose an iterative approach for solving three-dimensional frictional contact problems between elastic bodies, including contact with a rigid body, contact between two or more bodies and also self-contact.

Keywords: frictional contact, three-dimensional, large-scale, iterative method

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3277 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves and generalizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: the iterative process is faster, operators are more general. In the end, we indicate that the results can also be proved with the iterative process with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
3276 Proximal Method of Solving Split System of Minimization Problem

Authors: Anteneh Getachew Gebrie, Rabian Wangkeeree


The purpose of this paper is to introduce iterative algorithm solving split system of minimization problem given as a task of finding a common minimizer point of finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions and whose image under a bounded linear operator is also common minimizer point of another finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions. We obtain strong convergence of the sequence generated by our algorithm under some suitable conditions on the parameters. The iterative schemes are developed with a way of selecting the step sizes such that the information of operator norm is not necessary. Some applications and numerical experiment is given to analyse the efficiency of our algorithm.

Keywords: Hilbert Space, minimization problems, Moreau-Yosida approximate, split feasibility problem

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3275 A Three-Step Iterative Process for Common Fixed Points of Three Contractive-Like Operators

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan, H. Fukhar-ud-Din


The concept of quasi-contractive type operators was given by Berinde and extended by Imoru and Olatinwo. They named this new type as contractive-like operators. On the other hand, Xu and Noo introduced a three-step-one-mappings iterative process which can be seen as a generalization of Mann and Ishikawa iterative processes. Approximating common fixed points has its own importance as it has a direct link with minimization problem. Motivated by this, in this paper, we first extend the iterative process of Xu and Noor to the case of three-step-three-mappings and then prove a strong convergence result using contractive-like operators for this iterative process. In general, this generalizes corresponding results using Mann, Ishikawa and Xu-Noor iterative processes with quasi-contractive type operators. It is to be pointed out that our results can also be proved with iterative process involving error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, common fixed point, strong convergence

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3274 Kinoform Optimisation Using Gerchberg- Saxton Iterative Algorithm

Authors: M. Al-Shamery, R. Young, P. Birch, C. Chatwin


Computer Generated Holography (CGH) is employed to create digitally defined coherent wavefronts. A CGH can be created by using different techniques such as by using a detour-phase technique or by direct phase modulation to create a kinoform. The detour-phase technique was one of the first techniques that was used to generate holograms digitally. The disadvantage of this technique is that the reconstructed image often has poor quality due to the limited dynamic range it is possible to record using a medium with reasonable spatial resolution.. The kinoform (phase-only hologram) is an alternative technique. In this method, the phase of the original wavefront is recorded but the amplitude is constrained to be constant. The original object does not need to exist physically and so the kinoform can be used to reconstruct an almost arbitrary wavefront. However, the image reconstructed by this technique contains high levels of noise and is not identical to the reference image. To improve the reconstruction quality of the kinoform, iterative techniques such as the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GS) are employed. In this paper the GS algorithm is described for the optimisation of a kinoform used for the reconstruction of a complex wavefront. Iterations of the GS algorithm are applied to determine the phase at a plane (with known amplitude distribution which is often taken as uniform), that satisfies given phase and amplitude constraints in a corresponding Fourier plane. The GS algorithm can be used in this way to enhance the reconstruction quality of the kinoform. Different images are employed as the reference object and their kinoform is synthesised using the GS algorithm. The quality of the reconstructed images is quantified to demonstrate the enhanced reconstruction quality achieved by using this method.

Keywords: computer generated holography, digital holography, Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, kinoform

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3273 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati


Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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3272 Efficient Iterative V-BLAST Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Hwan-Jun Choi, Sung-Bok Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song


Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMOOFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative VBLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6 % less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRDM, DFE, iterative scheme, channel condition

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3271 Penguins Search Optimization Algorithm for Chaotic Synchronization System

Authors: Sofiane Bououden, Ilyes Boulkaibet


In terms of security of the information signal, the meta-heuristic Penguins Search Optimization Algorithm (PeSOA) is applied to synchronize chaotic encryption communications in the case of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in chaotic generator oscillator. The objective of this paper is the use of the PeSOA algorithm to exploring search space with random and iterative processes for synchronization of symmetric keys in both transmission and reception. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the PeSOA algorithm in generating symmetric keys of the encryption process and synchronizing.

Keywords: meta-heuristic, PeSOA, chaotic systems, encryption, synchronization optimization

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3270 On the Algorithmic Iterative Solutions of Conjugate Gradient, Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Methods for Solving Systems of Linear Equations

Authors: Hussaini Doko Ibrahim, Hamilton Cyprian Chinwenyi, Henrietta Nkem Ude


In this paper, efforts were made to examine and compare the algorithmic iterative solutions of the conjugate gradient method as against other methods such as Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi approaches for solving systems of linear equations of the form Ax=b, where A is a real n×n symmetric and positive definite matrix. We performed algorithmic iterative steps and obtained analytical solutions of a typical 3×3 symmetric and positive definite matrix using the three methods described in this paper (Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi, and conjugate gradient methods), respectively. From the results obtained, we discovered that the conjugate gradient method converges faster to exact solutions in fewer iterative steps than the two other methods, which took many iterations, much time, and kept tending to the exact solutions.

Keywords: conjugate gradient, linear equations, symmetric and positive definite matrix, gauss-seidel, Jacobi, algorithm

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3269 Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for 5 DOF Robot Arm Using D-H Parameters

Authors: Apurva Patil, Maithilee Kulkarni, Ashay Aswale


This paper proposes an algorithm to develop the kinematic model of a 5 DOF robot arm. The formulation of the problem is based on finding the D-H parameters of the arm. Brute Force iterative method is employed to solve the system of non linear equations. The focus of the paper is to obtain the accurate solutions by reducing the root mean square error. The result obtained will be implemented to grip the objects. The trajectories followed by the end effector for the required workspace coordinates are plotted. The methodology used here can be used in solving the problem for any other kinematic chain of up to six DOF.

Keywords: 5 DOF robot arm, D-H parameters, inverse kinematics, iterative method, trajectories

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3268 Forward Stable Computation of Roots of Real Polynomials with Only Real Distinct Roots

Authors: Nevena Jakovčević Stor, Ivan Slapničar


Any polynomial can be expressed as a characteristic polynomial of a complex symmetric arrowhead matrix. This expression is not unique. If the polynomial is real with only real distinct roots, the matrix can be chosen as real. By using accurate forward stable algorithm for computing eigen values of real symmetric arrowhead matrices we derive a forward stable algorithm for computation of roots of such polynomials in O(n^2 ) operations. The algorithm computes each root to almost full accuracy. In some cases, the algorithm invokes extended precision routines, but only in the non-iterative part. Our examples include numerically difficult problems, like the well-known Wilkinson’s polynomials. Our algorithm compares favorably to other method for polynomial root-finding, like MPSolve or Newton’s method.

Keywords: roots of polynomials, eigenvalue decomposition, arrowhead matrix, high relative accuracy

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3267 Orthogonal Regression for Nonparametric Estimation of Errors-In-Variables Models

Authors: Anastasiia Yu. Timofeeva


Two new algorithms for nonparametric estimation of errors-in-variables models are proposed. The first algorithm is based on penalized regression spline. The spline is represented as a piecewise-linear function and for each linear portion orthogonal regression is estimated. This algorithm is iterative. The second algorithm involves locally weighted regression estimation. When the independent variable is measured with error such estimation is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. The simulation results have shown the advantage of the second algorithm under the assumption that true smoothing parameters values are known. Nevertheless the use of some indexes of fit to smoothing parameters selection gives the similar results and has an oversmoothing effect.

Keywords: grade point average, orthogonal regression, penalized regression spline, locally weighted regression

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3266 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for DAE’s

Authors: Ahmed Machmoum, Malika El Kyal


We consider iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays tobe substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: computer, multi-splitting methods, asynchronous mode, differential algebraic systems

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3265 Parallel Asynchronous Multi-Splitting Methods for Differential Algebraic Systems

Authors: Malika Elkyal


We consider an iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm does not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Accordingly, we note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, differential algebraic equations

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3264 An Iterative Family for Solution of System of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Sonia Sonia


This paper presents a family of iterative scheme for solving nonlinear systems of equations which have wide application in sciences and engineering. The proposed iterative family is based upon some parameters which generates many different iterative schemes. This family is completely derivative free and uses first of divided difference operator. Moreover some numerical experiments are performed and compared with existing methods. Analysis of convergence shows that the presented family has fourth-order of convergence. The dynamical behaviour of proposed family and local convergence have also been discussed. The numerical performance and convergence region comparison demonstrates that proposed family is efficient.

Keywords: convergence, divided difference operator, nonlinear system, Newton's method

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3263 Common Fixed Point Results and Stability of a Modified Jungck Iterative Scheme

Authors: Hudson Akewe


In this study, we introduce a modified Jungck (Dual Jungck) iterative scheme and use the scheme to approximate the unique common fixed point of a pair of generalized contractive-like operators in a Banach space. The iterative scheme is also shown to be stable with respect to the maps (S,T). An example is taken to justify the convergence of the scheme. Our result is a generalization and improvement of several results in the literature on single map T.

Keywords: generalized contractive-like operators, modified Jungck iterative scheme, stability results, weakly compatible maps, unique common fixed point

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3262 Indexing and Incremental Approach Using Map Reduce Bipartite Graph (MRBG) for Mining Evolving Big Data

Authors: Adarsh Shroff


Big data is a collection of dataset so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using data base management tools. To perform operations like search, analysis, visualization on big data by using data mining; which is the process of extraction of patterns or knowledge from large data set. In recent years, the data mining applications become stale and obsolete over time. Incremental processing is a promising approach to refreshing mining results. It utilizes previously saved states to avoid the expense of re-computation from scratch. This project uses i2MapReduce, an incremental processing extension to Map Reduce, the most widely used framework for mining big data. I2MapReduce performs key-value pair level incremental processing rather than task level re-computation, supports not only one-step computation but also more sophisticated iterative computation, which is widely used in data mining applications, and incorporates a set of novel techniques to reduce I/O overhead for accessing preserved fine-grain computation states. To optimize the mining results, evaluate i2MapReduce using a one-step algorithm and three iterative algorithms with diverse computation characteristics for efficient mining.

Keywords: big data, map reduce, incremental processing, iterative computation

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3261 Hybridized Approach for Distance Estimation Using K-Means Clustering

Authors: Ritu Vashistha, Jitender Kumar


Clustering using the K-means algorithm is a very common way to understand and analyze the obtained output data. When a similar object is grouped, this is called the basis of Clustering. There is K number of objects and C number of cluster in to single cluster in which k is always supposed to be less than C having each cluster to be its own centroid but the major problem is how is identify the cluster is correct based on the data. Formulation of the cluster is not a regular task for every tuple of row record or entity but it is done by an iterative process. Each and every record, tuple, entity is checked and examined and similarity dissimilarity is examined. So this iterative process seems to be very lengthy and unable to give optimal output for the cluster and time taken to find the cluster. To overcome the drawback challenge, we are proposing a formula to find the clusters at the run time, so this approach can give us optimal results. The proposed approach uses the Euclidian distance formula as well melanosis to find the minimum distance between slots as technically we called clusters and the same approach we have also applied to Ant Colony Optimization(ACO) algorithm, which results in the production of two and multi-dimensional matrix.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, data clustering, centroids, data mining, k-means

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3260 An Improved Approach to Solve Two-Level Hierarchical Time Minimization Transportation Problem

Authors: Kalpana Dahiya


This paper discusses a two-level hierarchical time minimization transportation problem, which is an important class of transportation problems arising in industries. This problem has been studied by various researchers, and a number of polynomial time iterative algorithms are available to find its solution. All the existing algorithms, though efficient, have some shortcomings. The current study proposes an alternate solution algorithm for the problem that is more efficient in terms of computational time than the existing algorithms. The results justifying the underlying theory of the proposed algorithm are given. Further, a detailed comparison of the computational behaviour of all the algorithms for randomly generated instances of this problem of different sizes validates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: global optimization, hierarchical optimization, transportation problem, concave minimization

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3259 Sperm Flagellum Center-Line Tracing in 4D Stacks Using an Iterative Minimal Path Method

Authors: Paul Hernandez-Herrera, Fernando Montoya, Juan Manuel Rendon, Alberto Darszon, Gabriel Corkidi


Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) regulates sperm motility. The analysis of [Ca2+]i has been traditionally achieved in two dimensions while the real movement of the cell takes place in three spatial dimensions. Due to optical limitations (high speed cell movement and low light emission) important data concerning the three dimensional movement of these flagellated cells had been neglected. Visualizing [Ca2+]i in 3D is not a simple matter since it requires complex fluorescence microscopy techniques where the resulting images have very low intensity and consequently low SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio). In 4D sequences, this problem is magnified since the flagellum oscillates (for human sperm) at least at an average frequency of 15 Hz. In this paper, a novel approach to extract the flagellum’s center-line in 4D stacks is presented. For this purpose, an iterative algorithm based on the fast-marching method is proposed to extract the flagellum’s center-line. Quantitative and qualitative results are presented in a 4D stack to demonstrate the ability of the proposed algorithm to trace the flagellum’s center-line. The method reached a precision and recall of 0.96 as compared with a semi-manual method.

Keywords: flagellum, minimal path, segmentation, sperm

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3258 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari


Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

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3257 A Priority Based Imbalanced Time Minimization Assignment Problem: An Iterative Approach

Authors: Ekta Jain, Kalpana Dahiya, Vanita Verma


This paper discusses a priority based imbalanced time minimization assignment problem dealing with the allocation of n jobs to m < n persons in which the project is carried out in two stages, viz. Stage-I and Stage-II. Stage-I consists of n1 ( < m) primary jobs and Stage-II consists of remaining (n-n1) secondary jobs which are commenced only after primary jobs are finished. Each job is to be allocated to exactly one person, and each person has to do at least one job. It is assumed that nature of the Stage-I jobs is such that one person can do exactly one primary job whereas a person can do more than one secondary job in Stage-II. In a particular stage, all persons start doing the jobs simultaneously, but if a person is doing more than one job, he does them one after the other in any order. The aim of the proposed study is to find the feasible assignment which minimizes the total time for the two stage execution of the project. For this, an iterative algorithm is proposed, which at each iteration, solves a constrained imbalanced time minimization assignment problem to generate a pair of Stage-I and Stage-II times. For solving this constrained problem, an algorithm is developed in the current paper. Later, alternate combinations based method to solve the priority based imbalanced problem is also discussed and a comparative study is carried out. Numerical illustrations are provided in support of the theory.

Keywords: assignment, imbalanced, priority, time minimization

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3256 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo


The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

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3255 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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3254 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah


This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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