Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12985

Search results for: second order differential

12985 Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through Geogebra Program

Authors: F. Maass, P. Martin, J. Olivares


The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.

Keywords: education, geogebra, ordinary differential equations, resonance

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12984 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
12983 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y^'''= f(x,y,y^',y^'' ), y(α)=y_0,〖y〗^' (α)=β,y^('' ) (α)=μ with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non-stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, hybrid, linear multistep, self-starting, third order ordinary differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
12982 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad


Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
12981 On the Derivation of Variable Step BBDF for Solving Second Order Stiff ODEs

Authors: S. A. M. Yatim, Z. B. Ibrahim, K. I. Othman, M. Suleiman


The method of solving second order stiff ordinary differential equation (ODEs) that is based on backward differentiation formula (BDF) is considered in this paper. We derived the method by increasing the order of the existing method using an improved strategy in choosing the step size. Numerical results are presented to compare the efficiency of the proposed method to the MATLAB’s suite of ODEs solvers namely ode15s and ode23s. The method was found to be efficient to solve second order ordinary differential equation.

Keywords: backward differentiation formulae, block backward differentiation formulae, stiff ordinary differential equation, variable step size

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12980 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin


In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
12979 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
12978 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir


The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
12977 An Efficient Collocation Method for Solving the Variable-Order Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations Arising from the Physical Phenomenon

Authors: Haniye Dehestani, Yadollah Ordokhani


In this work, we present an efficient approach for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations, which are based on Legendre and Laguerre polynomials. First, we introduced the pseudo-operational matrices of integer and variable fractional order of integration by use of some properties of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. Then, applied together with collocation method and Legendre-Laguerre functions for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations. Also, an estimation of the error is presented. At last, we investigate numerical examples which arise in physics to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method. In comparison results obtained by the present method with the exact solution and the other methods reveals that the method is very effective.

Keywords: collocation method, fractional partial differential equations, legendre-laguerre functions, pseudo-operational matrix of integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
12976 Development of Variable Order Block Multistep Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Suleiman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Nor Ain Azeany, Khairil Iskandar Othman


In this paper, a class of variable order fully implicit multistep Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (VOBBDF) using uniform step size for the numerical solution of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is developed. The code will combine three multistep block methods of order four, five and six. The order selection is based on approximation of the local errors with specific tolerance. These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration in order to further increase the efficiency. The proposed VOBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with single order Block Backward Differentiation Formula (BBDF). Numerical results shows the advantage of using VOBBDF for solving ODEs.

Keywords: block backward differentiation formulas, uniform step size, ordinary differential equations

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12975 High Order Block Implicit Multi-Step (Hobim) Methods for the Solution of Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J. P. Chollom, G. M. Kumleng, S. Longwap


The search for higher order A-stable linear multi-step methods has been the interest of many numerical analysts and has been realized through either higher derivatives of the solution or by inserting additional off step points, supper future points and the likes. These methods are suitable for the solution of stiff differential equations which exhibit characteristics that place a severe restriction on the choice of step size. It becomes necessary that only methods with large regions of absolute stability remain suitable for such equations. In this paper, high order block implicit multi-step methods of the hybrid form up to order twelve have been constructed using the multi-step collocation approach by inserting one or more off step points in the multi-step method. The accuracy and stability properties of the new methods are investigated and are shown to yield A-stable methods, a property desirable of methods suitable for the solution of stiff ODE’s. The new High Order Block Implicit Multistep methods used as block integrators are tested on stiff differential systems and the results reveal that the new methods are efficient and compete favourably with the state of the art Matlab ode23 code.

Keywords: block linear multistep methods, high order, implicit, stiff differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
12974 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed


An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
12973 Zero-Dissipative Explicit Runge-Kutta Method for Periodic Initial Value Problems

Authors: N. Senu, I. A. Kasim, F. Ismail, N. Bachok


In this paper zero-dissipative explicit Runge-Kutta method is derived for solving second-order ordinary differential equations with periodical solutions. The phase-lag and dissipation properties for Runge-Kutta (RK) method are also discussed. The new method has algebraic order three with dissipation of order infinity. The numerical results for the new method are compared with existing method when solving the second-order differential equations with periodic solutions using constant step size.

Keywords: dissipation, oscillatory solutions, phase-lag, Runge-Kutta methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
12972 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs


In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
12971 Existence Theory for First Order Functional Random Differential Equations

Authors: Rajkumar N. Ingle


In this paper, the existence of a solution of nonlinear functional random differential equations of the first order is proved under caratheodory condition. The study of the functional random differential equation has got importance in the random analysis of the dynamical systems of universal phenomena. Objectives: Nonlinear functional random differential equation is useful to the scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, who are engaged in N.F.R.D.E. analyzing a universal random phenomenon, govern by nonlinear random initial value problems of D.E. Applications of this in the theory of diffusion or heat conduction. Methodology: Using the concepts of probability theory, functional analysis, generally the existence theorems for the nonlinear F.R.D.E. are prove by using some tools such as fixed point theorem. The significance of the study: Our contribution will be the generalization of some well-known results in the theory of Nonlinear F.R.D.E.s. Further, it seems that our study will be useful to scientist, engineers, economists and mathematicians in their endeavors to analyses the nonlinear random problems of the universe in a better way.

Keywords: Random Fixed Point Theorem, functional random differential equation, N.F.R.D.E., universal random phenomenon

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12970 Periodicity of Solutions of a Nonlinear Impulsive Differential Equation with Piecewise Constant Arguments

Authors: Mehtap Lafcı


In recent years, oscillation, periodicity and convergence of solutions of linear differential equations with piecewise constant arguments have been significantly considered but there are only a few papers for impulsive differential equations with piecewise constant arguments. In this paper, a first order nonlinear impulsive differential equation with piecewise constant arguments is studied and the existence of solutions and periodic solutions of this equation are investigated by using Carvalho’s method. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

Keywords: Carvalho's method, impulsive differential equation, periodic solution, piecewise constant arguments

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12969 Nonhomogeneous Linear Fractional Differential Equations Will Bessel Functions of the First Kind Giving Hypergeometric Functions Solutions

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares


Fractional derivatives have become very important in several areas of Engineering, however, the solutions of simple differential equations are not known. Here we are considering the simplest first order nonhomogeneous differential equations with Bessel regular functions of the first kind, in this way the solutions have been found which are hypergeometric solutions for any fractional derivative of order α, where α is rational number α=m/p, between zero and one. The way to find this result is by using Laplace transform and the Caputo definitions of fractional derivatives. This method is for values longer than one. However for α entire number the hypergeometric functions are Kumer type, no integer values of alpha, the hypergeometric function is more complicated is type ₂F₃(a,b,c, t2/2). The argument of the hypergeometric changes sign when we go from the regular Bessel functions to the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, however it integer seems that using precise values of α and considering no integers values of α, a solution can be obtained in terms of two hypergeometric functions. Further research is required for future papers in order to obtain the general solution for any rational value of α.

Keywords: Caputo, fractional calculation, hypergeometric, linear differential equations

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12968 Comparing Numerical Accuracy of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Using Taylor's Series Method, Euler's Method and Runge-Kutta (RK) Method

Authors: Palwinder Singh, Munish Sandhir, Tejinder Singh


The ordinary differential equations (ODE) represent a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real-life situations in the field of engineering, control systems, physics, chemistry and astronomy etc. Such type of differential equations can be solved by analytical methods or by numerical methods. If the solution is calculated using analytical methods, it is done through calculus theories, and thus requires a longer time to solve. In this paper, we compare the numerical accuracy of the solutions given by the three main types of one-step initial value solvers: Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method and Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method (RK4). The comparison of accuracy is obtained through comparing the solutions of ordinary differential equation given by these three methods. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy; we compare these numerical solutions with the exact solutions.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations (ODE), Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
12967 Representation of the Solution of One Dynamical System on the Plane

Authors: Kushakov Kholmurodjon, Muhammadjonov Akbarshox


This present paper is devoted to a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations with a special right-hand side, exactly, the linear part and a third-order polynomial of a special form. It is shown that for some relations between the parameters, there is a second-order curve in which trajectories leaving the points of this curve remain in the same place. Thus, the curve is invariant with respect to the given system. Moreover, this system is invariant under a non-degenerate linear transformation of variables. The form of this curve, depending on the relations between the parameters and the eigenvalues of the matrix, is proved. All solutions of this system of differential equations are shown analytically.

Keywords: dynamic system, ellipse, hyperbola, Hess system, polar coordinate system

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
12966 Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede


This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.

Keywords: differential equations, numerical, polynomial, initial value problem, differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
12965 A Trapezoidal-Like Integrator for the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Johnson Oladele Fatokun, I. P. Akpan


In this paper, the one-dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation is discretized by the method of lines using a second order finite difference approximation to replace the second order spatial derivative. The evolving system of stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time is solved numerically by an L-stable trapezoidal-like integrator. Results show accuracy of relative maximum error of order 10-4 in the interval of consideration. The performance of the method as compared to an existing scheme is considered favorable.

Keywords: Schrodinger’s equation, partial differential equations, method of lines (MOL), stiff ODE, trapezoidal-like integrator

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
12964 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Helmi Temimi


In this paper, we study the super-convergence properties of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method applied to one-dimensional mth-order ordinary differential equations without introducing auxiliary variables. We found that nth−derivative of the DG solution exhibits an optimal O (hp+1−n) convergence rates in the L2-norm when p-degree piecewise polynomials with p≥1 are used. We further found that the odd-derivatives and the even derivatives are super convergent, respectively, at the upwind and downwind endpoints.

Keywords: discontinuous, galerkin, superconvergence, higherorder, error, estimates

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12963 Caputo-Type Fuzzy Fractional Riccati Differential Equations with Fuzzy Initial Conditions

Authors: Trilok Mathur, Shivi Agarwal


This paper deals with the solutions of fuzzy-fractional-order Riccati equations under Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives. The Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives are defined based on Hukuhura difference and strongly generalized fuzzy differentiability. The Laplace-Adomian-Pade method is used for solving fractional Riccati-type initial value differential equations of fractional order. Moreover, we also displayed some examples to illustrate our methods.

Keywords: Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivative, Fractional Riccati differential equations, Laplace-Adomian-Pade method, Mittag Leffler function

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
12962 Engineering Optimization Using Two-Stage Differential Evolution

Authors: K. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Wu


This paper employs a heuristic algorithm to solve engineering problems including truss structure optimization and optimal chiller loading (OCL) problems. Two different type algorithms, real-valued differential evolution (DE) and modified binary differential evolution (MBDE), are successfully integrated and then can obtain better performance in solving engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, this study adopts each one testing case of truss structure optimization and OCL problems to compare the results of other heuristic optimization methods. The result indicates that the proposed algorithm can obtain similar or better solution in comparing with previous studies.

Keywords: differential evolution, Truss structure optimization, optimal chiller loading, modified binary differential evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
12961 The Dynamics of Unsteady Squeezing Flow between Parallel Plates (Two-Dimensional)

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Ibrahim Ismail Giwa


Unsteady squeezing flow of a viscous fluid between parallel plates is considered. The two plates are considered to be approaching each other symmetrically, causing the squeezing flow. Two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate is considered. The Navier-Stokes equation was reduced using similarity transformation to a single fourth order non-linear ordinary differential equation. The energy equation was transformed to a second order coupled differential equation. We obtained solution to the resulting ordinary differential equations via Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). HPM deforms a differential problem into a set of problem that are easier to solve and it produces analytic approximate expression in the form of an infinite power series by using only sixth and fifth terms for the velocity and temperature respectively. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. Comparisons among present and existing solutions were provided and it is shown that the proposed method is in good agreement with Variation of Parameter Method (VPM). The effects of appropriate dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles and temperature field are demonstrated with the aid of comprehensive graphs and tables.

Keywords: coupled differential equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method, plates, squeezing flow

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12960 Economic Load Dispatch with Valve-Point Loading Effect by Using Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization Technique

Authors: Nur Azzammudin Rahmat, Ismail Musirin, Ahmad Farid Abidin


Economic load dispatch is performed by the utilities in order to determine the best generation level at the most feasible operating cost. In order to guarantee satisfying energy delivery to the consumer, a precise calculation of generation level is required. In order to achieve accurate and practical solution, several considerations such as prohibited operating zones, valve-point effect and ramp-rate limit need to be taken into account. However, these considerations cause the optimization to become complex and difficult to solve. This research focuses on the valve-point effect that causes ripple in the fuel-cost curve. This paper also proposes Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT) in solving economic load dispatch problem with valve-point effect. Comparative studies involving DEIANT, EP and ACO are conducted on IEEE 30-Bus RTS for performance assessments. Results indicate that DEIANT is superior to the other compared methods in terms of calculating lower operating cost and power loss.

Keywords: ant colony optimization (ACO), differential evolution (DE), differential evolution immunized ant colony optimization (DEIANT), economic load dispatch (ELD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
12959 Solution of Singularly Perturbed Differential Difference Equations Using Liouville Green Transformation

Authors: Y. N. Reddy


The class of differential-difference equations which have characteristics of both classes, i.e., delay/advance and singularly perturbed behaviour is known as singularly perturbed differential-difference equations. The expression ‘positive shift’ and ‘negative shift’ are also used for ‘advance’ and ‘delay’ respectively. In general, an ordinary differential equation in which the highest order derivative is multiplied by a small positive parameter and containing at least one delay/advance is known as singularly perturbed differential-difference equation. Singularly perturbed differential-difference equations arise in the modelling of various practical phenomena in bioscience, engineering, control theory, specifically in variational problems, in describing the human pupil-light reflex, in a variety of models for physiological processes or diseases and first exit time problems in the modelling of the determination of expected time for the generation of action potential in nerve cells by random synaptic inputs in dendrites. In this paper, we envisage the use of Liouville Green Transformation to find the solution of singularly perturbed differential difference equations. First, using Taylor series, the given singularly perturbed differential difference equation is approximated by an asymptotically equivalent singularly perturbation problem. Then the Liouville Green Transformation is applied to get the solution. Several model examples are solved, and the results are compared with other methods. It is observed that the present method gives better approximate solutions.

Keywords: difference equations, differential equations, singular perturbations, boundary layer

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12958 Feature Extraction of MFCC Based on Fisher-Ratio and Correlated Distance Criterion for Underwater Target Signal

Authors: Han Xue, Zhang Lanyue


In order to seek more effective feature extraction technology, feature extraction method based on MFCC combined with vector hydrophone is exposed in the paper. The sound pressure signal and particle velocity signal of two kinds of ships are extracted by using MFCC and its evolution form, and the extracted features are fused by using fisher-ratio and correlated distance criterion. The features are then identified by BP neural network. The results showed that MFCC, First-Order Differential MFCC and Second-Order Differential MFCC features can be used as effective features for recognition of underwater targets, and the fusion feature can improve the recognition rate. Moreover, the results also showed that the recognition rate of the particle velocity signal is higher than that of the sound pressure signal, and it reflects the superiority of vector signal processing.

Keywords: vector information, MFCC, differential MFCC, fusion feature, BP neural network

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12957 Formulation of Corrector Methods from 3-Step Hybid Adams Type Methods for the Solution of First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: Y. A. Yahaya, Ahmad Tijjani Asabe


This paper focuses on the formulation of 3-step hybrid Adams type method for the solution of first order differential equation (ODE). The methods which was derived on both grid and off grid points using multistep collocation schemes and also evaluated at some points to produced Block Adams type method and Adams moulton method respectively. The method with the highest order was selected to serve as the corrector. The convergence was valid and efficient. The numerical experiments were carried out and reveal that hybrid Adams type methods performed better than the conventional Adams moulton method.

Keywords: adam-moulton type (amt), corrector method, off-grid, block method, convergence analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
12956 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: T. Vamsee Kiran, A. Gopi


The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this differential evolution (DE) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion.The DE based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations.

Keywords: differential evolution, direct torque control, PI controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 354