Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Hudson Akewe

21 Basis Theorem of Equivalence of Explicit-Type Iterations for the Class of Multivalued Phi-Quasi-Contrative Maps in Modular Function Spaces

Authors: Hudson Akewe


We prove that the convergence of explicit Mann, explicit Ishikawa, explicit Noor, explicit SP, explicit multistep and explicit multistep-SP fixed point iterative procedures are equivalent for the classes of multi-valued phi-contraction, phi-Zamfirescu and phi-quasi-contractive mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. Our results complement equivalence results on normed and metric spaces in the literature as they elegantly cut out the triangle inequality.

Keywords: multistep iterative procedures, multivalued mappings, equivalence results, fixed point

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20 Common Fixed Point Results and Stability of a Modified Jungck Iterative Scheme

Authors: Hudson Akewe


In this study, we introduce a modified Jungck (Dual Jungck) iterative scheme and use the scheme to approximate the unique common fixed point of a pair of generalized contractive-like operators in a Banach space. The iterative scheme is also shown to be stable with respect to the maps (S,T). An example is taken to justify the convergence of the scheme. Our result is a generalization and improvement of several results in the literature on single map T.

Keywords: generalized contractive-like operators, modified Jungck iterative scheme, stability results, weakly compatible maps, unique common fixed point

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19 A Survey on Fixed Point Iterations in Modular Function Spaces and an Application to Ode

Authors: Hudson Akewe


This research presents complementary results with wider applications on convergence and rate of convergence of classical fixed point theory in Banach spaces to the world of the theory of fixed points of mappings defined in classes of spaces of measurable functions, known in the literature as modular function spaces. The study gives a comprehensive survey of various iterative fixed point results for the classes of multivalued ρ-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive, ρ-Zamfirescu and ρ-contraction mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the implicit-type iterative schemes to the system of ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, numerical examples are given to show the rate of convergence of the various explicit Kirk-type and implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes under consideration. Our results complement the results obtained on normed and metric spaces in the literature. Also, our methods of proof serve as a guide to obtain several similar improved results for nonexpansive, pseudo-contractive, and accretive type mappings.

Keywords: implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes, multivalued mappings, convergence results, fixed point

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18 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson


This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced

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17 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson


This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

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16 Unreliable Production Lines with Simultaneously Unbalanced Operation Time Means, Breakdown, and Repair Rates

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson


This paper investigates the benefits of deliberately unbalancing both operation time means (MTs) and unreliability (failure and repair rates) for non-automated production lines.The lines were simulated with various line lengths, buffer capacities, degrees of imbalance and patterns of MT and unreliability imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput (TR) and average buffer level (ABL) were gathered, analyzed and compared to a balanced line counterpart. A number of conclusions were made with respect to the ranking of configurations, as well as to the relationships among the independent design parameters and the dependent variables. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing MT order, coupled with either a decreasing or a bowl unreliability configuration, with the first generally resulting in a reduced TR and the second leading to a lower ABL than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: unreliable production lines, unequal mean operation times, unbalanced failure and repair rates, throughput, average buffer level

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15 Hip and Valley Support Location in Wood Framing

Authors: P. Hajyalikhani, B. Hudson, D. Boll, L. Boren, Z. Sparks, M. Ward


Wood Light frame construction is one of the most common types of construction methods for residential and light commercial building in North America and parts of Europe. The typical roof framing for wood framed building is sloped and consists of several structural members such as rafters, hips, and valleys which are connected to the ridge and ceiling joists. The common slopes for roofs are 3/12, 8/12, and 12/12. Wood framed residential roof failure is most commonly caused by wind damage in such buildings. In the recent study, one of the weaknesses of wood framed roofs is long unsupported structural member lengths, such as hips and valleys. The purpose of this research is to find the critical support location for long hips and valleys with different slopes. ForteWeb software is used to find the critical location. The analysis results demonstrating the maximum unbraced hip and valley length are from 8.5 to 10.25 ft. dependent on the slope and roof type.

Keywords: wood frame, stick framing, hip, valley

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14 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong


Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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13 Predicting Marital Burnout Based on Irrational Beliefs and Sexual Dysfunction of Couples

Authors: Elnaz Bandeh


This study aimed to predict marital burnout based on irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction of couples. The research method was descriptive-correlational, and the statistical population included all couples who consulted to counseling clinics in the fall of 2016. The sample consisted of 200 people who were selected by convenience sampling and answered the Ahwaz Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Pines Couple Burnout, and Hudson Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using regression coefficient. The results of regression analysis showed that there was a linear relationship between irrational beliefs and couple burnout and dimensions of helplessness toward change, expectation of approval from others, and emotional irresponsibility were positive and significant predictors of couple burnout. However, after avoiding the problem of power, it was not a significant predictor of marital dissatisfaction. There was also a linear relationship between sexual dysfunction and couple burnout, and sexual dysfunction was a positive and significant predictor of couple burnout. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction play a role in couple dysfunction.

Keywords: couple burnout, irrational beliefs, sexual dysfunction, marital relationship

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12 Maternal Deprivation as Predictor of Academic Performance and Psychosocial Adjustment of Primary School Pupils in Abeokuta Metropolis

Authors: Abayomi Olatoke Adejobi


The study investigated maternal deprivation as predictor of academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of primary school pupils in Abeokuta metropolis. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred public primary school pupils were randomly selected as subjects for the study. The instruments used for data collection were Index of Family Relations (IFR) by Hudson, modified version of Psychosocial Adjustment Scale (PAS) by O’ bailey and Academic records of the pupils from Cumulative Records Folder (CRF). The data collected were statistically treated and the three hypotheses were tested using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Confident statistical methods at 0.05 alpha level. The results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of children who suffered maternal deprivation and those who did not (t – 5.61; df = 198; P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between psychosocial adjustment of children and maternal deprivation (r = 0.37, df = 10; P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in academic performance of boys and girls who suffered maternal deprivation (t = 0.32; df = 109; P > 0.05). Based on the results some recommendations were made.

Keywords: maternal deprivation, psychosocial adjustment, academic performance, primary school pupils

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11 Exploring the Issue of Occult Hypoperfusion in the Pre-Hospital Setting

Authors: A. Fordham, A. Hudson


Background: Studies have suggested 16-25% of normotensive trauma patients with no clinical signs of shock have abnormal lactate and BD readings evidencing shock; a phenomenon known as occult hypoperfusion (OH). In light of the scarce quantity of evidence currently documenting OH, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of OH in the pre-hospital setting and explore ways to improve its identification and management. Methods: A quantitative retrospective data analysis was carried out on 75 sets of patient records for trauma patients treated by Kent Surrey Sussex Air Ambulance Trust between November 2013 and October 2014. The KSS HEMS notes and subsequent ED notes were collected. Trends between patients’ SBP on the scene, whether or not they received PRBCs on the scene as well as lactate and BD readings in the ED were assessed. Patients’ KSS HEMS notes written by the HEMS crew were also reviewed and recorded. Results: -Suspected OH was identified in 7% of the patients who did not receive PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. -SBP heavily influences the physicians’ decision of whether or not to transfuse PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. Preliminary conclusions: OH is an under-studied and underestimated phenomenon. We suggest a prospective trial is carried out to evaluate whether detecting trauma patients’ tissue perfusion status in the pre-hospital phase using portable devices capable of measuring serum BD and/or lactate could aid more accurate detection and management of all haemorrhaging trauma patients, including patients with OH.

Keywords: occult hypoperfusion, PRBC transfusion, point of care testing, pre-hospital emergency medicine, trauma

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10 When Worlds Collide: Clashes of Communication between Italian and Anglophone Cultures in Movies Set in Venice

Authors: Angela Fabris, Joerg Helbig


Our paper deals with feature films set in Venice which focus on the influence of Italian life style on anglophone characters. Usually, these films emphasize the different cultures and mentalities of Italian and British (or American) people. More often than not, these encounters result in a profound change of the anglophone characters' attitude towards romance and sensuality. A case in point is David Lean's Summer Madness (UK 1955). This film recounts the love affair between the American tourist Jane Hudson (Katherine Hepburn) and the Venetian antique shop owner Renato de Rossi (Rossano Brazzi). Jane is a spinster in her mid-forties who longs for love and romance. The chance arrives when she meets Renato who feels attracted to her. Jane's immediate reaction, however, is to reject Renato's advances. What follows is a struggle between the strict morality of a puritan upbringing and the irresitable charm of Mediterranean temptations. Similar conflicts can be found in many other movies. Apart from Summer Madness we will discuss Aldo Lado's Chi l'ha vista morire? (It 1972), Nicolas Roeg's Don't Look Now (UK/It 1973) and Paul Schrader's The Comfort of Strangers (It/UK/USA 1990). Our paper raises the question whether or not these and other films present false stereotypes and chlichés. The paper is part of our large-scale research project which explores the history of erotic cinema in Italy and England.

Keywords: culture clash, erotic cinema, film, Venice

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9 From Being to Becoming: Emancipation and Empowerment in the African Diaspora

Authors: R. Vidhya


Diasporic writings present a comprehensive view of social, cultural and psychological dualities of immigrants. Isolation and the strong feelings of insecurity and inferiority due to constant marginalization coupled with a nostalgia for their motherland, its customs, culture, language, food and people which keep haunting the minds of immigrants are the major themes that are handled by diasporic writers. In the African diaspora, more than the men, it is the women who face the brunt and burden of the triple jeopardy – the racial, class and gender discrimination. Women writers from Africa have successfully sketched the plight of African women in the diaspora. Buchi Emecheta, a Nigerian woman writer deftly portrays the African Diaspora in her novels. She skillfully weaves her stories with her own experiences as an immigrant in the United Kingdom. She portrays the immigrant life and psychology through numerous themes like exile, geographical shift of locations, transactions of culture, political instability and the dilemma of moral and religious ideologies in her diasporic novels Second-class Citizen, Gwendolyn and Kehinde. The contemporary Nigerian woman writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie has also dexterously depicted the diasporic dilemma of her protagonist Ifemelu in Americannah, who initially has the experience of a despondent and a downcast in the United States of America. This paper aims to analyse the diasporic sentiments and sensibilities of the Nigerian Igbo women writers Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie whose women characters finally find emancipation and empowerment in the African Diaspora. This study is based on the Africana Womanist Literary theory propounded by Clenora Hudson-Weems.

Keywords: African Diaspora, Nigerian women writers, Buchi Emecheta, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, emancipation, empowerment

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8 Raman Spectroscopic of Cardioprotective Mechanism During the Metabolic Inhibition of Heart Cells

Authors: A. Almohammedi, A. J. Hudson, N. M. Storey


Following ischaemia/reperfusion injury, as in a myocardial infraction, cardiac myocytes undergo oxidative stress which leads to several potential outcomes including; necrotic or apoptotic cell death or dysregulated calcium homeostasis or disruption of the electron transport chain. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide donors protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia and reperfusion. However until present, the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is not fully understood and has not been investigated before using Raman spectroscopy. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to develop a novel technique, pre-resonance Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to metabolic inhibition and re-energisation. The results demonstrated the first time that Raman microspectroscopy technique has the capability to monitor the metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes and to monitor the effectiveness of cardioprotection by nitric oxide donor prior to metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes. Metabolic inhibition and reenergisation were used in this study to mimic the low and high oxygen levels experienced by cells during ischaemic and reperfusion treatments. A laser wavelength of 488 nm used in this study has been found to provide the most sensitive means of observe the cellular mechanisms of myoglobin during nitric oxide donor preconditioning, metabolic inhibition and re-energisation and did not cause any damage to the cells. The data also highlight the considerably different cellular responses to metabolic inhibition to ischaemia. Moreover, the data has been shown the relationship between the release of myoglobin and chemical ischemia where that the release of myoglobin from the cell only occurred if a cell did not recover contractility.

Keywords: ex vivo biospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, biophotonics, cardiomyocytes, ischaemia / reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, nitric oxide donor

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7 Mapping the Metamorphosis of the Nigerian Female: A Womanist Approach to the Novels of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Authors: Vidhya R


The claim of feminists that women are made and not born is neither to set women on par with men nor to discriminate one from the other, but to establish and reiterate the fact that both the sexes have to understand, recognize and appreciate each other’s ability and responsibility thus to contribute to the peaceful co-existence of both, leading to the creation of a better and brave new world, which is neither patriarchal nor matriarchal. But history has repeatedly recorded the relegation of women to the secondary position consummated through the highly biased cultural, ritualistic and customary practices across the globe. In Africa, bracing herself against many odds through generations, the African woman who has been facing multiple jeopardy promulgated by racial, cultural, economic and gender discrimination has slowly started moving from the margins towards the center. The African woman was able to undertake the journey from the margins to the center bravely only because of her grit, grace, courage, confidence, and spirituality. This journey has resulted in the metamorphosis of the African woman’s psyche. Economic independence fortified with education has empowered the African woman. The various stages of metamorphosis are well delineated in the works of the contemporary Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. The objective of this research paper is to study the above said metamorphosis, the female protagonists undergo in Adichie’s novels. The approaches on which the study is based on are the Africana Womanist theory propounded by Clenora Hudson –Weems and African feminism of Carole Boyce Davies. The findings of this study lead towards establishing the proposition that the emergence and evolution of the Nigerian woman has resulted in the birth of a new breed of women – the Emphatic Female, manifested in the power packed portrayal of the female protagonists of Purple Hibiscus, Half of a Yellow Sun and Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.

Keywords: Africana womanism, African feminism, chimamanda ngozi adichie, metamorphosis, the emphatic female

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6 Bacteriophage Lysis Of Physiologically Stressed Listeria Monocytogenes In A Simulated Seafood Processing Environment

Authors: Geevika J. Ganegama Arachchi, Steve H. Flint, Lynn McIntyre, Cristina D. Cruz, Beatrice M. Dias-Wanigasekera, Craig Billington, J. Andrew Hudson, Anthony N. Mutukumira


In seafood processing plants, Listeriamonocytogenes(L. monocytogenes)likely exists in a metabolically stressed state due to the nutrient-deficient environment, processing treatments such as heating, curing, drying, and freezing, and exposure to detergents and disinfectants. Stressed L. monocytogenes cells have been shown to be as pathogenic as unstressed cells. This study investigated lytic efficacy of (LiMN4L, LiMN4p, and LiMN17) which were previouslycharacterized as virulent against physiologically stressed cells of three seafood borne L. monocytogenesstrains (19CO9, 19DO3, and 19EO3).Physiologically compromised cells ofL. monocytogenesstrains were prepared by aging cultures in TrypticaseSoy Broth at 15±1°C for 72 h; heat injuringcultures at 54±1 - 55±1°C for 40 - 60 min;salt-stressing cultures in Milli-Q water were incubated at 25±1°C in darkness for three weeks; and incubating cultures in 9% (w/v) NaCl at 15±1°C for 72 h. Low concentrations of physiologically compromised cells of three L. monocytogenesstrainswere challenged in vitrowith high titre of three phages in separate experiments using Fish Broth medium (aqueous fish extract) at 15 °C in order to mimic the environment of seafood processing plant. Each phage, when present at ≈9 log10 PFU/ml, reduced late exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes suspended in fish protein broth at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to a non-detectable level (< 10 CFU/ml). Each phage, when present at ≈8.5 log10 PFU/ml, reduced both heat-injured cells present at 2.5-3.6 log10 CFU/ml and starved cells that were showed coccoid shape, present at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to < 10 CFU/ml after 30 min. Phages also reduced salt-stressed cellspresent at ≈3 log10 CFU/ml by > 2 log10. L. monocytogenes (≈8 log10 CFU/ml) were reduced to below the detection limit (1 CFU/ml) by the three successive phage infections over 16 h, indicating that emergence of spontaneous phage resistance was infrequent. The three virulent phages showed high decontamination potential for physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes strains from seafood processing environments.

Keywords: physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes, heat injured, seafood processing environment, virulent phage

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5 Differential Sensitivity to Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water Exposure Between Species at Different Trophic Levels

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams


There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on sulphur content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems can contain a variety of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, nitrate, and soot particles, thus displacing potential atmospheric pollutants to the marine environment- with, as yet, unknown consequences. A multispecies approach toward ecotoxicological testing is fundamental for the purposes of risk assessment and getting accurate environmental management and ecological risk assessment procedures. Marine microalgae and invertebrate larvae are important components of the aquatic environment due to their role as primary producers in the aquatic food web. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to investigate the effects of open-loop scrubber discharge water on cell proliferation and mortality of marine microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, and survival and development of Mytilus edulis larvae. A range of scrubber water dilutions (between 0.001% to 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water) were used for treatments. After a 96-h exposure, T. suecica cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was 60.17% at the end of the experiment. After 48-h exposure, M. edulis larvae were inspected, and the percentage of larvae which exhibited normal morphology (normality, D-veliger shape) or any deformity (shell abnormalities, hypertrophy of the mantle, and/or hinge abnormalities) were recorded. A high sensitivity of embryo-larval stage of the blue mussel larvae was found. All the dilutions inhibited the embryonic development of M. edulis in a concentration-dependant manner. The EC50 after 48 h exposure to scrubber water was 0.94%. These results provide information about the potential effect of a direct exposure -not dietary- to scrubber water discharges in the marine environment and the differential sensitivity between trophic levels of the marine food web chain.

Keywords: blue mussel larvae, maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, microalgae, open-loop, toxicity

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4 Ecotoxicological Assessment of Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water and Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unicellular Algae (Tetraselmis Suecica)

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Georgia Freeman, Bronwyn Lee, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams


There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on S content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The type of scrubber used presents different advantages and disadvantages but washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems has been found to release acidic water containing nutrients and contaminants back to the marine environment, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles. In ecotoxicological tests, a number of marine organisms have shown negative effects after acute and chronic exposures to varying concentrations of scrubber water but the main pollutants involved in these responses are not clear yet. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to establish the toxicity and mortality of different dilutions of scrubber water and selected PAHs reported in these discharges (as single compounds and combined) on the survival and growth of Tetraselmis suecica. A range of scrubber water dilutions were used varying between 0.001% and 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water. PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene) were tested individually or in combination at concentrations equivalent to those identified in scrubber water. After a 96-h exposure, cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was calculated as 60.17% at the end of the experiment. Exposure of T. suecica to all concentrations of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and anthracene resulted in a significant reduction in the cell concentration. Phenanthrene was the only PAH that showed a significant mortality (p<0.05) at the highest concentration. However, the relative toxic effects of the PAHs were greater in combination than when tested individually. Results demonstrate that algal growth was impacted by exposure to PAHs, where exposure to all concentrations of each PAH resulted in a reduction in cell concentration. Our results also suggest that when in combination, the individual toxicity of PAHs is less important, and the combined effects/interactions dominate the toxicity of the mixture. Scrubber water is known to comprise of a multitude of pollutants, including various PAHs, trace metals, nitrates, etc. and interactive effects/mechanisms of pollutants should be considered.

Keywords: maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, open-loop, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity, unicellular algae

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3 A Comparison of Two and Three Dimensional Motion Capture Methodologies in the Analysis of Underwater Fly Kicking Kinematics

Authors: Isobel M. Thompson, Dorian Audot, Dominic Hudson, Martin Warner, Joseph Banks


Underwater fly kick is an essential skill in swimming, which can have a considerable impact upon overall race performance in competition, especially in sprint events. Reduced wave drags acting upon the body under the surface means that the underwater fly kick will potentially be the fastest the swimmer is travelling throughout the race. It is therefore critical to understand fly kicking techniques and determining biomechanical factors involved in the performance. Most previous studies assessing fly kick kinematics have focused on two-dimensional analysis; therefore, the three-dimensional elements of the underwater fly kick techniques are not well understood. Those studies that have investigated fly kicking techniques using three-dimensional methodologies have not reported full three-dimensional kinematics for the techniques observed, choosing to focus on one or two joints. There has not been a direct comparison completed on the results obtained using two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis, and how these different approaches might affect the interpretation of subsequent results. The aim of this research is to quantify the differences in kinematics observed in underwater fly kicks obtained from both two and three-dimensional analyses of the same test conditions. In order to achieve this, a six-camera underwater Qualisys system was used to develop an experimental methodology suitable for assessing the kinematics of swimmer’s starts and turns. The cameras, capturing at a frequency of 100Hz, were arranged along the side of the pool spaced equally up to 20m creating a capture volume of 7m x 2m x 1.5m. Within the measurement volume, error levels were estimated at 0.8%. Prior to pool trials, participants completed a landside calibration in order to define joint center locations, as certain markers became occluded once the swimmer assumed the underwater fly kick position in the pool. Thirty-four reflective markers were placed on key anatomical landmarks, 9 of which were then removed for the pool-based trials. The fly-kick swimming conditions included in the analysis are as follows: maximum effort prone, 100m pace prone, 200m pace prone, 400m pace prone, and maximum pace supine. All trials were completed from a push start to 15m to ensure consistent kick cycles were captured. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics are calculated from joint locations, and the results are compared. Key variables reported include kick frequency and kick amplitude, as well as full angular kinematics of the lower body. Key differences in these variables obtained from two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis are identified. Internal rotation (up to 15º) and external rotation (up to -28º) were observed using three-dimensional methods. Abduction (5º) and adduction (15º) were also reported. These motions are not observed in the two-dimensional analysis. Results also give an indication of different techniques adopted by swimmers at various paces and orientations. The results of this research provide evidence of the strengths of both two dimensional and three dimensional motion capture methods in underwater fly kick, highlighting limitations which could affect the interpretation of results from both methods.

Keywords: swimming, underwater fly kick, performance, motion capture

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2 Assessment of Efficiency of Underwater Undulatory Swimming Strategies Using a Two-Dimensional CFD Method

Authors: Dorian Audot, Isobel Margaret Thompson, Dominic Hudson, Joseph Banks, Martin Warner


In competitive swimming, after dives and turns, athletes perform underwater undulatory swimming (UUS), copying marine mammals’ method of locomotion. The body, performing this wave-like motion, accelerates the fluid downstream in its vicinity, generating propulsion with minimal resistance. Through this technique, swimmers can maintain greater speeds than surface swimming and take advantage of the overspeed granted by the dive (or push-off). Almost all previous work has considered UUS when performed at maximum effort. Critical parameters to maximize UUS speed are frequently discussed; however, this does not apply to most races. In only 3 out of the 16 individual competitive swimming events are athletes likely to attempt to perform UUS with the greatest speed, without thinking of the cost of locomotion. In the other cases, athletes will want to control the speed of their underwater swimming, attempting to maximise speed whilst considering energy expenditure appropriate to the duration of the event. Hence, there is a need to understand how swimmers adapt their underwater strategies to optimize the speed within the allocated energetic cost. This paper develops a consistent methodology that enables different sets of UUS kinematics to be investigated. These may have different propulsive efficiencies and force generation mechanisms (e.g.: force distribution along with the body and force magnitude). The developed methodology, therefore, needs to: (i) provide an understanding of the UUS propulsive mechanisms at different speeds, (ii) investigate the key performance parameters when UUS is not performed solely for maximizing speed; (iii) consistently determine the propulsive efficiency of a UUS technique. The methodology is separated into two distinct parts: kinematic data acquisition and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. For the kinematic acquisition, the position of several joints along the body and their sequencing were either obtained by video digitization or by underwater motion capture (Qualisys system). During data acquisition, the swimmers were asked to perform UUS at a constant depth in a prone position (facing the bottom of the pool) at different speeds: maximum effort, 100m pace, 200m pace and 400m pace. The kinematic data were input to a CFD algorithm employing a two-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The algorithm adopted was specifically developed in order to perform quick unsteady simulations of deforming bodies and is therefore suitable for swimmers performing UUS. Despite its approximations, the algorithm is applied such that simulations are performed with the inflow velocity updated at every time step. It also enables calculations of the resistive forces (total and applied to each segment) and the power input of the modeled swimmer. Validation of the methodology is achieved by comparing the data obtained from the computations with the original data (e.g.: sustained swimming speed). This method is applied to the different kinematic datasets and provides data on swimmers’ natural responses to pacing instructions. The results show how kinematics affect force generation mechanisms and hence how the propulsive efficiency of UUS varies for different race strategies.

Keywords: CFD, efficiency, human swimming, hydrodynamics, underwater undulatory swimming

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1 A Copula-Based Approach for the Assessment of Severity of Illness and Probability of Mortality: An Exploratory Study Applied to Intensive Care Patients

Authors: Ainura Tursunalieva, Irene Hudson


Continuous improvement of both the quality and safety of health care is an important goal in Australia and internationally. The intensive care unit (ICU) receives patients with a wide variety of and severity of illnesses. Accurately identifying patients at risk of developing complications or dying is crucial to increasing healthcare efficiency. Thus, it is essential for clinicians and researchers to have a robust framework capable of evaluating the risk profile of a patient. ICU scoring systems provide such a framework. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are ICU scoring systems frequently used for assessing the severity of acute illness. These scoring systems collect multiple risk factors for each patient including physiological measurements then render the assessment outcomes of individual risk factors into a single numerical value. A higher score is related to a more severe patient condition. Furthermore, the Mortality Probability Model II uses logistic regression based on independent risk factors to predict a patient’s probability of mortality. An important overlooked limitation of SAPS II and MPM II is that they do not, to date, include interaction terms between a patient’s vital signs. This is a prominent oversight as it is likely there is an interplay among vital signs. The co-existence of certain conditions may pose a greater health risk than when these conditions exist independently. One barrier to including such interaction terms in predictive models is the dimensionality issue as it becomes difficult to use variable selection. We propose an innovative scoring system which takes into account a dependence structure among patient’s vital signs, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, pulse interval, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Copulas will capture the dependence among normally distributed and skewed variables as some of the vital sign distributions are skewed. The estimated dependence parameter will then be incorporated into the traditional scoring systems to adjust the points allocated for the individual vital sign measurements. The same dependence parameter will also be used to create an alternative copula-based model for predicting a patient’s probability of mortality. The new copula-based approach will accommodate not only a patient’s trajectories of vital signs but also the joint dependence probabilities among the vital signs. We hypothesise that this approach will produce more stable assessments and lead to more time efficient and accurate predictions. We will use two data sets: (1) 250 ICU patients admitted once to the Chui Regional Hospital (Kyrgyzstan) and (2) 37 ICU patients’ agitation-sedation profiles collected by the Hunter Medical Research Institute (Australia). Both the traditional scoring approach and our copula-based approach will be evaluated using the Brier score to indicate overall model performance, the concordance (or c) statistic to indicate the discriminative ability (or area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve), and goodness-of-fit statistics for calibration. We will also report discrimination and calibration values and establish visualization of the copulas and high dimensional regions of risk interrelating two or three vital signs in so-called higher dimensional ROCs.

Keywords: copula, intensive unit scoring system, ROC curves, vital sign dependence

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