Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Tom Richardson

51 Modeling Thermionic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes with Modified Richardson-Dushman Equation

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip Kumar De

Abstract:

We have modified Richardson-Dushman equation considering thermal expansion of lattice and change of chemical potential with temperature in material. The corresponding modified Richardson-Dushman (MRDE) equation fits quite well the experimental data of thermoelectronic current density (J) vs T from carbon nanotubes. It provides a unique technique for accurate determination of W0 Fermi energy, EF0 at 0 K and linear thermal expansion coefficient of carbon nano-tube in good agreement with experiment. From the value of EF0 we obtain the charge carrier density in excellent agreement with experiment. We describe application of the equations for the evaluation of performance of concentrated solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) with emitter made of carbon nanotube for future applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, fermi energy at 0 K, charge carrier density

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
50 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
49 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Belmiloud Mohamed Amine, Sad Chemloul Nord-Eddine

Abstract:

In this study we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity and the varying of the Richardson number on the variation of the average Nusselt number. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless governing equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra = 10000 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr = 0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number and emissivity affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: mixed convection, square cavity, wall emissivity, lid-driven, numerical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
48 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

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47 A Generalization of Option Pricing with Discrete Dividends to Markets with Daily Price Limits

Authors: Jiahau Guo, Yihe Zhang

Abstract:

This paper proposes solutions for pricing options on stocks paying discrete dividends in markets with daily price limits. We first extend the intraday density function of Guo and Chang (2020) to a multi-day one and use the framework of Haug et al. (2003) to value European options on stocks paying discrete dividends. Next, we adopt the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to derive accurate and efficient formulae for American options and further employ the three-point Richardson extrapolation to accelerate the computation. Finally, the accuracy of our proposed methods is verified by simulations.

Keywords: daily price limit, discrete dividend, early exercise, fast Fourier transform, multi-day density function, Richardson extrapolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
46 An Improved Single Point Closure Model Based on Dissipation Anisotropy for Geophysical Turbulent Flows

Authors: A. P. Joshi, H. V. Warrior, J. P. Panda

Abstract:

This paper is a continuation of the work carried out by various turbulence modelers in Oceanography on the topic of oceanic turbulent mixing. It evaluates the evolution of ocean water temperature and salinity by the appropriate modeling of turbulent mixing utilizing proper prescription of eddy viscosity. Many modelers in past have suggested including terms like shear, buoyancy and vorticity to be the parameters that decide the slow pressure strain correlation. We add to it the fact that dissipation anisotropy also modifies the correlation through eddy viscosity parameterization. This recalibrates the established correlation constants slightly and gives improved results. This anisotropization of dissipation implies that the critical Richardson’s number increases much beyond unity (to 1.66) to accommodate enhanced mixing, as is seen in reality. The model is run for a couple of test cases in the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the results are presented here.

Keywords: Anisotropy, GOTM, pressure-strain correlation, Richardson critical number

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
45 Energy Dynamics of Solar Thermionic Power Conversion with Emitter of Graphene

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip K. De, Moses Emetere, Omoje Maxwell

Abstract:

Graphene can stand very high temperature up to 4500 K in vacuum and has potential for application in thermionic energy converter. In this paper, we discuss the application of energy dynamics principles and the modified Richardson-Dushman Equation, to estimate the efficiency of solar power conversion to electrical power by a solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) containing emitter made of graphene. We present detailed simulation of power output for different solar insolation, diameter of parabolic concentrator, area of the graphene emitter (same as that of the collector), temperature of the collector, physical dimensions of the emitter-collector etc. After discussing possible methods of reduction or elimination of space charge problem using magnetic field and gate, we finally discuss relative advantages of using emitters made of graphene, carbon nanotube and metals respectively in a STEC.

Keywords: graphene, high temperature, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, solar thermionic energy converter

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44 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour

Abstract:

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: mixed convection, heat transfer, nanofluid, vertical tube, microfin tube

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43 Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall

Authors: Sanjib Kr Pal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, mixed convection, nano fluid, wall waviness

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
42 Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Closed Cavity Ventilated Inside

Authors: Benseghir Omar, Bahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

In this work, we presented a numerical study of the phenomenon of heat transfer through the laminar, incompressible and steady mixed convection in a closed square cavity with the left vertical wall of the cavity is subjected to a warm temperature, while the right wall is considered to be cold. The horizontal walls are assumed adiabatic. The governing equations were discretized by finite volume method on a staggered mesh and the SIMPLER algorithm was used for the treatment of velocity-pressure coupling. The numerical simulations were performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers 1, 10, 100, and 1000 numbers are equal to 0.01,0.1 Richardson, 0.5,1 and 10.The analysis of the results shows a flow bicellular (two cells), one is created by the speed of the fan placed in the inner cavity, one on the left is due to the difference between the temperatures right wall and the left wall. Knowledge of the intensity of each of these cells allowed us to get an original result. And the values obtained from each of Nuselt convection which allow to know the rate of heat transfer in the cavity.Finally we find that there is a significant influence on the position of the fan on the heat transfer (Nusselt evolution) for values of Reynolds studied and for low values of Richardson handed this influence is negligible for high values of the latter.

Keywords: thermal transfer, mixed convection, square cavity, finite volume method

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
41 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, inclined tube, laminar flow

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40 Characteristics of the Wake behind a Heated Cylinder in Relatively High Reynolds Number

Authors: Morteza Khashehchi, Kamel Hooman

Abstract:

Thermal effects on the dynamics and stability of the flow past a circular cylinder operating in the mixed convection regime is studied experimentally for Reynolds number (ReD) between 1000 and 4000, and different cylinder wall temperatures (Tw) between 25 and 75°C by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments were conducted in a horizontal wind tunnel with the heated cylinder placed horizontally. With such assumptions, the direction of the thermally induced buoyancy force acting on the fluid surrounding the heated cylinder would be perpendicular to the flow direction. In each experiment, to acquire 3000 PIV image pairs, the temperature and Reynolds number of the approach flow were held constant. By adjusting different temperatures in different Reynolds numbers, the corresponding Richardson number (RiD = Gr/Re^2) was varied between 0:0 (unheated) and 10, resulting in a change in the heat transfer process from forced convection to mixed convection. With increasing temperature of the wall cylinder, significant modifications of the wake flow pattern and wake vortex shedding process were clearly revealed. For cylinder at low wall temperature, the size of the wake and the vortex shedding process are found to be quite similar to those of an unheated cylinder. With high wall temperature, however, the high temperature gradient in the wake shear layer creates a type of vorticity with opposite sign to that of the shear layer vorticity. This temperature gradient vorticity weakens the strength of the shear layer vorticity, causing delay in reaching the recreation point. In addition to the wake characteristics, the shedding frequency for the heated cylinder is determined for all aforementioned cases. It is found that, as the cylinder wall is heated, the organization of the vortex shedding is altered and the relative position of the first detached vortices with respect to the second one is changed. This movement of the first detached vortex toward the second one increases the frequency of the shedding process. It is also found that the wake closure length decreases with increasing the Richardson number.

Keywords: heated cylinder, PIV, wake, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
39 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
38 Relevancy Measures of Errors in Displacements of Finite Elements Analysis Results

Authors: A. B. Bolkhir, A. Elshafie, T. K. Yousif

Abstract:

This paper highlights the methods of error estimation in finite element analysis (FEA) results. It indicates that the modeling error could be eliminated by performing finite element analysis with successively finer meshes or by extrapolating response predictions from an orderly sequence of relatively low degree of freedom analysis results. In addition, the paper eliminates the round-off error by running the code at a higher precision. The paper provides application in finite element analysis results. It draws a conclusion based on results of application of methods of error estimation.

Keywords: finite element analysis (FEA), discretization error, round-off error, mesh refinement, richardson extrapolation, monotonic convergence

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37 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
36 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson

Abstract:

A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive control, unlike a fixed gain control, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture results in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, robotic arm augmentation, model reference adaptive control, LQR control

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
35 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
34 Mapping the Early History of Common Law Education in England, 1292-1500

Authors: Malcolm Richardson, Gabriele Richardson

Abstract:

This paper illustrates how historical problems can be studied successfully using GIS even in cases in which data, in the modern sense, is fragmentary. The overall problem under investigation is how early (1300-1500) English schools of Common Law moved from apprenticeship training in random individual London inns run in part by clerks of the royal chancery to become what is widely called 'the Third University of England,' a recognized system of independent but connected legal inns. This paper focuses on the preparatory legal inns, called the Inns of Chancery, rather than the senior (and still existing) Inns of Court. The immediate problem studied in this paper is how the junior legal inns were organized, staffed, and located from 1292 to about 1500, and what maps tell us about the role of the chancery clerks as managers of legal inns. The authors first uncovered the names of all chancery clerks of the period, most of them unrecorded in histories, from archival sources in the National Archives, Kew. Then they matched the names with London property leases. Using ArcGIS, the legal inns and their owners were plotted on a series of maps covering the period 1292 to 1500. The results show a distinct pattern of ownership of the legal inns and suggest a narrative that would help explain why the Inns of Chancery became serious centers of learning during the fifteenth century. In brief, lower-ranking chancery clerks, always looking for sources of income, discovered by 1370 that legal inns could be a source of income. Since chancery clerks were intimately involved with writs and other legal forms, and since the chancery itself had a long-standing training system, these clerks opened their own legal inns to train fledgling lawyers, estate managers, and scriveners. The maps clearly show growth patterns of ownership by the chancery clerks for both legal inns and other London properties in the areas of Holborn and The Strand between 1450 and 1417. However, the maps also show that a royal ordinance of 1417 forbidding chancery clerks to live with lawyers, law students, and other non-chancery personnel had an immediate effect, and properties in that area of London leased by chancery clerks simply stop after 1417. The long-term importance of the patterns shown in the maps is that while the presence of chancery clerks in the legal inns likely created a more coherent education system, their removal forced the legal profession, suddenly without a hostelry managerial class, to professionalize the inns and legal education themselves. Given the number and social status of members of the legal inns, the effect on English education was to free legal education from the limits of chancery clerk education (the clerks were not practicing common lawyers) and to enable it to become broader in theory and practice, in fact, a kind of 'finishing school' for the governing (if not noble) class.

Keywords: GIS, law, London, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
33 Steady and Oscillatory States of Swirling Flows under an Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Rachid Bessaïh

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study of steady and oscillatory flows with heat transfer submitted to an axial magnetic field is studied. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using the finite-volume method. The flow and temperature fields are presented by stream function and isotherms, respectively. The flow between counter-rotating end disks is very unstable and reveals a great richness of structures. The results are presented for various values of the Hartmann number, Ha=5, 10, 20, and 30, and Richardson numbers , Ri=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4, in order to see their effects on the value of the critical Reynolds number, Recr. Stability diagrams are established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams put in evidence the dependence of Recr with the increase of Ha for various values of Ri.

Keywords: swirling, counter-rotating end disks, magnetic field, oscillatory, cylinder

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32 Effect an Axial Magnetic Field in Co-rotating Flow Heated from Below

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjagloli

Abstract:

The effect of an axial magnetic field on the flow produced by co-rotation of the top and bottom disks in a vertical cylindrical heated from below is numerically analyzed. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations are solved by using the finite-volume method. It was observed that the Reynolds number is increased, the axisymmetric basic state loses stability to circular patterns of axisymmetric vortices and spiral waves. In mixed convection case the axisymmetric mode disappears giving an asymmetric mode m=1. It was also found that the primary thresholds Recr corresponding to the modes m=1and 2, increase with increasing of the Hartmann number (Ha). Finally, stability diagrams have been established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams giving the evolution of the primary thresholds as a function of the Hartmann number for various values of the Richardson number.

Keywords: bifurcation, co-rotating end disks, magnetic field, stability diagrams, vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
31 Swirling Flows with Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical under Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: B. Mahfoud, R. Harouz

Abstract:

The present work examine numerically the effect of axial magnetic field on mixed convection through a cylindrical cavity, filled with a liquid metal and having a rotating top and bottom disks. Effects of Richardson number (Ri = 0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and Hartman number (Ha = 0, 5, 10, and 20) on temperature and flow fields were analyzed. The basic state of this system is steady and axisymmetric, when the counter-rotation is sufficiently large, producing a free shear layer. This shear layer is unstable and different complex flows appear successively: steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 1; travelling waves and steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 2. Mixed modes and azimuthal wavenumber of 3 are also found with increasing Hartmann number. The stability diagram (Recr-Ha) corresponding to the axisymmetric-three-dimensional transition for increasing values of the axial magnetic field is obtained.

Keywords: axisymmetric, counter-rotating, instabilities, magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic field, wavenumber

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
30 Psychometric Examination of Atma Jaya's Multiple Intelligence Batteries for University Students

Authors: Angela Oktavia Suryani, Bernadeth Gloria, Edwin Sutamto, Jessica Kristianty, Ni Made Rai Sapitri, Patricia Catherine Agla, Sitti Arlinda Rochiadi

Abstract:

It was found that some blogs or personal websites in Indonesia sell standardized intelligence tests (for example, Progressive Matrices (PM), Intelligence Structure Test (IST), and Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)) and other psychological tests, together with the manual and the key answers for public. Individuals can buy and prepare themselves for selection or recruitment with the real test. This action drives people to lie to the institution (education or company) and also to themselves. It was also found that those tests are old. Some items are not relevant with the current context, for example a question about a diameter of a certain coin that does not exist anymore. These problems motivate us to develop a new intelligence battery test, namely of Multiple Aptitude Battery (MAB). The battery test was built by using Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities theory and intended to be used by high schools students, university students, and worker applicants. The battery tests consist of 9 subtests. In the current study we examine six subtests, namely Reading Comprehension, Verbal Analogies, Numerical Inductive Reasoning, Numerical Deductive Reasoning, Mechanical Ability, and Two Dimensional Spatial Reasoning for university students. The study included 1424 data from students recruited by convenience sampling from eight faculties at Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia. Classical and modern test approaches (Item Response Theory) were carried out to identify the item difficulties of the items and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to examine their internal validities. The validity of each subtest was inspected by using convergent–discriminant method, whereas the reliability was examined by implementing Kuder–Richardson formula. The result showed that the majority of the subtests were difficult in medium level, and there was only one subtest categorized as easy, namely Verbal Analogies. The items were found homogenous and valid measuring their constructs; however at the level of subtests, the construct validity examined by convergent-discriminant method indicated that the subtests were not unidimensional. It means they were not only measuring their own constructs but also other construct. Three of the subtests were able to predict academic performance with small effect size, namely Reading Comprehension, Numerical Inductive Reasoning, and Two Dimensional Spatial Reasoning. GPAs in intermediate level (GPAs at third semester and above) were considered as a factor for predictive invalidity. The Kuder-Richardson formula showed that the reliability coefficients for both numerical reasoning subtests and spatial reasoning were superior, in the range 0.84 – 0.87, whereas the reliability coefficient for the other three subtests were relatively below standard for ability test, in the range of 0.65 – 0.71. It can be concluded that some of the subtests are ready to be used, whereas some others are still need some revisions. This study also demonstrated that the convergent-discrimination method is useful to identify the general intelligence of human.

Keywords: intelligence, psychometric examination, multiple aptitude battery, university students

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29 Heat Transfer Phenomena Identification of a Non-Active Floor in a Stack-Ventilated Building in Summertime: Empirical Study

Authors: Miguel Chen Austin, Denis Bruneau, Alain Sempey, Laurent Mora, Alain Sommier

Abstract:

An experimental study in a Plus Energy House (PEH) prototype was conducted in August 2016. It aimed to highlight the energy charge and discharge of a concrete-slab floor submitted to the day-night-cycles heat exchanges in the southwestern part of France and to identify the heat transfer phenomena that take place in both processes: charge and discharge. The main features of this PEH, significant to this study, are the following: (i) a non-active slab covering the major part of the entire floor surface of the house, which include a concrete layer 68 mm thick as upper layer; (ii) solar window shades located on the north and south facades along with a large eave facing south, (iii) large double-glazed windows covering the majority of the south facade, (iv) a natural ventilation system (NVS) composed by ten automatized openings with different dimensions: four are located on the south facade, four on the north facade and two on the shed roof (north-oriented). To highlight the energy charge and discharge processes of the non-active slab, heat flux and temperature measurement techniques were implemented, along with airspeed measurements. Ten “measurement-poles” (MP) were distributed all over the concrete-floor surface. Each MP represented a zone of measurement, where air and surface temperatures, and convection and radiation heat fluxes, were intended to be measured. The airspeed was measured only at two points over the slab surface, near the south facade. To identify the heat transfer phenomena that take part in the charge and discharge process, some relevant dimensionless parameters were used, along with statistical analysis; heat transfer phenomena were identified based on this analysis. Experimental data, after processing, had shown that two periods could be identified at a glance: charge (heat gain, positive values) and discharge (heat losses, negative values). During the charge period, on the floor surface, radiation heat exchanges were significantly higher compared with convection. On the other hand, convection heat exchanges were significantly higher than radiation, in the discharge period. Spatially, both, convection and radiation heat exchanges are higher near the natural ventilation openings and smaller far from them, as expected. Experimental correlations have been determined using a linear regression model, showing the relation between the Nusselt number with relevant parameters: Peclet, Rayleigh, and Richardson numbers. This has led to the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient and its comparison with the convective heat coefficient resulting from measurements. Results have shown that forced and natural convection coexists during the discharge period; more accurate correlations with the Peclet number than with the Rayleigh number, have been found. This may suggest that forced convection is stronger than natural convection. Yet, airspeed levels encountered suggest that it is natural convection that should take place rather than forced convection. Despite this, Richardson number values encountered indicate otherwise. During the charge period, air-velocity levels might indicate that none air motion occurs, which might lead to heat transfer by diffusion instead of convection.

Keywords: heat flux measurement, natural ventilation, non-active concrete slab, plus energy house

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28 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad

Abstract:

Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: image enhancement, motion analysis, motion detection, motion estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
27 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao

Abstract:

Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, turbulent flow, RANS model, large Eddy simulation

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26 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad

Abstract:

This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

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25 Arousal, Encoding, And Intrusive Memories

Authors: Hannah Gutmann, Rick Richardson, Richard Bryant

Abstract:

Intrusive memories following a traumatic event are not uncommon. However, in some individuals, these memories become maladaptive and lead to prolonged stress reactions. A seminal model of PTSD explains that aberrant processing during trauma may lead to prolonged stress reactions and intrusive memories. This model explains that elevated arousal at the time of the trauma promotes data driven processing, leading to fragmented and intrusive memories. This study investigated the role of elevated arousal on the development of intrusive memories. We measured salivary markers of arousal and investigated what impact this had on data driven processing, memory fragmentation, and subsequently, the development of intrusive memories. We assessed 100 healthy participants to understand their processing style, arousal, and experience of intrusive memories. Participants were randomised to a control or experimental condition, the latter of which was designed to increase their arousal. Based on current theory, participants in the experimental condition were expected to engage in more data driven processing and experience more intrusive memories than participants in the control condition. This research aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of intrusive memories to illustrate ways in which therapeutic approaches for PTSD may be augmented for greater efficacy.

Keywords: stress, cortisol, SAA, PTSD, intrusive memories

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24 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks

Abstract:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: dog, expression, osteosarcoma, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), survival

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23 Social Aspect in Energy Transition in Frankfurt (Main)

Authors: M. Mokrzecka, A. Aly, A. K. Obwona, Piotrowska M., Richardson S.

Abstract:

Frankfurt am Main, the fifth largest city in Germany, ranked 15th by the Global Financial Centers Index in 2014, and a finalist of European Green Capital 2014, is a crucial player in German Environmental Policy. In 2012 the city authorities agreed a target to reduce the city’s energy consumption by 50%, and fully switch to renewable energy by the year 2050. To achieve this goal, the Municipality of Frankfurt has begun preparing the Master plan, which will be introduced to public by the end of 2015. Transitions theory tells, that to address challenges as complex as Climate Change and the Energiewende, the development of new technologies and systems is not sufficient. Transition by definition is a process, and in such a large scale (city and region transition) can be fulfilled only, when operates within a broad socio – technical system. Thus, the Authors believe that only by close cooperation with citizens, as well as different stakeholders, can the Transition in Frankfurt be successful. The city therefore needs a strategy which will ensure the engagement, sense of ownership and broad support within Frankfurt society for the aims of the Master plan. This paper presents a proposal for how the city can achieve this based therefore, on fostering the citizens’ engagement through a comprehensive, innovative communication strategy. The proposal was originally developed by the authors as a winning submission for the Climate-KIC Transitions PhD Summer School 2014..

Keywords: city development, communication strategies, social transition, sustainability

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22 Effect of Question Answer Relationship (QARs) in Science Reading on the Academic Achievement of Students in Biology

Authors: Helen Ngozi Ibe, Chimmuanya Ezere

Abstract:

The study investigated the effect of Question Answer Relationships (QARs) in science reading on secondary school students’ achievement in Biology in Owerri Education Zone II of Imo State. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design and was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. The sample comprised of 67 SS2 Biology students. The sample was drawn using random sampling technique. One researcher made instrument titled: Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used for collecting the data of the study. The reliability of the instrument was established using Kuder Richardson formula (KR-20) which yielded a reliability index of 0.85 and Cronbach alpha for the BSIRS with an index of 0.71. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. T-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings are that students exposed to QARs strategy in science reading had higher achievement mean scores in biology than students in the control group; there is no significant difference between the achievement mean scores of male and female students exposed to QARs. The researchers recommended that science teachers should teach students the Question Answer Relationship reading strategy and that science students should endeavour to use the question - answer relationship reading strategy in classroom and individual science reading in order to enhance high academic achievement in the subjects being read.

Keywords: academic achievement, biology, science reading, question-answer relationship

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