Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 312

Search results for: robotic arm augmentation

312 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson

Abstract:

Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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311 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
310 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS bsed based Robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library

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309 Scorbot-ER 4U Using Forward Kinematics Modelling and Analysis

Authors: D. Maneetham, L. Sivhour

Abstract:

Robotic arm manipulators are widely used to accomplish many kinds of tasks. SCORBOT-ER 4u is a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) vertical articulated educational robotic arm, and all joints are revolute. It is specifically designed to perform pick and place task with its gripper. The pick and place task consists of consideration of the end effector coordinate of the robotic arm and the desired position coordinate in its workspace. This paper describes about forward kinematics modeling and analysis of the robotic end effector motion through joint space. The kinematics problems are defined by the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model is used in order to model the robotic links and joints with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. The forward kinematics model is also developed and simulated in MATLAB. The mathematical model is validated by using robotic toolbox in MATLAB. By using this method, it may be applicable to get the end effector coordinate of this robotic arm and other similar types to this arm. The software development of SCORBOT-ER 4u is also described here. PC-and EtherCAT based control technology from BECKHOFF is used to control the arm to express the pick and place task.

Keywords: forward kinematics, D-H model, robotic toolbox, PC- and EtherCAT-based control

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308 The Implication of Augmentation Cystoplasty with Mitrofanoff Channel on Reproduction Age Group and Outcome of Pregnancy

Authors: Amal A. Qedrah, Sofia A. Malik, Madiha Akbar

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to share a rare clinical case of pregnancy and surgical delivery in a patient who has undergone augmentation cystoplasty with mitrofanoff channel in the past. Methods: This case report is about a woman who conceived naturally at the age of 27, previously underwent augmentation cystoplasty at the age of 10 years with mitrofanoff procedure using self-clean intermittent catheterization. Furthermore, this pregnancy was complicated by the presence of preeclampsia diagnosed at term and PROM. Following the failure of induction for intrapartum preeclampsia, the patient delivered a healthy baby via low transverse cesarean section at 38 weeks done at Latifa Hospital, Dubai. Conclusion: The procedure is done at a pediatric or young age, after which most patients reach reproductive age. There is no contraindication to pregnancy vaginally or surgically; however, this case was complicated by preeclampsia, due to which this patient was taken for a cesarean section. It is advisable to consult a urologist frequently along with taking regular bacteriological urine samples and blood samples with renal ultrasonography for the evaluation of the kidney. Antibacterial treatment or prophylaxis should be used during pregnancy if necessary and intermittent self-catherization is mostly performed routinely. It is also important to have a urologist on standby during the surgery in order to avoid and/or fix any complications that might come forth.

Keywords: augmentation cystoplasty, cesarean section, delivery, mitrofanoff channel

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307 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

Abstract:

It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
306 Medical Image Augmentation Using Spatial Transformations for Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Trupti Chavan, Ramachandra Guda, Kameshwar Rao

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The lack of data is a pain problem in medical image analysis using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This work uses various spatial transformation techniques to address the medical image augmentation issue for knee detection and localization using an enhanced single shot detector (SSD) network. The spatial transforms like a negative, histogram equalization, power law, sharpening, averaging, gaussian blurring, etc. help to generate more samples, serve as pre-processing methods, and highlight the features of interest. The experimentation is done on the OpenKnee dataset which is a collection of knee images from the openly available online sources. The CNN called enhanced single shot detector (SSD) is utilized for the detection and localization of the knee joint from a given X-ray image. It is an enhanced version of the famous SSD network and is modified in such a way that it will reduce the number of prediction boxes at the output side. It consists of a classification network (VGGNET) and an auxiliary detection network. The performance is measured in mean average precision (mAP), and 99.96% mAP is achieved using the proposed enhanced SSD with spatial transformations. It is also seen that the localization boundary is comparatively more refined and closer to the ground truth in spatial augmentation and gives better detection and localization of knee joints.

Keywords: data augmentation, enhanced SSD, knee detection and localization, medical image analysis, openKnee, Spatial transformations

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305 The Robotic Intervention in the Tourism Experience: The Customer Journey’s Touchpoints, Context, and Qualities

Authors: Aikaterini Manthiou, Phil Klaus, Kafia Ayadi

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Tourism research has shown a growing need to comprehend the robotic tourism experience’s meaning and foundations while also offering guidance regarding future discussions and research. This paper aims to analyze the robotic tourism experience based on the basis of De Keyser et al.’s (2020) conceptualization. In order to develop three theoretical propositions, we explore the robotic tourism experience by means of the three building blocks: touchpoints, context, and qualities. The three building blocks should not be examined in isolation but as a system of interplaying factors impacting the customer journey and customer experience. The study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these impacts, as well as providing future research directions.

Keywords: robotic tourism experience, robot, touchpoints, context, qualities

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304 Robotic Arm Control with Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach

Authors: Arbnor Pajaziti, Hasan Cana

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In this paper, the structural genetic algorithm is used to optimize the neural network to control the joint movements of robotic arm. The robotic arm has also been modeled in 3D and simulated in real-time in MATLAB. It is found that Neural Networks provide a simple and effective way to control the robot tasks. Computer simulation examples are given to illustrate the significance of this method. By combining Genetic Algorithm optimization method and Neural Networks for the given robotic arm with 5 D.O.F. the obtained the results shown that the base joint movements overshooting time without controller was about 0.5 seconds, while with Neural Network controller (optimized with Genetic Algorithm) was about 0.2 seconds, and the population size of 150 gave best results.

Keywords: robotic arm, neural network, genetic algorithm, optimization

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303 Totally Robotic Gastric Bypass Using Modified Lonroth Technique

Authors: Arun Prasad

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Bariatric Surgery is a good option for the super obese where laparoscopy demands challenging technical skills. Gastric bypass can be difficult due to inability of the robot to work in two quadrants at the same time. Lonroth technique of gastric bypass involves a totally supracolic surgery where all anastomosis are done in one quadrant only. Methods: We have done 78 robotic gastric bypass surgeries using the modified Lonroth technique. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Gastric pouch is made first followed by the gastrojejunostomy that is a four layered sutured anastomosis. Jejuno jejunostomy is then performed followed by a leak test and then the jejunum is divided. A 150 cm biliopancreatic limb and a 75 cm alimentary limb are finally obtained. Mesenteric and Petersen’s defects are then closed. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken in the first 5 cases was 130 minutes. This reduced to a mean of 95 minutes in the last five cases. There were no intraoperative or post operative complications. Conclusions: While a hybrid technique of partly laparoscopic and partly robotic gastric bypass has been done at many centres, we feel using the modified Lonroth technique, a totally robotic gastric bypass surgery fully utilizes the potential of robotic bariatric surgery.

Keywords: robot, bariatric, totally robotic, gastric bypass

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302 Multi-Tooled Robotic Hand for Tele-Operation of Explosive Devices

Authors: Faik Derya Ince, Ugur Topgul, Alp Gunay, Can Bayoglu, Dante J. Dorantes-Gonzalez

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Explosive attacks are arguably the most lethal threat that may occur in terrorist attacks. In order to counteract this issue, explosive ordnance disposal operators put their lives on the line to dispose of a possible improvised explosive device. Robots can make the disposal process more accurately and saving human lives. For this purpose, there is a demand for more accurate and dexterous manipulating robotic hands that can be teleoperated from a distance. The aim of this project is to design a robotic hand that contains two active and two passive DOF for each finger, as well as a minimum set of tools for mechanical cutting and screw driving within the same robotic hand. Both hand and toolset, are teleoperated from a distance from a haptic robotic glove in order to manipulate dangerous objects such as improvised explosive devices. SolidWorks® Computer-Aided Design, computerized dynamic simulation, and MATLAB® kinematic and static analysis were used for the robotic hand and toolset design. Novel, dexterous and robust solutions for the fingers were obtained, and six servo motors are used in total to remotely control the multi-tooled robotic hand. This project is still undergoing and presents currents results. Future research steps are also presented.

Keywords: Explosive Manipulation, Robotic Hand, Tele-Operation, Tool Integration

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301 Multi-Robotic Partial Disassembly Line Balancing with Robotic Efficiency Difference via HNSGA-II

Authors: Tao Yin, Zeqiang Zhang, Wei Liang, Yanqing Zeng, Yu Zhang

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To accelerate the remanufacturing process of electronic waste products, this study designs a partial disassembly line with the multi-robotic station to effectively dispose of excessive wastes. The multi-robotic partial disassembly line is a technical upgrade to the existing manual disassembly line. Balancing optimization can make the disassembly line smoother and more efficient. For partial disassembly line balancing with the multi-robotic station (PDLBMRS), a mixed-integer programming model (MIPM) considering the robotic efficiency differences is established to minimize cycle time, energy consumption and hazard index and to calculate their optimal global values. Besides, an enhanced NSGA-II algorithm (HNSGA-II) is proposed to optimize PDLBMRS efficiently. Finally, MIPM and HNSGA-II are applied to an actual mixed disassembly case of two types of computers, the comparison of the results solved by GUROBI and HNSGA-II verifies the correctness of the model and excellent performance of the algorithm, and the obtained Pareto solution set provides multiple options for decision-makers.

Keywords: waste disposal, disassembly line balancing, multi-robot station, robotic efficiency difference, HNSGA-II

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300 Deep Feature Augmentation with Generative Adversarial Networks for Class Imbalance Learning in Medical Images

Authors: Rongbo Shen, Jianhua Yao, Kezhou Yan, Kuan Tian, Cheng Jiang, Ke Zhou

Abstract:

This study proposes a generative adversarial networks (GAN) framework to perform synthetic sampling in feature space, i.e., feature augmentation, to address the class imbalance problem in medical image analysis. A feature extraction network is first trained to convert images into feature space. Then the GAN framework incorporates adversarial learning to train a feature generator for the minority class through playing a minimax game with a discriminator. The feature generator then generates features for minority class from arbitrary latent distributions to balance the data between the majority class and the minority class. Additionally, a data cleaning technique, i.e., Tomek link, is employed to clean up undesirable conflicting features introduced from the feature augmentation and thus establish well-defined class clusters for the training. The experiment section evaluates the proposed method on two medical image analysis tasks, i.e., mass classification on mammogram and cancer metastasis classification on histopathological images. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method obtains superior or comparable performance over the state-of-the-art counterparts. Compared to all counterparts, our proposed method improves more than 1.5 percentage of accuracy.

Keywords: class imbalance, synthetic sampling, feature augmentation, generative adversarial networks, data cleaning

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299 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson

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A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive control, unlike a fixed gain control, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture results in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, robotic arm augmentation, model reference adaptive control, LQR control

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298 Robotic Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery

Authors: Arun Prasad, Abhishek Tiwari, Rekha Jaiswal, Vivek Chaudhary

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Roux en Y gastric bypass is being done for some time but is technically difficult, requiring operating in both the sub diaphragmatic and infracolic compartments of the abdomen. This can mean a dual docking of the robot or a hybrid partial laparoscopic and partial robotic surgery. The Mini /One anastomosis /omega loop gastric bypass (MGB) has the advantage of having all dissection and anastomosis in the supracolic compartment and is therefore suitable technically for robotic surgery. Methods: We have done 208 robotic mini gastric bypass surgeries. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Distal stomach is stapled from the lesser curve followed by a vertical sleeve upwards leading to a long sleeve pouch. Jejunum is taken at 200 cm from the duodenojejunal junction and brought up to do a side to side gastrojejunostomy. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken was 85 minutes. There were major intraoperative or post operative complications. No patient needed conversion or re-explorative surgery. Mean excess weight loss over a period of 2 year was about 75%. There was no mortality. Patient satisfaction score was high and was attributed to the good weight loss and minimal dietary modifications that were needed after the procedure. Long term side effects were anemia and bile reflux in a small number of patients. Conclusions: MGB / OAGB is gaining worldwide interest as a short simple procedure that has been shown to very effective and safe bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of robotic surgery for this procedure. This is the first report of totally robotic mini gastric bypass.

Keywords: MGB, mini gastric bypass, OAGB, robotic bariatric surgery

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297 Camera Model Identification for Mi Pad 4, Oppo A37f, Samsung M20, and Oppo f9

Authors: Ulrich Wake, Eniman Syamsuddin

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The model for camera model identificaiton is trained using pretrained model ResNet43 and ResNet50. The dataset consists of 500 photos of each phone. Dataset is divided into 1280 photos for training, 320 photos for validation and 400 photos for testing. The model is trained using One Cycle Policy Method and tested using Test-Time Augmentation. Furthermore, the model is trained for 50 epoch using regularization such as drop out and early stopping. The result is 90% accuracy for validation set and above 85% for Test-Time Augmentation using ResNet50. Every model is also trained by slightly updating the pretrained model’s weights

Keywords: ​ One Cycle Policy, ResNet34, ResNet50, Test-Time Agumentation

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296 Optimizing Pick and Place Operations in a Simulated Work Cell for Deformable 3D Objects

Authors: Troels Bo Jørgensen, Preben Hagh Strunge Holm, Henrik Gordon Petersen, Norbert Kruger

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This paper presents a simulation framework for using machine learning techniques to determine robust robotic motions for handling deformable objects. The main focus is on applications in the meat sector, which mainly handle three-dimensional objects. In order to optimize the robotic handling, the robot motions have been parameterized in terms of grasp points, robot trajectory and robot speed. The motions are evaluated based on a dynamic simulation environment for robotic control of deformable objects. The evaluation indicates certain parameter setups, which produce robust motions in the simulated environment, and based on a visual analysis indicate satisfactory solutions for a real world system.

Keywords: deformable objects, robotic manipulation, simulation, real world system

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295 An Assistive Robotic Arm for Defence and Rescue Application

Authors: J. Harrison Kurunathan, R. Jayaparvathy

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"Assistive Robotics" is the field that deals with the study of robots that helps in human motion and also empowers human abilities by interfacing the robotic systems to be manipulated by human motion. The proposed model is a robotic arm that works as a haptic interface on the basis on accelerometers and DC motors that will function with respect to the movement of the human muscle. The proposed model would effectively work as a haptic interface that would reduce human effort in the field of defense and rescue. This can be used in very critical conditions like fire accidents to avoid causalities.

Keywords: accelerometers, haptic interface, servo motors, signal processing

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294 Optimization of Robot Motion Planning Using Biogeography Based Optimization (Bbo)

Authors: Jaber Nikpouri, Arsalan Amralizadeh

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In robotics manipulators, the trajectory should be optimum, thus the torque of the robot can be minimized in order to save power. This paper includes an optimal path planning scheme for a robotic manipulator. Recently, techniques based on metaheuristics of natural computing, mainly evolutionary algorithms (EA), have been successfully applied to a large number of robotic applications. In this paper, the improved BBO algorithm is used to minimize the objective function in the presence of different obstacles. The simulation represents that the proposed optimal path planning method has satisfactory performance.

Keywords: biogeography-based optimization, path planning, obstacle detection, robotic manipulator

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293 Content-Aware Image Augmentation for Medical Imaging Applications

Authors: Filip Rusak, Yulia Arzhaeva, Dadong Wang

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Machine learning based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) is gaining much popularity in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. However, it requires a large amount of high quality and labeled training image datasets. The training images may come from different sources and be acquired from different radiography machines produced by different manufacturers, digital or digitized copies of film radiographs, with various sizes as well as different pixel intensity distributions. In this paper, a content-aware image augmentation method is presented to deal with these variations. The results of the proposed method have been validated graphically by plotting the removed and added seams of pixels on original images. Two different chest X-ray (CXR) datasets are used in the experiments. The CXRs in the datasets defer in size, some are digital CXRs while the others are digitized from analog CXR films. With the proposed content-aware augmentation method, the Seam Carving algorithm is employed to resize CXRs and the corresponding labels in the form of image masks, followed by histogram matching used to normalize the pixel intensities of digital radiography, based on the pixel intensity values of digitized radiographs. We implemented the algorithms, resized the well-known Montgomery dataset, to the size of the most frequently used Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and normalized our digital CXRs for testing. This work resulted in the unified off-the-shelf CXR dataset composed of radiographs included in both, Montgomery and JSRT datasets. The experimental results show that even though the amount of augmentation is large, our algorithm can preserve the important information in lung fields, local structures, and global visual effect adequately. The proposed method can be used to augment training and testing image data sets so that the trained machine learning model can be used to process CXRs from various sources, and it can be potentially used broadly in any medical imaging applications.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, image augmentation, lung segmentation, medical imaging, seam carving

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292 A Robotic Cube to Preschool Children for Acquiring the Mathematical and Colours Concepts

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Tamer M. Ismail, M. Abd El Salam

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This work presents a robot called Conceptual Robotic Cube, CR-Cube. The robot can be used as an educational tool for children from the age of three. It has a cube shape attached with a camera colours sensor. In addition, it contains four wheels to move smoothly. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to measure the efficiency of the robot. The design and the questionnaire was presented to 11 experts who agreed that the robot is appropriate for learning numbering and colours for preschool children.

Keywords: CR-Cube, robotic cube, conceptual robot, conceptual cube, colour concept, early childhood education

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291 Technological Development and Implementation of a Robotic Arm Motioned by Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: J. G. Batista, L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. A. F. B. Lima, J. R. Leite, J. I. de Andrade Nunes

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The robot manipulator is an equipment that stands out for two reasons: Firstly because of its characteristics of movement and reprogramming, resembling the arm; secondly, by adding several areas of knowledge of science and engineering. The present work shows the development of the prototype of a robotic manipulator driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), having two degrees of freedom, which allows the movement and displacement of mechanical parts, tools, and objects in general of small size, through an electronic system. The aim is to study direct and inverse kinematics of the robotic manipulator to describe the translation and rotation between two adjacent links of the robot through the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. Currently, due to the many resources that microcomputer systems offer us, robotics is going through a period of continuous growth that will allow, in a short time, the development of intelligent robots with the capacity to perform operations that require flexibility, speed and precision.

Keywords: Denavit-Hartenberg, direct and inverse kinematics, microcontrollers, robotic manipulator

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290 Robotic Assistance in Nursing Care: Survey on Challenges and Scenarios

Authors: Pascal Gliesche, Kathrin Seibert, Christian Kowalski, Dominik Domhoff, Max Pfingsthorn, Karin Wolf-Ostermann, Andreas Hein

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Robotic assistance in nursing care is an increasingly important area of research and development. Facing a shortage of labor and an increasing number of people in need of care, the German Nursing Care Innovation Center (Pflegeinnovationszentrum, PIZ) aims to address these challenges from the side of technology. Little is known about nurses experiences with existing robotic assistance systems. Especially nurses perspectives on starting points for the development of robotic solutions, that target recurring burdensome tasks in everyday nursing care, are of interest. This paper presents findings focusing on robotics resulting from an explanatory mixed-methods study on nurses experiences with and their expectations for innovative technologies in nursing care in stationary and ambulant care facilities and hospitals in Germany. Based on the findings, eight scenarios for robotic assistance are identified based on the real needs of practitioners. An initial system addressing a single use-case is described to show perspectives for the use of robots in nursing care.

Keywords: robotics and automation, engineering management, engineering in medicine and biology, medical services, public health-care

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289 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi

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Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: electrical impedance tomography, EIT, surgeon robot, image processing of electrical impedance tomography

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288 Development of a Three-Dimensional-Flywheel Robotic System

Authors: Chung-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Kai, Ting, Kai-Yuan Liu, Pang-Wei Yen, Jia-Ying Tu

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In this paper, a new design of spherical robotic system based on the concepts of gimbal structure and gyro dynamics is presented. Robots equipped with multiple wheels and complex steering mechanics may increase the weight and degrade the energy transmission efficiency. In addition, the wheeled and legged robots are relatively vulnerable to lateral impact and lack of lateral mobility. Therefore, the proposed robotic design uses a spherical shell as the main body for ground locomotion, instead of using wheel devices. Three spherical shells are structured in a similar way to a gimbal device and rotate like a gyro system. The design and mechanism of the proposed robotic system is introduced. In addition, preliminary results of the dynamic model based on the principles of planar rigid body kinematics and Lagrangian equation are included. Simulation results and rig construction are presented to verify the concepts.

Keywords: gyro, gimbal, lagrange equation, spherical robots

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287 Development of Agricultural Robotic Platform for Inter-Row Plant: An Autonomous Navigation Based on Machine Vision

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

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In Egypt, management of crops still away from what is being used today by utilizing the advances of mechanical design capabilities, sensing and electronics technology. These technologies have been introduced in many places and recorm, for Straight Path, Curved Path, Sine Wave ded high accuracy in different field operations. So, an autonomous robotic platform based on machine vision has been developed and constructed to be implemented in Egyptian conditions as self-propelled mobile vehicle for carrying tools for inter/intra-row crop management based on different control modules. The experiments were carried out at plant protection research institute (PPRI) during 2014-2015 to optimize the accuracy of agricultural robotic platform control using machine vision in term of the autonomous navigation and performance of the robot’s guidance system. Results showed that the robotic platform' guidance system with machine vision was able to adequately distinguish the path and resisted image noise and did better than human operators for getting less lateral offset error. The average error of autonomous was 2.75, 19.33, 21.22, 34.18, and 16.69 mm. while the human operator was 32.70, 4.85, 7.85, 38.35 and 14.75 mm Path, Offset Discontinuity and Angle Discontinuity respectively.

Keywords: autonomous robotic, Hough transform, image processing, machine vision

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286 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

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The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
285 Heat Transfer Correlations for Exhaust Gas Flow

Authors: Fatih Kantas

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Exhaust systems are key contributors to ground vehicles as a heat source. Understanding heat transfer in exhaust systems is related to defining effective parameter on heat transfer in exhaust system. In this journal, over 20 Nusselt numbers are investigated. This study shows advantages and disadvantages of various Nusselt numbers in different range Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency. Also (CAF) Convective Augmentation Factors are defined to correct standard Nusselt number for geometry and location of exhaust system. Finally, optimum Nusselt number and Convective Augmentation Factors are recommended according to Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency, geometry and location effect of exhaust system.

Keywords: exhaust gas flow, heat transfer correlation, Nusselt, Prandtl, pulsating flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
284 Design of Reconfigurable Supernumerary Robotic Limb Based on Differential Actuated Joints

Authors: Qinghua Zhang, Yanhe Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Yeqin Yang, Hongwei Jing, Guoan Zhang, Jie Zhao

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This paper presents a wearable reconfigurable supernumerary robotic limb with differential actuated joints, which is lightweight, compact and comfortable for the wearers. Compared to the existing supernumerary robotic limbs which mostly adopted series structure with large movement space but poor carrying capacity, a prototype with the series-parallel configuration to better adapt to different task requirements has been developed in this design. To achieve a compact structure, two kinds of cable-driven mechanical structures based on guide pulleys and differential actuated joints were designed. Moreover, two different tension devices were also designed to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the cable-driven transmission. The proposed device also employed self-designed bearings which greatly simplified the structure and reduced the cost.

Keywords: cable-driven, differential actuated joints, reconfigurable, supernumerary robotic limb

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283 Robotic Logging Technology: The Future of Oil Well Logging

Authors: Nitin Lahkar, Rishiraj Goswami

Abstract:

“Oil Well Logging” or the practice of making a detailed record (a well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole is an important practice in the Oil and Gas industry. Although a lot of research has been undertaken in this field, some basic limitations still exist. One of the main arenas or venues where plethora of problems arises is in logistically challenged areas. Accessibility and availability of efficient manpower, resources and technology is very time consuming, restricted and often costly in these areas. So, in this regard, the main challenge is to decrease the Non Productive Time (NPT) involved in the conventional logging process. The thought for the solution to this problem has given rise to a revolutionary concept called the “Robotic Logging Technology”. Robotic logging technology promises the advent of successful logging in all kinds of wells and trajectories. It consists of a wireless logging tool controlled from the surface. This eliminates the need for the logging truck to be summoned which in turn saves precious rig time. The robotic logging tool here, is designed such that it can move inside the well by different proposed mechanisms and models listed in the full paper as TYPE A, TYPE B and TYPE C. These types are classified on the basis of their operational technology, movement and conditions/wells in which the tool is to be used. Thus, depending on subsurface conditions, energy sources available and convenience the TYPE of Robotic model will be selected. Advantages over Conventional Logging Techniques: Reduction in Non-Productive time, lesser energy requirements, very fast action as compared to all other forms of logging, can perform well in all kinds of well trajectories (vertical/horizontal/inclined).

Keywords: robotic logging technology, innovation, geology, geophysics

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