Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: db/db mouse

207 Advanced Mouse Cursor Control and Speech Recognition Module

Authors: Prasad Kalagura, B. Veeresh kumar

Abstract:

We constructed an interface system that would allow a similarly paralyzed user to interact with a computer with almost full functional capability. A real-time tracking algorithm is implemented based on adaptive skin detection and motion analysis. The clicking of the mouse is activated by the user's eye blinking through a sensor. The keyboard function is implemented by voice recognition kit.

Keywords: embedded ARM7 processor, mouse pointer control, voice recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
206 Study on 3D FE Analysis on Normal and Osteoporosis Mouse Models Based on 3-Point Bending Tests

Authors: Tae-min Byun, Chang-soo Chon, Dong-hyun Seo, Han-sung Kim, Bum-mo Ahn, Hui-suk Yun, Cheolwoong Ko

Abstract:

In this study, a 3-point bending computational analysis of normal and osteoporosis mouse models was performed based on the Micro-CT image information of the femurs. The finite element analysis (FEA) found 1.68 N (normal group) and 1.39 N (osteoporosis group) in the average maximum force, and 4.32 N/mm (normal group) and 3.56 N/mm (osteoporosis group) in the average stiffness. In the comparison of the 3-point bending test results, the maximum force and the stiffness were different about 9.4 times in the normal group and about 11.2 times in the osteoporosis group. The difference between the analysis and the test was greatly significant and this result demonstrated improvement points of the material properties applied to the computational analysis of this study. For the next study, the material properties of the mouse femur will be supplemented through additional computational analysis and test.

Keywords: 3-point bending test, mouse, osteoporosis, FEA

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205 Alteration of Bone Strength in Osteoporosis of Mouse Femora: Computational Study Based on Micro CT Images

Authors: Changsoo Chon, Sangkuy Han, Donghyun Seo, Jihyung Park, Bokku Kang, Hansung Kim, Keyoungjin Chun, Cheolwoong Ko

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to develop a finite element model based on 3D bone structural images of Micro-CT and to analyze the stress distribution for the osteoporosis mouse femora. In this study, results of finite element analysis show that the early osteoporosis of mouse model decreased a bone density in trabecular region; however, the bone density in cortical region increased.

Keywords: micro-CT, finite element analysis, osteoporosis, bone strength

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204 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan

Abstract:

Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

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203 The Effect of Visfatin on Pregnant Mouse Myometrial Contractility in vitro

Authors: Seham Alsaif, Susan Wray

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide disorder influencing women’s health and childbearing. There is a close relation between obesity and pregnancy related complications. Dyslipidemia and adipokine dysregulation are core environmental changes that may mechanistically link these complications with obesity in pregnant women. We have previously found that visfatin has a relaxant effect on mouse, rat and human myometrial contractility. We hypothesised that visfatin inhibits mouse myometrial contractility through the NAD+ pathway. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of action of visfatin on myometrial contractility. To examine the NAD+ pathway, FK866 which is a potent inhibitor of NAD+ biosynthesis was used. Methods: Myometrial strips from term pregnant mice were dissected, superfused with physiological saline and the effects of visfatin (10nM) on oxytocin-induced contractions (0.5nM) alone and after the infusion of FK866 (10uM) were studied. After regular contractions were established, contractility was examined for control (100%) and test response at 37 °C for 10 min each. Results: FK866 was found to inhibit the effect of visfatin on myometrial contractility (the AUC increased from 89±2% of control, P=0.0009 for visfatin alone to 97±4% of control, P>0.05 for visfatin combined with FK866, n=8). In conclusion, NAD+ pathway appears to be involved in the mechanism of action of visfatin on mouse myometrium. This could have a role in making new targets to prevent obesity-related complications.

Keywords: myometrium, obesity, oxytocin, pregnancy, visfatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
202 Study of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagys Root (Asparagus Officinalis) On Testes Spematoxods Indexes in Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Negar Mahdavi, Hosein Tayefinas Abadi

Abstract:

Infertility is a more important problem in modern world. In the Western countries data showed that one couple from eight couples is infertile in human papulation. Role of male in infertility is higher than women e.g., 40%. Abnormal spermatozoid production, genital ducts abstraction, genital system flammation and disorder of erection are more important factor for male population infertility. Iranian Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) are used in Iranian traditional medicine as narcotic material for treatment of rheumatoid, headache, sexual inability and acute inflammation. In this survey, effect of asparagus root was studied on spermatozoid index in laboratory mouse. For this reason, hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, 100 ml/kg dose group, 200 ml/kg dose group and, 300ml/kg dose group. Then, mice are euthanized and testes are removed. Spermatozoids are going out from tail of epididymis and swim up in Ham's F10 tissue culture media. This research results were appeared that there are significant different (P<0.05) between 200 and 300 ml/kg with another treatment groups. Therefore, Aparagus root extract have can be to cause enhancement of spermatozoid quality and fertility improvement in laboratory mouse.

Keywords: histoligy, asparagus, testes, spermatozoid

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201 Study of Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagus Root (Asparagus officinalis) Ontestes Spermyogenesis Index of Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Naegar Mahdavi, Hossein Tayefi Nasrabadi

Abstract:

Spermatozoids production rate and its quality are more important factors in the diagnosis of infertility. Also, spematozids activity have a more important role in fertilization. Some medicinal plants as Asparagus(Asparagus officinalis) has many antioxidant component. Therefore, They can affect testes tissue to production more and high-quality spermatozoids. In this survey, Asparagus root extract is studied on spermatogenesis index in the laboratory mouse testes. Hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of the mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, group 1,100ml/kg dose, group 2, 200 ml/kg dose and group 3, 300ml/kg dose. Then, mice are euthanized, and testes are removed. Testes are weighted, and paraffinized blocks are prepared. TDI(Tubular Differentiation Index) and SPI(Spermiation Index) are studied on histological sections by light microscope. This study results were showed that TDI and SPI in treatments groups with 200 and 300 ml/kg dose had significant enhancement (P<0.05). Consequently, Extract of Asparagus root can enhance spermatozoid production and, therefore, cause improve fertility in male laboratory mice.

Keywords: histology, spermatozoid, ASP [aragus, testes

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
200 Preparation of Flurbiprofen Derivative for Enhanced Brain Penetration

Authors: Jungkyun Im

Abstract:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for relieving pain and reducing inflammation. They are nonselective inhibitors of two isoforms of COX, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and thereby inhibiting the production of hormone-like lipid compounds such as, prostaglandins and thromboxanes which cause inflammation, pain, fever, platelet aggregation, etc. In addition, recently there are many research articles reporting the neuroprotective effect of NSAIDs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the clinical use of NSAIDs in these diseases is limited by low brain distribution. Therefore, in order to assist the in-depth investigation on the pharmaceutical mechanism of flurbiprofen in neuroprotection and to make flurbiprofen a more potent drug to prevent or alleviate neurodegenerative diseases, delivery of flurbiprofen to brain should be effective and sufficient amount of flurbiprofen must penetrate the BBB thus gaining access into the patient’s brain. We have recently developed several types of guanidine-rich molecular carriers with high molecular weights and good water solubility that readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and display efficient distributions in the mouse brain. The G8 (having eight guanidine groups) molecular carrier based on D-sorbitol was found to be very effective in delivering anticancer drugs to a mouse brain. In the present study, employing the same molecular carrier, we prepared the flurbiprofen conjugate and studied its BBB permeation by mouse tissue distribution study. Flurbiprofen was attached to a molecular carrier with a fluorescein probe and multiple terminal guanidiniums. The conjugate was found to internalize into live cells and readily cross the BBB to enter the mouse brain. Our novel synthetic flurbiprofen conjugate will hopefully delivery NSAIDs into brain, and is therefore applicable to the neurodegenerative diseases treatment or prevention.

Keywords: flurbiprofen, drug delivery, molecular carrier, organic synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
199 Gaming Mouse Redesign Based on Evaluation of Pragmatic and Hedonic Aspects of User Experience

Authors: Thedy Yogasara, Fredy Agus

Abstract:

In designing a product, it is currently crucial to focus not only on the product’s usability based on performance measures, but also on user experience (UX) that includes pragmatic and hedonic aspects of product use. These aspects play a significant role in fulfillment of user needs, both functionally and psychologically. Pragmatic quality refers to as product’s perceived ability to support the fulfillment of behavioral goals. It is closely linked to functionality and usability of the product. In contrast, hedonic quality is product’s perceived ability to support the fulfillment of psychological needs. Hedonic quality relates to the pleasure of ownership and use of the product, including stimulation for personal development and communication of user’s identity to others through the product. This study evaluates the pragmatic and hedonic aspects of gaming mice G600 and Razer Krait using AttrakDiff tool to create an improved design that is able to generate positive UX. AttrakDiff is a method that measures pragmatic and hedonic scores of a product with a scale between -3 to +3 through four attributes (i.e. Pragmatic Quality, Hedonic Quality-Identification, Hedonic Quality-Stimulation, and Attractiveness), represented by 28 pairs of opposite words. Based on data gathered from 15 participants, it is identified that gaming mouse G600 needs to be redesigned because of its low grades (pragmatic score: -0.838, hedonic score: 1, attractiveness score: 0.771). The redesign process focuses on the attributes with poor scores and takes into account improvement suggestions collected from interview with the participants. The redesigned mouse G600 is evaluated using the previous method. The result shows higher scores in pragmatic quality (1.929), hedonic quality (1.703), and attractiveness (1.667), indicating that the redesigned mouse is more capable of creating pleasurable experience of product use.

Keywords: AttrakDiff, hedonic aspect, pragmatic aspect, product design, user experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
198 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Carvedilol 1% Ointment in Topical Application to the Animal Model

Authors: Berina Pilipović, Saša Pilipović, Maja Pašić-Kulenović

Abstract:

Inflammation is the body's response to impaired homeostasis caused by infection, injury or trauma resulting in systemic and local effects. Inflammation causes the body's response to injury and is characterized by a series of events including inflammatory response, response to pain receptors and the recovery process. Inflammation can be acute and chronic. The inflammatory response is described in three different phases. Free radical is an atom or molecule that has the unpaired electron and is therefore generally very reactive chemical species. Biologically important example of reaction with free radicals is called Lipid peroxidation (LP). Lipid peroxidation reactions occur in biological membranes, and if at the outset is not stopped with the action of antioxidants, it will bring damage to the membrane, which results in partial or complete loss of their physiological functions. Calcium antagonists and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are known drugs, and for many years and widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Some of these compounds also show antioxidant activity. The mechanism of antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists and beta-blockers is unknown, since their structure varies widely. This research investigated the possible local anti-inflammatory activity of ointments containing 1% carvedilol in the white petrolatum USP. Ear inflammation was induced by 3% croton oil acetone solution, in quantity of 10 µl on both mouse ears. Albino Swiss mouse (n = 8) are treated with 2.5 mg/ear ointment, and control group was treated on the same way as previous with hydrocortisone 1% ointment (2.5 mg/ear). The other ear of the same animal was used as control one. Ointments were administered once per day, on the left ear. After treatment, ears were observed for three days. After three days, we measured mass (mg) of 6 mm ear punch of treated and controlled ears. The results of testing anti-inflammatory effects of ointments with carvedilol in the mouse ear model show stronger observed effect than ointment with 1% hydrocortisone in the same basis. Identical results were confirmed by the difference between the mass of 6 mm ears punch. The results were also confirmed by histological examination. Ointments with carvedilol showed significant reduction of the inflammation process caused by croton oil on the mouse inflammation model.

Keywords: antioxidant, carvedilol, inflammation, mouse ear

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197 Information Retrieval from Internet Using Hand Gestures

Authors: Aniket S. Joshi, Aditya R. Mane, Arjun Tukaram

Abstract:

In the 21st century, in the era of e-world, people are continuously getting updated by daily information such as weather conditions, news, stock exchange market updates, new projects, cricket updates, sports and other such applications. In the busy situation, they want this information on the little use of keyboard, time. Today in order to get such information user have to repeat same mouse and keyboard actions which includes time and inconvenience. In India due to rural background many people are not much familiar about the use of computer and internet also. Also in small clinics, small offices, and hotels and in the airport there should be a system which retrieves daily information with the minimum use of keyboard and mouse actions. We plan to design application based project that can easily retrieve information with minimum use of keyboard and mouse actions and make our task more convenient and easier. This can be possible with an image processing application which takes real time hand gestures which will get matched by system and retrieve information. Once selected the functions with hand gestures, the system will report action information to user. In this project we use real time hand gesture movements to select required option which is stored on the screen in the form of RSS Feeds. Gesture will select the required option and the information will be popped and we got the information. A real time hand gesture makes the application handier and easier to use.

Keywords: hand detection, hand tracking, hand gesture recognition, HSV color model, Blob detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
196 Antiasthmatic Effect of Kankasava in OVA-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

Authors: Bharti Ahirwar

Abstract:

The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of kankasava on OVA-induced asthma in mouse model. Present study has demonstrated that kankasava exhibited an antiasthmatic effect by attenuated AHR and reducing level of IgE, IL-5, and IL-13, in both serum and BALF in OVA induced asthmatic mice. Effect of kankasav on airway responsiveness was obtained by monitoring the enhanced pen value . Kankasava significantly reduced AHR can be explained, in part, by reduction in both IgE overexoression and cytokine levels. Kankasava significantly decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF indicate that it may suppress the excess activity of T-cells and Th2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and consequently restore the Th1/Th2 imbalance of the immune system. In summary, we hypothesize that kankasava effectively suppressed elevations in IgE and cytokines levels, AHR, and mucus overproduction in mice with OVA-induced asthma suggested kankasava could be effective in immunological and pharmacological modulation of allergic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, ayurveda, kankasava, cytokine

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
195 The Immediate Effects of Thrust Manipulation for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ismail Okur, Ferruh Taspinar

Abstract:

Thoracic hyperkyphosis, is a well-known spinal phenomenon, refers to an excessive curvature (> 40 degrees) of the thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of thrust manipulation on thoracic spine alignment. 31 young adults with hyperkyphosis diagnosed with Spinal Mouse® device were randomly assigned either thrust manipulation group (n=16, 11 female, 5 male) or sham manipulation group (n=15, 8 female, 7 male). Thrust and sham manipulations were performed by a blinded physiotherapist who is a certificated expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. Thoracic kyphosis degree was measured after the interventions via Spinal Mouse®. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse the data obtained before and after the manipulation for each group, whereas Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. The mean of baseline thoracic kyphosis degrees in thrust and sham groups were 50.69 o ± 7.73 and 48.27o ± 6.43, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of initial thoracic kyphosis degrees (p=0.51). After the interventions, the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust and sham groups were measured as 44.06o ± 6.99 and 48.93o ± 6.57 respectively (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between before and after interventions in sham group (p=0.33), while the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust group decreased significantly (p=0.00). Thrust manipulation can attenuate thoracic hyperkyphosis immediately in young adults by not using placebo effect. Manipulation might provide accurate proprioceptive (sensory) input to the spine joints and reduce kyphosis by restoring normal segment mobility. Therefore thoracic manipulation might be included in the physiotherapy programs to treat hyperkyphosis.

Keywords: hyperkyphosis, manual therapy, spinal mouse, physiotherapy

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194 Autophagy Suppresses Bladder Tumor Formation in a Mouse Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Formation Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Kuo, Yi-Wen Liu, Hsiao-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Annual incidence of bladder cancer increases in the world and occurs frequently in the male. Most common type is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) which is treated by transurethral resection followed by intravesical administration of agents. In clinical treatment of bladder cancer, chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis is always used in patients. However, cancers usually develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and often lead to aggressive tumors with worse clinical outcomes. Approximate 70% TCC recurs and 30% recurrent tumors progress to high-grade invasive tumors, indicating that new therapeutic agents are urgently needed to improve the successful rate of overall treatment. Nonapoptotic program cell death may assist to overcome worse clinical outcomes. Autophagy which is one of the nonapoptotic pathways provides another option for bladder cancer patients. Autophagy is reported as a potent anticancer therapy in some cancers. First of all, we established a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor formation model in order to create a similar tumor microenvironment. IVIS system and micro-ultrasound were utilized to noninvasively monitor tumor formation. In addition, we carried out intravesical treatment in our animal model to be consistent with human clinical treatment. In our study, we carried out intravesical instillation of the autophagy inducer in mouse orthotopic bladder tumor to observe tumor formation by noninvasive IVIS system and micro-ultrasound. Our results showed that bladder tumor formation is suppressed by the autophagy inducer, and there are no significant side effects in the physiology of mice. Furthermore, the autophagy inducer upregulated autophagy in bladder tissues of the treated mice was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we reveal that a novel autophagy inducer with low side effects suppresses bladder tumor formation in our mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, and it provides another therapeutic approach in bladder cancer patients.

Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, orthotopic bladder tumor formation model, autophagy

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193 Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model

Authors: Mehdi Abbasi, Shadan Navid, Mohammad Pourahmadi, M. Majidi Zolbin

Abstract:

We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.

Keywords: colonization, melatonin, spermatogonial stem cell, transplantation

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192 Possible Involvement of DNA-methyltransferase and Histone Deacetylase in the Regulation of Virulence Potential of Acanthamoeba castellanii

Authors: Yi H. Wong, Li L. Chan, Chee O. Leong, Stephen Ambu, Joon W. Mak, Priyadashi S. Sahu

Abstract:

Background: Acanthamoeba is a free-living opportunistic protist which is ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Virulent Acanthamoeba can cause fatal encephalitis in immunocompromised patients and potential blinding keratitis in immunocompetent contact lens wearers. Approximately 24 species have been identified but only the A. castellanii, A. polyphaga and A. culbertsoni are commonly associated with human infections. Until to date, the precise molecular basis for Acanthamoeba pathogenesis remains unclear. Previous studies reported that Acanthamoeba virulence can be diminished through prolonged axenic culture but revived through serial mouse passages. As no clear explanation on this reversible pathogenesis is established, hereby, we postulate that the epigenetic regulators, DNA-methyltransferases (DNMT) and histone-deacetylases (HDAC), could possibly be involved in granting the virulence plasticity of Acanthamoeba spp. Methods: Four rounds of mouse passages were conducted to revive the virulence potential of the virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba castellanii strain (ATCC 50492). Briefly, each mouse (n=6/group) was inoculated intraperitoneally with Acanthamoebae cells (2x 105 trophozoites/mouse) and incubated for 2 months. Acanthamoebae cells were isolated from infected mouse organs by culture method and subjected to subsequent mouse passage. In vitro cytopathic, encystment and gelatinolytic assays were conducted to evaluate the virulence characteristics of Acanthamoebae isolates for each passage. PCR primers which targeted on the 2 members (DNMT1 and DNMT2) and 5 members (HDAC1 to 5) of the DNMT and HDAC gene families respectively were custom designed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect and quantify the relative expression of the two gene families in each Acanthamoeba isolates. Beta-tubulin of A. castellanii (Genbank accession no: XP_004353728) was included as housekeeping gene for data normalisation. PCR mixtures were also analyzed by electrophoresis for amplicons detection. All statistical analyses were performed using the paired one-tailed Student’s t test. Results: Our pathogenicity tests showed that the virulence-reactivated Acanthamoeba had a higher degree of cytopathic effect on vero cells, a better resistance to encystment challenge and a higher gelatinolytic activity which was catalysed by serine protease. qPCR assay showed that DNMT1 expression was significantly higher in the virulence-reactivated compared to the virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba strain (p ≤ 0.01). The specificity of primers which targeted on DNMT1 was confirmed by sequence analysis of PCR amplicons, which showed a 97% similarity to the published DNA-methyltransferase gene of A. castellanii (GenBank accession no: XM_004332804.1). Out of the five primer pairs which targeted on the HDAC family genes, only HDAC4 expression was significantly difference between the two variant strains. In contrast to DNMT1, HDAC4 expression was much higher in the virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba strain. Conclusion: Our mouse passages had successfully restored the virulence of the attenuated strain. Our findings suggested that DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase (HDAC4) expressions are associated with virulence potential of Acanthamoeba spp.

Keywords: acanthamoeba, DNA-methyltransferase, histone deacetylase, virulence-associated proteins

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191 Kinematic Gait Analysis Is a Non-Invasive, More Objective and Earlier Measurement of Impairment in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: P. J. Sweeney, T. Ahtoniemi, J. Puoliväli, T. Laitinen, K. Lehtimäki, A. Nurmi, D. Wells

Abstract:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by an X linked mutation in the dystrophin gene; lack of dystrophin causes a progressive muscle necrosis which leads to a progressive decrease in mobility in those suffering from the disease. The MDX mouse, a mutant mouse model which displays a frank dystrophinopathy, is currently widely employed in pre clinical efficacy models for treatments and therapies aimed at DMD. In general the end-points examined within this model have been based on invasive histopathology of muscles and serum biochemical measures like measurement of serum creatine kinase (sCK). It is established that a “critical period” between 4 and 6 weeks exists in the MDX mouse when there is extensive muscle damage that is largely sub clinical but evident with sCK measurements and histopathological staining. However, a full characterization of the MDX model remains largely incomplete especially with respect to the ability to aggravate of the muscle damage beyond the critical period. The purpose of this study was to attempt to aggravate the muscle damage in the MDX mouse and to create a wider, more readily translatable and discernible, therapeutic window for the testing of potential therapies for DMD. The study consisted of subjecting 15 male mutant MDX mice and 15 male wild-type mice to an intense chronic exercise regime that consisted of bi-weekly (two times per week) treadmill sessions over a 12 month period. Each session was 30 minutes in duration and the treadmill speed was gradually built up to 14m/min for the entire session. Baseline plasma creatine kinase (pCK), treadmill training performance and locomotor activity were measured after the “critical period” at around 10 weeks of age and again at 14 weeks of age, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. In addition, kinematic gait analysis was employed using a novel analysis algorithm in order to compare changes in gait and fine motor skills in diseased exercised MDX mice compared to exercised wild type mice and non exercised MDX mice. In addition, a morphological and metabolic profile (including lipid profile), from the muscles most severely affected, the gastrocnemius muscle and the tibialis anterior muscle, was also measured at the same time intervals. Results indicate that by aggravating or exacerbating the underlying muscle damage in the MDX mouse by exercise a more pronounced and severe phenotype in comes to light and this can be picked up earlier by kinematic gait analysis. A reduction in mobility as measured by open field is not apparent at younger ages nor during the critical period, but changes in gait are apparent in the mutant MDX mice. These gait changes coincide with pronounced morphological and metabolic changes by non-invasive anatomical MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) we have reported elsewhere. Evidence of a progressive asymmetric pathology in imaging parameters as well as in the kinematic gait analysis was found. Taken together, the data show that chronic exercise regime exacerbates the muscle damage beyond the critical period and the ability to measure through non-invasive means are important factors to consider when performing preclinical efficacy studies in the MDX mouse.

Keywords: Gait, muscular dystrophy, Kinematic analysis, neuromuscular disease

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190 YPFS Attenuating TH2 Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation by Regulating the TSLP Pathway

Authors: Xi Yu, Lili Gu, Huizhu Wang, Xiao Wei, Dandan Sheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Introduction: Hypersensitivity disease is difficult to cure completely because of its recurrence, yupingfengsan (YPFS) is used to treat the diseases with the advantage of reducing the recurrence,but the precise mechanism is not clear. Previous studies of our laboratory have shown that the extract of YPFS can inhibit Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis(ACD) induced by FITC.Besides, thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP) have been proved to be a master switch for allergic inflammation. Based on these studies, we want to establish a mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation to explore the regulating mechanisms of YPFS on TSLP in Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Methods: Th2-type ACD mouse model: The mice were topically sensitized on the abdomens (induction phase) and elicited on its ears skin 6 day later (excitation phase) with FITC solution, and the ear swelling was measured to evaluate the allergic inflammation;A mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation (TSLP production model): the skin of the ear was sensitized on two consecutive days with FITC solution causing the production of TSLP;Mice were treated with YPFS extract,ELISA、Real-time PCR and Western-blotting were using to examine the mRNA and protein levels of TSLP\TSLPR and TLRs ect. Results: YPFS extract can attenuates Th2-type allergic inflammatory in mice;in TSLP production model, YPFS can inhibit the expression of TSLP、 TSLPR、TLRs and MyD88, So we deduce the possible mechanisms of YPFS to play a role of intervention is through TLRs- MyD88 dependent and independent pathway to reduce TSLP production.

Keywords: YPFS, TSLP, TLRs, Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
189 Neuroprotective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Huamin Xu, Wenting Jia, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie

Abstract:

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural acid that is found in a variety of herbs, such as rosemary and has multiple biological activities such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of RA on dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mice received oral administration of RA before MPTP injection. Results showed that the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in SN reduced and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum decreased in MPTP intoxicated PD mice. Pretreatment with RA significantly inhibited these changes. Further studies demonstrated that MPTP treatment increased the iron content, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with RA. In addition, RA could restore the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by MPTP. This study provides evidence that RA could suppress MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by regulating iron content and the expression of SOD. Thus, RA might be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: rosmarinic acid, Parkinson's disease, MPTP, dopaminergic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
188 Effect of Engineered Low Glycemic Foods on Cancer Progression and Healthy State

Authors: C. Panebianco, K. Adamberg, S. Adamberg, C. Saracino, M. Jaagura, K. Kolk, A. Di Chio, P. Graziano, R. Vilu, V. Pazienza

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the pancreatic cancer (PC) is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. However, diseased people may refuse to follow the fasting regimen and fasting may worsen the weight loss often occurring in cancer patients. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Engineered Low glycemic food ELGIF mimicking diet on growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in control and ELGIF mimicking diet culturing condition to evaluate the tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to ELGIF to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with control diet. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in ELGIF mimicking medium showed decreased levels of proliferation as compared to those cultured in the standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to ELGIF diet displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth. Conclusion: A positive effect of ELGIF diet on proliferation in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as synergistic approach to enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients.

Keywords: functional food, microbiota, mouse model, pancreatic cancer

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187 Biodistribution Studies of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Mouse Tumor Model: Possible Utilization in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani, S. Zolghadri, S. Kakaei

Abstract:

Despite the appropriate characteristics of 177Lu and DOTATOC, to our best knowledge, the therapeutic benefit of 177Lu-DOTATOC complex in breast cancer has not been reported until now. In this study, biodistribution of 177Lu-DOTA-TOC in mouse tumor model for evaluation of possible utilization of this complex in breast cancer treatment was investigated.177Lu was prepared with the specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq.mg-1 and radionuclidic purity higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions with the radiochemical purity higher than 99%. The final solution was injected to the BALB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. The biodistribution results showed major accumulation in the kidneys as the major excretion route and the somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas compared with the other tissues. Also, significant uptake was observed in tumor even in longer time after injection. According to the results obtained in this research study, somatostatin receptors expressed in breast cancers can be targeted with DOTATOC analogues especially with 177Lu-DOTATOC as an ideal therapeutic agent.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu, adenocarcinoma breast cancer, DOTATOC, BALB/c mice

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186 RNA-seq Analysis of Liver from NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi

Abstract:

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease, often associated with type II diabetes, which sometimes progresses to more serious conditions such as liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH has become an important health problem worldwide, buttherapeutic agents for NASH have not yet been approved, and animal models with high clinical correlation are required. TheSTAM™ mouse shows the same pathological progression as human NASH patients and has been widely used for both drug efficacy and basic research, such as lipid profiling and gut microbiota research. In this study, we analyzed the RNA-seq data of STAM™mice at each pathological stage (steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and HCC) and examined the clinical correlation at the genetic level. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin solution 2 days after birth and feeding with high fat dietafter 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed and livers collected at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age. For liver samples, the left lateral lobe was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for RNA-seq analysis. Total RNA of the cells was isolated using RNeasy mini kit. The gene expression of the canonical pathways in NASH progression from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed, such as immune system process, oxidation-reduction process, lipid metabolic process. Moreover, since it has been reported that genetic traits are involved in the development of NASH-HCC, we next analyzed the genetic mutations in the STAM™mice. The number of individuals showing mutations in Mtorinvolved in Insulin signaling increases as the disease progresses, especially in the liver cancer phase. These results indicated a clinical correlation of gene profiles in the STAM™mouse.

Keywords: steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, RNA-seq

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185 Giant Cancer Cell Formation: A Link between Cell Survival and Morphological Changes in Cancer Cells

Authors: Rostyslav Horbay, Nick Korolis, Vahid Anvari, Rostyslav Stoika

Abstract:

Introduction: Giant cancer cells (GCC) are common in all types of cancer, especially after poor therapy. Some specific features of such cells include ~10-fold enlargement, drug resistance, and the ability to propagate similar daughter cells. We used murine NK/Ly lymphoma, an aggressive and fast growing lymphoma model that has already shown drastic changes in GCC comparing to parental cells (chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, tighter OXPHOS/cellular respiration coupling, multidrug resistance). Materials and methods: In this study, we compared morpho-functional changes of GCC that predominantly show either a cytostatic or a cytotoxic effect after treatment with drugs. We studied the effect of a combined cytostatic/cytotoxic drug treatment to determine the correlation of drug efficiency and GCC formation. Doses of G1/S-specific drug paclitaxel/PTX (G2/M-specific, 50 mg/mouse), vinblastine/VBL (50 mg/mouse), and DNA-targeting agents doxorubicin/DOX (125 ng/mouse) and cisplatin/CP (225 ng/mouse) on C57 black mice. Several tests were chosen to estimate morphological and physiological state (propidium iodide, Rhodamine-123, DAPI, JC-1, Janus Green, Giemsa staining and other), which included cell integrity, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation, mitochondrial activity, and others. A single and double factor ANOVA analysis were performed to determine correlation between the criteria of applied drugs and cytomorphological changes. Results: In all cases of treatment, several morphological changes were observed (intracellular vacuolization, membrane blebbing, and interconnected mitochondrial network). A lower gain in ascites (49.97% comparing to control group) and longest lifespan (22+9 days) after tumor injection was obtained with single VBL and single DOX injections. Such ascites contained the highest number of GCC (83.7%+9.2%), lowest cell count number (72.7+31.0 mln/ml), and a strong correlation coefficient between increased mitochondrial activity and percentage of giant NK/Ly cells. A high number of viable GCC (82.1+9.2%) was observed compared to the parental forms (15.4+11.9%) indicating that GCC are more drug resistant than the parental cells. All this indicates that the giant cell formation and its ability to obtain drug resistance is an expanding field in cancer research.

Keywords: ANOVA, cisplatin, doxorubicin, drug resistance, giant cancer cells, NK/Ly lymphoma, paclitaxel, vinblastine

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184 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Weili Shao, Qian Wang, Jianxin He

Abstract:

Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: poly l-lactic, graphene oxide, osteogenesis, bone tissue engineering

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183 Suppression of DMBA/TPA-Induced Skin Tumorigenesis by Menthol through Inhibition of Inflammation, NF-kappaB, Ras-Raf-ERK Pathway

Authors: Zhaoguo Liu, Cunsi Shen, Yin Lu

Abstract:

Growing evidence has shown that menthol has potent anticancer activity in various human cancers. However, its effect on skin cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of menthol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene(DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin tumorigenesis in ICR mice. Our results showed that menthol significantly inhibited TPA-induced inflammatory responses and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. We also found that menthol treatment significantly inhibited TPA-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), mouse UDP-glucumno-syltransferase (UGT), mouse NADH Dehydrogenase, Quinone 1 (NQO1) release. Furthermore, we found menthol treatment significantly inhibited the tumor incidence and number of tumors (P < 0.001). Interestingly, we observed that menthol treatment significantly inhibited TPA-induced altered activity of NF-κB in skin tumor. Consistently, menthol-treated tumors also showed significantly suppressed the Ras-Raf-ERK signaling pathway. Thus, our results suggest that menthol inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis by attenuating the Ras and inhibiting NF-κB activity via inhibition of inflammation responses and pro-inflammatory cytokine release.

Keywords: DMBA/TPA, NF-κB, Ras-Raf-ERK, skin tumorigenesis

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182 The Phylogenetic Investigation of Candidate Genes Related to Type II Diabetes in Man and Other Species

Authors: Srijoni Banerjee

Abstract:

Sequences of some of the candidate genes (e.g., CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG) implicated in some of the complex disease, e.g. Type II diabetes in man has been compared with other species to investigate phylogenetic affinity. Based on mRNA sequence of these genes of 7 to 8 species, using bioinformatics tools Mega 5, Bioedit, Clustal W, distance matrix was obtained. Phylogenetic trees were obtained by NJ and UPGMA clustering methods. The results of the phylogenetic analyses show that of the species compared: Xenopus l., Danio r., Macaca m., Homo sapiens s., Rattus n., Mus m. and Gallus g., Bos taurus, both NJ and UPGMA clustering show close affinity between clustering of Homo sapiens s. (Man) with Rattus n. (Rat), Mus m. species for the candidate genes, except in case of Lipin1 gene. The results support the functional similarity of these genes in physiological and biochemical process involving man and mouse/rat. Therefore, in understanding the complex etiology and treatment of the complex disease mouse/rate model is the best laboratory choice for experimentation.

Keywords: phylogeny, candidate gene of type-2 diabetes, CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG

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181 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

Abstract:

One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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180 Comparison of Different in vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier for Study of Toxic Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles

Authors: Samir Dekali, David Crouzier

Abstract:

Due to their new physico-chemical properties engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly employed in numerous industrial sectors (such as electronics, textile, aerospace, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food industry, etc). These new physico-chemical properties can also represent a threat for the human health. Consumers can notably be exposed involuntarily by different routes such as inhalation, ingestion or through the skin. Several studies recently reported a possible biodistribution of these ENPs on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Consequently, there is a great need for developing BBB in vitro models representative of the in vivo situation and capable of rapidly and accurately assessing ENPs toxic effects and their potential translocation through this barrier. In this study, several in vitro models established with micro-endothelial brain cell lines of different origins (bEnd.3 mouse cell line or a new human cell line) co-cultivated or not with astrocytic cells (C6 rat or C8-B4 mouse cell lines) on Transwells® were compared using different endpoints: trans-endothelial resistance, permeability of the Lucifer yellow and protein junction labeling. Impact of NIST diesel exhaust particles on BBB cell viability is also discussed.

Keywords: nanoparticles, blood-brain barrier, diesel exhaust particles, toxicology

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179 Chemopreventive Potency of Medicinal and Eatable Plant, Gromwell Seed on in Vitro and in Vivo Carcinogenesis Systems

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

As part of an ongoing our projects to investigate the anti-tumor promoring properties (chemopreventive potency) of Gromwell seed, dry powder materials and its active compounds were carried out through useful test systems. Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi seed) (GS) is a grass crop that has long been used and played a role in traditional medicine as a nourishing food, and for the treatment of various aliments, paticularly cancer. The application of a new screening procedure which utilizes the synergistic effect of short-chain fatty acids and phorbol esters in enable rapid and easy detection of naturally occurring substances(anti-tumor promoters chemo-preventive agents) with inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) activation, using human lymphblastoid cells. In addition, we have now extended these investigations to a new tumorigenesis model in which we initiated the tumors with DMBA intiation and promoted with 1.7 nmol of TPA in two-stage mouse skin test and other models. these results provide a basis for further development of these botanical supplements for human cancer chemoprevention and observations seem that this materials more extensively as one of the trials for the purpose of complementary and alternative medicine.

Keywords: chemoprevention, medicinal plant, mouse, carcinogenesis systems

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178 The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Oil with Use of Ciprofloxacin Induced Germ Cell Toxicity in Male Albino Mice

Authors: Galawezh Obaid Othman

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the germ cell toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin antibiotic and the Protective effect of grape seed oil, Ciproflaxin uses include treatment of genitor-urinary and some reproductive tract bacterial infections. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury, the possible protective effect of grape seed oil, against ciprofloxacin induced reproductive toxicity on mouse .the animals were randomly divided into four groups consisting of five mice. Group (1) was orally given distilled water (solvent of the used drugs) and kept as a control. Group (2) was administered 6ml/kg. b.w of grape seed oil orally 15 days .Group (3) was administered 206mg/kg. b.w of ciprofloxacin orally for 15 days.. Last group was treated orally with Grape seed oil (6mg/kg b.w. /day) prior to an orally administered ciprofloxacin (CPX) at a dose of 206 mg⁄kg. b.w. by three hours for fifteen days. Ciproflaxin have ability to induce various types of sperm abnormalities such as (Sperm without head, sperm without tail, defective head spearm,swollen head sperm ), The results explored that Grape seed oil possesses statistically significant (p<0.05) protective potential against Ciproflaxin by decreasing sperm abnormalities frequency in mouse.

Keywords: antimutagen, ciprofloxacin, grape seed oil, germ cell

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