Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 78

Search results for: Gina Cecilia Pistol

78 Effect of Xenobiotic Bioactive Compounds from Grape Waste on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pigs

Authors: Ionelia Taranu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Mihai Laurentiu Palade, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Sanda Chedea

Abstract:

In the last decade bioactive compounds from grape waste are investigated as new therapeutic agents for the inhibition of carcinogenesis and other diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize several bioactive compounds (polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of a dried grape pomace (GP) derived from a Romanian winery and further to evaluate their effect on inflammation and oxidative markers in liver of pig used as animal model. The total polyphenol concentration of pomace was 36.2g gallic acid equiv /100g. The pomace was rich in polyphenols from the flavonoids group, the main class being flavanols (epicatechins, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidins) and antocyanins (Malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The highest concentration was recorded for epicatechin (51.96g/100g) and procyanidin dimer (22.79g/100g). A high concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) especially ω-6 fatty acids (59.82 g/100g fat) was found in grape pomace. 20 crossbred TOPIG hybrid fattening pigs were randomly assigned (n = 10) to two experimental treatments: a normal diet (control group) and a diet included 5% grape pomace (GP group) for 24 days. The GP diet lowered the gene expression and protein concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines in liver suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of GP diet. Concentration of hepatic TBARS also decreased, but the total antioxidant capacity (liver TEAC) and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) did not differ between the GP and control diet. The results showed that GP diet exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, but the 5% dietary inclusion modulated only partially the oxidative stress.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape waste, immune organs

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77 Aporia, Daze and Arcanes during Visit to Scene of Crime: A Case History

Authors: A. S. Grewal, Sh. Dharambir, R. S. Sangwan, Vikas Dhanda

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Every Scene of Crime is of different kind in nature. Sometimes we see such type of circumstances that we become confused to judge whether the case is of homicide or suicide. In such circumstances a doyen is asked for the option. On the basis of his esoteric knowledge he finds such clues which force the sleuth to change the under sections of Indian penal Code. Here we have examined a case by visiting Scene of Crime and found that a person was found lying dead in a room. There was only one passage which was found opened, the pistol along with the fired cartridge case, misfired cartridge were lying on the spot. Observation method, mathematical calculations, chemical examination and other aspects were considered.

Keywords: country-made pistol, misfired cartridge, fired cartridge case, blackening, nitrite

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76 The Modulation of Health and Inflammatory Status in Young Pigs by Grape Waste Enriched in Polyphenols

Authors: Gina Cecilia Pistol, Loredana Calin, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Inflammatory-associated diseases have an increased trend in the past decades. The pharmacological strategies aimed to treat these inflammatory diseases are very expensive and with non-beneficial results. The current trend is to find alternative strategies to counteract or to control inflammatory component of diseases. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in bioactive compounds (e.g. polyphenols) which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammation associated with cancer progression and other pathologies with inflammatory component. The in vivo models are very useful for studying the immune and inflammatory status. The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is related to human from anatomic and physiologic point of view, representing a feasible model for studying the human inflammatory pathologies. Starting from these data, we evaluated the effect of a diet containing 5% grape seed cakes (GS) on piglets blood biochemical parameters and immune pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4) in spleen and lymph nodes. 12 weaned piglets were fed for 30 days with a control diet or an experimental diet containing 5% GS. At the end of trial, plasma and tissue samples (spleen and lymph nodes) were collected and the biochemical and inflammatory markers were analysed by using biochemistry analyser and ELISA techniques. Our results showed that diet included 5% GS did not influence the health status determined by plasma biochemical parameters. Only a tendency for a slight increase of the biochemical parameters associated with energetic profile (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) was observed. Also, GS diet had no effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines content in spleen and lymph nodes tissue. Further experiments are needed in order to investigate other rate of dietary inclusion which could provide more evidence about the effect of grape bioactive compounds on pigs used as animal model.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape seed by-product, immune organs

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75 The Effects of Grape Waste Bioactive Compounds on the Immune Response and Oxidative Stress in Pig Kidney

Authors: Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Nutrition is an important determinant of general health status, with especially focus on prevention and/or attenuation of the inflammatory-associated pathologies. People with chronic kidney disease can experience chronic inflammation that can lead to cardiovascular disease and even an increased rate of death. There are important links between chronic kidney diseases, inflammation and nutritional strategies that may prevent or protect against undesirable inflammation and oxidative stress. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in polyphenols which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial processes. As a model for studying the impact of grape seeds on renal inflammation and oxidative stress, we used in this study weaned piglets. After a feeding trial of 30 days with a control diet and an experimental diet containing 5% grape seed (GS), kidney samples were collected. In renal tissues were determined the expression and activity of important markers of immune respose and oxidative stress: pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione peroxidise GPx) and important mediators belonging to nuclear receptors (NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma). Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR, whereas protein concentration was determined using proteomic techniques (ELISA). The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes was determined using specific kits. Our results showed that GS enriched in polyphenols does not have effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta gene expression and protein concentration in kidney. By contrast, the gene expression and protein level of IL-8 and IFN-gamma were decreased in GS kidney. Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 gene levels were increased in kidneys collected from GS piglets in comparison with controls, with no modification of protein levels between the two groups. The activities of anti-oxidant enzymes CAT and GPx were increased in kidney by GS, whereas SOD activity was unmodified in comparison with control samples. Also, the GS diet was associated with no modulation of mRNAs for nuclear receptors NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma gene expressions in kidneys. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GS enriched in bioactive compounds such polyphenols could modulate inflammation and oxidative stress markers in kidney tissues. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of GS compounds in case kidney inflammation associated with oxidative stress, and signalling molecules involved in these mechanisms.

Keywords: animal model, kidney inflammation, oxidative stress, grape seed

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74 Use of Pig as an Animal Model for Assessing the Differential MicroRNA Profiling in Kidney after Aristolochic Acid Intoxication

Authors: Daniela E. Marin, Cornelia Braicu, Gina C. Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Mihail A. Gras, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compound commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. AA is frequently associated with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in human and animals and is considered as being responsible for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. The pig provides a good animal model because the porcine urological system is very similar to that of humans, both in aspects of physiology and anatomy. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that have an impact on a wide range of biological processes by regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The objective of this study was to analyze the miRNA profiling in the kidneys of AA intoxicated swine. For this purpose, ten TOPIGS-40 crossbred weaned piglets, 4-week-old, male and females with an initial average body weight of 9.83 ± 0.5 kg were studied for 28 days. They were given ad libitum access to water and feed and randomly allotted to one of the following groups: control group (C) or aristolochic acid group (AA). They were fed a maize-soybean-meal-based diet contaminated or not with 0.25mgAA/kg. To profile miRNA in the kidneys of pigs, microarrays and bioinformatics approaches were applied to analyze the miRNA in the kidney of control and AA intoxicated pigs. After normalization, our results have shown that a total of 5 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs had different profiling in the kidney of intoxicated animals versus control ones. Expression of miR-32-5p, miR-497-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-218-5p, miR-128-3p were up-regulated by 0.25mgAA/kg feed, while the expression of miR-9793-5p, miR-9835-3p, miR-9840-3p, miR-4334-5p was down-regulated. The microRNA profiling in kidney of intoxicated animals was associated with modified expression of target genes as: RICTOR, LASP1, SFRP2, DKK2, BMI1, RAF1, IGF1R, MAP2K1, WEE1, HDGF, BCL2, EIF4E etc, involved in cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration, cell signaling, cancer etc. In conclusion, this study provides new data concerning the microRNA profiling in kidney after aristolochic acid intoxications with important implications for human and animal health.

Keywords: aristolochic acid, kidney, microRNA, swine

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73 Assessment of Online Web-Based Learning for Enhancing Student Grades in Chemistry

Authors: Ian Marc Gealon Cabugsa, Eleanor Pastrano Corcino, Gina Lapaza Montalan

Abstract:

This study focused on the effect of Online Web-Learning (OWL) in the performance of the freshmen Civil Engineering Students of Ateneo de Davao University in their Chem 12 subject. The grades of the students that were required to use OWL were compared to students without OWL. The result of the study suggests promising result for the use of OWL in increasing the performance rate of students taking up Chem 12. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the final grade and OWL grade of the students that had OWL. While the majority of the students find OWL to be helpful in supporting their chemistry knowledge needs, most of them still prefer to learn using the traditional face-to-face instruction.

Keywords: chemistry education, enhanced performance, engineering chemistry, online web-based learning

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72 A Block World Problem Based Sudoku Solver

Authors: Luciana Abednego, Cecilia Nugraheni

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There are many approaches proposed for solving Sudoku puzzles. One of them is by modelling the puzzles as block world problems. There have been three model for Sudoku solvers based on this approach. Each model expresses Sudoku solver as a parameterized multi agent systems. In this work, we propose a new model which is an improvement over the existing models. This paper presents the development of a Sudoku solver that implements all the proposed models. Some experiments have been conducted to determine the performance of each model.

Keywords: Sudoku puzzle, Sudoku solver, block world problem, parameterized multi agent systems

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71 Optimation of Ethanol Extract of Gotu Kola and Majapahit Composition as Natural Antioxidant Source

Authors: Mustofa Ahda, Fiqri Rozi, Gina Noor Habibah, Mas Ulfah Lestari, Tomy Hardianto, Yuni Andriani

Abstract:

The development of natural antioxidants in the Centella asiatica and Majapahit is a great potential. This research has been optimizing the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit as an antioxidants source using measure the free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The results of the research showed that both the ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit has a total content of phenol. It is shown with the ability to reduce reagent Folin Ciocalteu become blue colour. The composition optimization of extract Centella asiatica leaves Majapahit = 30:70 has free radical scavenging activity of DPPH most well compared ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit. IC50 values for the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica : leaves Majapahit = 30:70 is 0,103 mg/mL.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Centella asiatica, Cresentia cujete, composition extract

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70 Coordinated Community Response to Intimate Partner Violence on College Campuses

Authors: Robert D. Hanser, Gina M. Hanser

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This paper provides an overview of Coordinated Community Response Teams (CCRT) to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The CCRT, as a partnership and collaborative effort between multiple agencies is highlighted. This paper is a legal analysis that showcases new legislation and legal requirements in the United States for investigating, processing, and reporting to acts of victimization have transformed the role of the university’s CCRT on campus, making its mission all the more important, both internal and external to the campus. As a specific example, discussion of the CCRT in Northeast Louisiana at the University of Louisiana at Monroe is provided as an example of involvement in this initiative, where federal grant funding has allowed a micro version of the region’s CCRT to be implemented on that campus. Simultaneously, university personnel also work with external agencies throughout the community in intimate partner violence response. Amidst this, the result is a genuine partnership between practitioners and researchers who work together to provide public awareness, prevention, first-responder, and intervention services in a comprehensive manner throughout Northeast Louisiana.

Keywords: interperaonal violence, sexual assault, dating violence, campus violence

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69 Location-Domination on Join of Two Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Analen Malnegro, Gina Malacas

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Dominating sets and related topics have been studied extensively in the past few decades. A dominating set of a graph G is a subset D of V such that every vertex not in D is adjacent to at least one member of D. The domination number γ(G) is the number of vertices in a smallest dominating set for G. Some problems involving detection devices can be modeled with graphs. Finding the minimum number of devices needed according to the type of devices and the necessity of locating the object gives rise to locating-dominating sets. A subset S of vertices of a graph G is called locating-dominating set, LD-set for short, if it is a dominating set and if every vertex v not in S is uniquely determined by the set of neighbors of v belonging to S. The location-domination number λ(G) is the minimum cardinality of an LD-set for G. The complement of a graph G is a graph Ḡ on same vertices such that two distinct vertices of Ḡ are adjacent if and only if they are not adjacent in G. An LD-set of a graph G is global if it is an LD-set of both G and its complement Ḡ. The global location-domination number λg(G) is defined as the minimum cardinality of a global LD-set of G. In this paper, global LD-sets on the join of two graphs are characterized. Global location-domination numbers of these graphs are also determined.

Keywords: dominating set, global locating-dominating set, global location-domination number, locating-dominating set, location-domination number

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68 Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Zita Šereš, Dragana Šoronja Simović, Ljubica Dokić, Lidietta Giorno, Biljana Pajin, Cecilia Hodur, Nikola Maravić

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Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore size of 200 nm at transmembrane pressure in range up to 3 bar and in range of flow rate up to 300 L/h. Box–Behnken design was selected for the experimental work and the responses considered were permeate flux and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The reduction of the permeate COD was in the range 40-60% according to the feed. The highest permeate flux achieved during the process of microfiltration was 160 L/m2h.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, edible oil, microfiltration, wastewater

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67 Newly Developed Epoxy-Polyol and Epoxy- Polyurethane from Renewable Resources

Authors: Akintayo Emmanuel Temitope, Akintayo Cecilia Olufunke, Ziegler Thomas

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Bio-polyols are important components in polyurethane industries. The preliminary studies into the synthesis of bio-polyol products (epoxy-polyol and epoxyl-polyurethanes) from Jatropha curcas were investigated. The reactions were followed by both infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical characterisation of the samples for iodine value (IV), acid value (AV), saponification value (SV) and hydroxyl value (HV) were carried out. Thermal transitions of the products were studied by heating 5 mg of the sample from 20ºC to 800ºC and then cooling down to -500ºC on a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The preparation of epoxylpolyol and polyurethane from Jatropha curcas oil was smooth and efficient. Results of film and solubility properties revealed that coatings of Jatropha curcas epoxy-polyurethanes performed better with increased loading of toluylene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) up to 2 wt% while their solvent resistance decreased beyond a TDI loading of 1.2 wt%. DSC analysis shows the epoxy-polyurethane to be less stable compared to the epoxy-polyol.

Keywords: synthesis, epoxy-polyol, epoxy-polyurethane, jatropha curcas oil

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66 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

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In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: agricultural production systems, geography, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban, urban

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65 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina

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Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: pollutant, trend, air quality monitoring, Mann-Kendall

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64 Meeting the Parents on Facebook : A Case Study of the Swedish Social Insurance Agency’s Social Media Use

Authors: Cecilia Teljas

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Many government agencies use social media to supplement their traditional communication channels. Government agencies are typically risk-averse, which makes social media practices problematic. However, this case study of the social media use of the Swedish social insurance agency shows considerable bi-directional communication between the agency and the public. On one hand, the agency’s aims, strategies, ways of working and experiences related to its social media communication practice are analyzed. On the other hand, the communication by both the agency and the public is studied on one of the agency’s Facebook pages. The results showed that it is possible for an agency to provide relevant and accurate information in real-time in social media if identifying and addressing different segments separately. Furthermore, as a result of context adaption this communication was rather informal and the practice can be considered to manifest positive democratic effects due to the increased availability and inclusion.

Keywords: e-government, social media, case study, discourse analysis

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63 Agro-Industrial Waste as a Source of Catalyst Production

Authors: Brenda Cecilia Ledesma, Andrea Beltramone

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This work deals with the bio-waste valorization approach for catalyst development, the use of products derived from biomass as raw material and the obtaining of biofuels. In this research, activated carbons were synthesized from the orange peel using different synthesis conditions. With the activated carbons obtained with the best structure and texture, PtIr bimetallic catalysts were prepared. Carbon activation was carried out through a chemical process with phosphoric acid as an activating agent, varying the acid concentration, the ratio substrate/activating agent and time of contact between them. The best support was obtained using a carbonization time of 1 h, the temperature of carbonization of 470oC, the phosphoric acid concentration of 50 wt.% and a BET area of 1429 m2/g. Subsequently, the metallic nanoparticles were deposited in the activated carbon to use the solid as a catalytic material for the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-DMF. The catalyst presented an excellent performance for biofuels generation.

Keywords: orange peel, bio-waste valorization, platinum, iridium, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

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62 iCCS: Development of a Mobile Web-Based Student Integrated Information System using Hill Climbing Algorithm

Authors: Maria Cecilia G. Cantos, Lorena W. Rabago, Bartolome T. Tanguilig III

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This paper describes a conducive and structured information exchange environment for the students of the College of Computer Studies in Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation in. The system was developed to help the students to check their academic result, manage profile, make self-enlistment and assist the students to manage their academic status that can be viewed also in mobile phones. Developing class schedules in a traditional way is a long process that involves making many numbers of choices. With Hill Climbing Algorithm, however, the process of class scheduling, particularly with regards to courses to be taken by the student aligned with the curriculum, can perform these processes and end up with an optimum solution. The proponent used Rapid Application Development (RAD) for the system development method. The proponent also used the PHP as the programming language and MySQL as the database.

Keywords: hill climbing algorithm, integrated system, mobile web-based, student information system

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61 Government Intervention Strategies in Providing Water to Rural Communities in the O R Tambo District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Cecilia Kunseh Betek

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Managing rural water supply systems effectively and efficiently is a challenge in the O R Tambo District Municipality due to the long distances between consumers and municipal centres. This is a couple with the low income of most residents and the government's policy of free basic water which is making rural water provision very difficult. With regard to cartage, the results reveal that the majority (84.4%) of the population covers distances of about 1kilometre to fetch water, and 15.6% travel up kilometer to access water facilities. This means that the water sources are located very far from households, outside the officially legislated array of 200metres. These are many reasons to account for this situation. Firstly, this implies that there are inadequate stand pipes to cater for all the homesteads scattered across the rugged terrain of OR Tambo District municipality. Secondly, and following from the first explanation, it would be seen that funding that is made available is not adequate, or is not efficiently spent on the targeted projects. The situation in the rural areas of South Africa is fraught with cumbersome complexity when it comes to service delivery.

Keywords: water, management, government, rural

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60 Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Triphenyltin onto NanoSiO₂/Fly Ash/Activated Carbon Composite

Authors: Olushola S. Ayanda, Olalekan S. Fatoki, Folahan A. Adekola, Bhekumusa J. Ximba, Cecilia O. Akintayo

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In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of triphenyltin (TPT) from TPT-contaminated water onto nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite was investigated in batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich and fractional power models were applied to test the kinetic data and in order to understand the mechanism of adsorption, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔSo and ΔH° were also calculated. The results showed a very good compliance with pseudo second-order equation while the Freundlich and D-R models fit the experiment data. Approximately 99.999 % TPT was removed from the initial concentration of 100 mg/L TPT at 80oC, contact time of 60 min, pH 8 and a stirring speed of 200 rpm. Thus, nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite could be used as effective adsorbent for the removal of TPT from contaminated water and wastewater.

Keywords: isotherm, kinetics, nanoSiO₂/fly ash/activated carbon composite, tributyltin

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59 Role of GM1 in the Interaction between Amyloid Prefibrillar Oligomers of Salmon Calcitonin and Model Membranes

Authors: Cristiano Giordani, Marco Diociaiuti, Cecilia Bombelli, Laura Zanetti-Polzi, Marcello Belfiore, Raoul Fioravanti, Gianfranco Macchia

Abstract:

We investigated induced functional effects by evaluating Ca2+-influx in liposomes and cell viability in HT22-DIFF neurons. Only solutions rich in unstructured Prefibrillar-Oligomers (PFOs) were able, in the presence of Monosialoganglioside-GM1 (GM1), to induce Ca2+-influx and were also neurotoxic, suggesting a correlation between the two phenomena. Thus, in the presence of GM1, we investigated the protein conformation and liposome modification due to the interaction. Circular Dichroism showed that GM1 fostered the formation of β-structures and Energy Filtered-Transmission Electron Microscopy that PFOs formed “amyloid-channels” as reported for Aβ. We speculate that electrostatic forces occurring between the positive PFOs and negative GM1 drive the initial binding, while the hydrophobic profile of the flexible PFO is responsible for the subsequent pore formation. Conversely, the rigid β-structured mature/fibers (MFs) and proto-fibers (PFs) were unable to induce membrane damage and Ca2+- influx.

Keywords: amyloid proteins, neurotoxicity, lipid-rafts, GM1

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58 An Analysis of How Students Perceive Their Self-Efficacy in Online Speaking Classes

Authors: Heny Hartono, Cecilia Titiek Murniati

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The pandemic has given teachers and students no other choice but having full online learning. In such an emergency situation as the time of the covid-19 pandemic, the application of LMS (Learner Management System) in higher education is the most reasonable solution for students and teachers. In fact, the online learning requires all elements of a higher education systems, including the human resources, infrastructure, and supporting systems such as the application, server, and stable internet connection. The readiness of the higher education institution in preparing the online system may secure those who are involved in the online learning process. It may also result in students’ self-efficacy in online learning. This research aimed to investigate how students perceive their self-efficacy in online English learning, especially in speaking classes which is considered as a productive language skill. This research collects qualitative data with narrative inquiry involving 25 students of speaking classes as the respondents. The results of this study show that students perceive their self-efficacy in speaking online classes as not very high.

Keywords: self-efficacy, online learning, speaking class, college students, e-learning

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57 Reliability and Economic Assessment of Rain Water Harvesting Systems for Diary Production

Authors: Sandra Cecilia Muhirirwe, Violet Kisakye, Bart Van der Bruggen

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The need for rainwater harvesting is continuously growing as a supplement to other water sources and also, the operation and maintenance costs remain low after the initial investment. To determine the optimal rainwater harvesting tank size, the daily water balance method. Princeton Global Forcing (PGF) data gridded at (0.25° × 0.25°) is used after comparison with observed data. Correlations between PGF and observed stations varied by under or over-estimating the precipitation. PGF series could ably reproduce observed rainfall hence they were used. According to the results, reliability is higher for larger rainwater tank sizes and also higher for larger collections areas. Areas that receive more rainfall have higher reliabilities and require smaller tank sizes. Meeting 100% reliabilities requires collection areas greater than 500 m² for demand of 750 L/day. Reliability was investigated for different tank volumes and an insignificant increase in reliability was observed for tank sizes greater than 50 m³. A roof collection area of at least 250 m² and tank size of 120 m³ and above is recommended.

Keywords: cost-benefit, reliability, rainwater harvesting, optimization

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56 Exploring Management Strategies Used by Grade 1 Educators in the Classroom Working with Learners Presenting with ADHD Symptoms in the Western Cape

Authors: Athena Pedro, Gina Stockingt

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This study aimed to explore current management strategies used by Grade 1 educators working with learners presenting with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in mainstream schools in the Western Cape. A sample of grade 1 educators were selected for the study. The sample comprised of twelve grades 1 educators from four local schools in the Western Cape. All twelve educators were individually interviewed and discussed the management strategies used in the classroom when working with learner presenting with ADHD symptoms. The data was analysed qualitatively with a focus in identifying, sorting and analyse meaning according to the subjective perception, understanding and behaviour of the grade 1 educators within their context. Furthermore, the social, cultural, political and physical environment of the participants were taken into consideration to explore and interpret the link between these elements. The findings were as follows: many educators felt that they did not receive enough training on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, therefore lacking knowledge on how to apply management strategies to address this. Managing a diverse range of learners, lack of resources, lack of parental involvement, lack of assistance in the classroom, as well as distracted and disorganised children posed as challenges for educators working with learners presenting with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms.

Keywords: ADHD, Grade 1 educators, Learners, Management strategies

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55 Spatial Analysis of Park and Ride Users’ Dynamic Accessibility to Train Station: A Case Study in Perth

Authors: Ting (Grace) Lin, Jianhong (Cecilia) Xia, Todd Robinson

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Accessibility analysis, examining people’s ability to access facilities and destinations, is a fundamental assessment for transport planning, policy making, and social exclusion research. Dynamic accessibility which measures accessibility in real-time traffic environment has been an advanced accessibility indicator in transport research. It is also a useful indicator to help travelers to understand travel time daily variability, assists traffic engineers to monitor traffic congestions, and finally develop effective strategies in order to mitigate traffic congestions. This research involved real-time traffic information by collecting travel time data with 15-minute interval via the TomTom® API. A framework for measuring dynamic accessibility was then developed based on the gravity theory and accessibility dichotomy theory through space and time interpolation. Finally, the dynamic accessibility can be derived at any given time and location under dynamic accessibility spatial analysis framework.

Keywords: dynamic accessibility, hot spot, transport research, TomTom® API

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54 The Public Law Studies: Relationship Between Accountability, Environmental Education and Smart Cities

Authors: Aline Alves Bandeira, Luís Pedro Lima, Maria Cecília de Paula Silva, Paulo Henrique de Viveiros Tavares

Abstract:

Nowadays, the study of public policies regarding management efficiency is essential. Public policies are about what governments do or do not do, being an area that has grown worldwide, contributing through the knowledge of technologies and methodologies that monitor and evaluate the performance of public administrators. The information published on official government websites needs to provide for transparency and responsiveness of managers. Thus, transparency is a primordial factor for the execution of Accountability, providing, in this way, services to the citizen with the expansion of transparent, efficient, democratic information and that value administrative eco-efficiency. The ecologically balanced management of a Smart City must optimize environmental education, building a fairer society, which brings about equality in the use of quality environmental resources. Smart Cities add value in the construction of public management, enabling interaction between people, enhancing environmental education and the practical applicability of administrative eco-efficiency, fostering economic development and improving the quality of life.

Keywords: accountability, environmental education, new public administration, smart cities

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53 Antimicrobial Activity of Functionalized Alpaca Fabrics with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Gina Zavaleta-Espejo, Segundo R. Jáuregui-Rosas, Fanny V. Samanamud-Moreno, José Saldaña Jiménez, Anibal Felix-Quintero, Víctor Montero-Del Aguila, Elsi Mejía-Uriarte

Abstract:

Vicugnapacos "alpaca" fabrics are considered special for their finesse, and the garments in the textile market are very luxurious. It has many special characteristics such as antiallergic, soft, hygroscopic, among others. In this sense, the research aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alpaca fabrics functionalized with silver nanoparticles on the bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. For the functionalization of the fabrics, AgNO3 and different concentrations of trisodium citrate (TSC) 2, 6, and 10 mg. Tissue characterization was performed using Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The determination of the antimicrobial activity of the alpaca tissues was made by the Kirby-Bauer method with alpaca tissue discs functionalized with silver nanoparticles, an experimental design was made in completely randomized blocks with three treatments and a negative control with three repetitions. The results showed that inhibition halos were formed for both bacteria, therefore, the functionalized tissues have a high antimicrobial activity, whose mechanism of action is attributed to the free radicals (ROS) generated by the nanoparticles that cause oxidative damage to the bacteria. proteins and lipids of the bacterial cell wall.

Keywords: antimicrobial, animal fibers, fabrics, functionalization, trisodium citrate

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52 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia

Abstract:

Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: biosystem, plant hormones, Botryodiplodia theobromae, fermentation

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51 Corporate Governance and Firms` Performance: Evidence from Quoted Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Authors: Ogunwole Cecilia Oluwakemi, Wahid Damilola Olanipekun, Omoyele Olufemi Samuel, Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi

Abstract:

The issues relating to corporate governance in both locally and internationally managed firms cannot be overemphasized because the lack of efficient corporate governance could orchestrate serious problems in any organization. Against this backdrop, this study examines the nexus between corporate governance and performance of firms from 2012 to 2020, using the case study of the Nigerian stock exchange. Consequently, data was collected from forty (40) listed firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study employed a fixed effect technique of estimation to address the objective of the study. It was discovered from the study that the influence of corporate governance components such as gender diversity, board independence and managerial ownership led to a significant positive impact on the performance of the firms under the investigation. In view of the above finding, this study makes the following recommendations for the policymakers in Nigeria that anytime the goal of the policymakers is the improvement of performance of the listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange, board independence and a balance in the inclusion of male and female among the board of directors should be encouraged in these firms.

Keywords: corporate, governance, firms, performance, Nigeria, stock, exchange

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50 Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide as Reaction Medium for the Synthesis of Flavanones under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Cecilia Espindola, Juan Carlos Palacios

Abstract:

Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds which are found in many fruits and vegetables. A subgroup of these called flavanones display a wide range of biological activities, and they also have an important physiological role in plants. The ionic liquid (ILs) are compounds consisting of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic anion. Due to its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, wide temperature range of the liquid state, thermal and electrochemical stability, high ionic density and low volatility and flammability, are considered as ecological solvents in organic synthesis, catalysis, electrolytes in accumulators, and electrochemistry, non-volatile plasticizers, and chemical separation. It was synthesized ionic liquid IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide free-solvent and used as reaction medium for flavanones synthesis, under several reaction conditions of temperature, time and production. The obtained compounds were analyzed by melting point, elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Keywords: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, flavonoids, free-solvent, IR spectroscopy

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49 An Analysis of Challenges, Supports, and Strategies of Self-Directed Learning among College Students

Authors: Cecilia Titiek Murniati, Heny Hartono, Agus Cahyo Nugroho

Abstract:

Self-directed learning has increasingly been discussed due to the always-changing educational landscape. For instance, the COVID-19 outbreak in the past two years forced schools and colleges worldwide to make a rapid adjustment from offline to online classes. Currently, many schools and colleges are loosening their policies and prefer to have offline classes or hybrid classes. In this unpredictable situation, students are expected to be more independent in their learning. Current technological development such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and metaverse may become a facilitator for self-directed learning. This qualitative study is intended to explore college students’ challenges, supports, and strategies in conducting self-directed learning. The participants of this study were ten college students in private universities in Java, Indonesia. The results show that maintaining a learning attitude and motivation and technical difficulties are some of the challenges of self-directed learning. College students often received support from their peers, seniors, parents, and teachers when they struggled with their tasks. They made use of social media, mobile phones, streaming platforms, and chat groups to face their challenges in learning.

Keywords: self-directed learning, challenges, supports, strategies, e-learning

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