Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9742

Search results for: energy efficiency value

9742 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 526
9741 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Consumption in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar

Abstract:

Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production frame work of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct energy efficiency performance index for measuring energy efficiency performance by using environmental DEA model with CO2 emissions. We finally apply the index proposed to assess the energy efficiency performance in OPEC over time.

Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental, OPEC, data envelopment analysis

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9740 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

Abstract:

Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: energy savings, energy efficiency, energy policy, white certificates

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9739 Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases

Authors: Juan Sepúlveda

Abstract:

Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.

Keywords: energy efficiency, MCA, scientometric, trends

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9738 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

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9737 Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Nurlan Ibrayev

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.

Keywords: energy efficiency in Kazakhstan, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, sustainable development

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9736 Measuring Environmental Efficiency of Energy in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Seyedhossein Sajadifar, Naser Khiabani

Abstract:

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently gained popularity in energy efficiency analysis. A common feature of the previously proposed DEA models for measuring energy efficiency performance is that they treat energy consumption as an input within a production framework without considering undesirable outputs. However, energy use results in the generation of undesirable outputs as byproducts of producing desirable outputs. Within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable outputs, this paper presents several DEA-type linear programming models for measuring energy efficiency performance. In addition to considering undesirable outputs, our models treat different energy sources as different inputs so that changes in energy mix could be accounted for in evaluating energy efficiency. The proposed models are applied to measure the energy efficiency performances of 12 OPEC countries and the results obtained are presented.

Keywords: energy efficiency, undesirable outputs, data envelopment analysis

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9735 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi

Abstract:

Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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9734 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: production planning, production control, energy-efficiency, energy-flexibility, energy-supply

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9733 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Iran and Other Middle East Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar

Abstract:

According to 1404 forecasting documentation, among the most fundamental ways of Iran’s success in competition with other regional countries are innovations, efficiency enhancements and domestic productivity. Therefore, in this study, the energy consumption efficiency of Iran and the neighbor countries has been measured in the period between 2007-2012 considering the simultaneous economic activities, CO2 emission, and consumption of energy through data envelopment analysis of undesirable output. The results of the study indicated that the energy efficiency changes in both Iran and the average neighbor countries has been on a descending trend and Iran’s energy efficiency status is not desirable compared to the other countries in the region.

Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental, undesirable output, data envelopment analysis

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9732 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

Authors: P. Góes, J. Manzi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, entropy, reactive

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9731 The Use of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Building for Sustainable Development

Authors: Zakariya B. H., Idris M. I., Jungudo M. A.

Abstract:

High energy consumptions of urban settlements in Nigeria are escalating due to strong population growth and migration as a result of crises. The demand for lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (LHVAC) is becoming higher. Conversely, there is a poor electricity supply to both rural and urban settlement in Nigeria. Generators were mostly used in Nigeria as a source of energy for LHVAC. Energy efficiency can be defined as any measure taken to reduce the amount of energy consumed for heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), and house hold appliances like computers, stoves, refrigerators, televisions etc. The aim of the study was to minimize energy consumption in building through the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy in building sector. Some of the energy efficient buildings within the study area were identified, the study covers there major cities of Nigeria namely, Abuja, Kaduna and Lagos city. The cost of investment on the energy efficiency and renewable energy was determined and compared with other fossil energy source for conventional building. Findings revealed that the low energy and energy efficient buildings in Nigeria are cheaper than the conventional ones. Based on the finding of the research, construction stake holders are strongly encouraged to abandon the conventional buildings and consider energy efficiency and renewable energy in buildings.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, LHVAC, sustainable development

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9730 A System Dynamics Model for Assessment of Alternative Energy Policy Measures: A Case of Energy Management System as an Energy Efficiency Policy Tool

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Uldis Bariss, Anna Kubule, Dagnija Blumberga

Abstract:

European Union Energy Efficiency Directive provides a set of binding energy efficiency measures to reach. Each of the member states can use either energy efficiency obligation scheme or alternative policy measures or combination of both. Latvian government has decided to divide savings among obligation scheme (65%) and alternative measures (35%). This decision might lead to significant energy tariff increase hence impact on the national economy. To assess impact of alternative policy measures focusing on energy management scheme based on ISO 50001 and ability to decrease share of obligation scheme a System Dynamics modeling was used. Simulation results show that energy efficiency goal can be met with alternative policy measure to large energy consumers in industrial, tertiary and public sectors by applying the energy tax exemption for implementers of energy management system. A delay in applying alternative policy measures plays very important role in reaching the energy efficiency goal. One year delay in implementation of this policy measure reduces cumulative energy savings from 2016 to 2017 from 5200 GWh to 3000 GWh in 2020.

Keywords: system dynamics, energy efficiency, policy measure, energy management system, obligation scheme

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9729 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications

Authors: W. Schellong

Abstract:

Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.

Keywords: crossover technologies, data management, energy analysis, energy efficiency, process control

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9728 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

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9727 Evaluating the Energy Efficiency Measures for an Educational Building in a Hot-Humid Region

Authors: Rafia Akbar

Abstract:

This paper assesses different Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and their impact on energy consumption and carbon footprint of an educational building located in Islamabad. A base case was first developed in accordance with typical construction practices in Pakistan. Several EEMs were separately applied to the baseline design to quantify their impact on operational energy reduction of the building and the resultant carbon emissions. Results indicate that by applying these measures, there is a potential to reduce energy consumption up to 49% as compared to the base case. It was observed that energy efficient ceiling fans and lights, insulation of the walls and roof and an efficient air conditioning system for the building can provide significant energy savings. The results further indicate that the initial investment cost of these energy efficiency measures can be recovered within 6 to 7 years of building’s service life.

Keywords: CO2 savings, educational building, energy efficiency measures, payback period

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9726 Photovoltaic System: An Alternative to Energy Efficiency in a Residence

Authors: Arsenio Jose Mindu

Abstract:

The concern to carry out a study related to Energy Efficiency arose based on the various debates in international television networks and not only, but also in several forums of national debates. The concept of Energy Efficiency is not yet widely disseminated and /or taken into account in terms of energy consumption, not only at the domestic level but also at the industrial level in Mozambique. In the context of the energy audit, the time during which each of the appliances is connected to the voltage source, the time during which they are in standby mode was recorded on a spreadsheet basis. Based on these data, daily and monthly consumption was calculated. In order to have more accurate information on the daily levels of daily consumption, the electricity consumption was read every hour of the day (from 5:00 am to 11:00 pm), since after 23:00 the energy consumption remains constant. For ten days. Based on the daily energy consumption and the maximum consumption power, the design of the photovoltaic system for the residence was made. With the implementation of the photovoltaic system in order to guarantee energy efficiency, there was a significant reduction in the use of electricity from the public grid, increasing from approximately 17 kwh per day to around 11 kwh, thus achieving an energy efficiency of 67.4 %. That is to say, there was a reduction not only in terms of the amount of energy consumed but also of the monthly expenses with electricity, having increased from around 2,500,00Mt (2,500 meticais) to around 800Mt per month.

Keywords: energy efficiency, photovoltaic system, residential sector, Mozambique

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9725 Energy Efficiency Factors in Toll Plazas

Authors: S. Balubaid, M. Z. Abd Majid, R. Zakaria

Abstract:

Energy efficiency is one of the most important issues for green buildings and their sustainability. This is not only due to the environmental impacts, but also because of significantly high energy cost. The aim of this study is to identify the potential actions required for toll plaza that lead to energy reduction. The data were obtained through set of questionnaire and interviewing targeted respondents, including the employees at toll plaza, and architects and engineers who are directly involved in design of highway projects. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics analysis method. The findings of this study are the critical elements that influence the energy usage and factors that lead to energy wastage. Finally, potential actions are recommended to reduce energy consumption in toll plazas.

Keywords: energy efficiency, toll plaza, energy consumption

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9724 Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Development Perspectives in Lithuanian Furniture Industry

Authors: J. Vasauskaite

Abstract:

From the perspective of Lithuanian furniture enterprises, the role of energy efficiency is significant as it leads to direct economic benefits, increased competitiveness and higher productivity. There are various possible improvements in energy efficiency in industry: changes in the production process, investment in R&D, implementation of energy-saving technologies or energy management systems. The research aims to contribute the understanding of energy efficiency importance in industry by presenting possible improvements of energy use in different manufacturing process of enterprises. The evaluation methodology included quantitative and qualitative research methods: the comparative and statistical analysis of primary and secondary sources of information. This paper provides the detailed analysis of the energy efficiency development opportunities and challenges in Lithuanian furniture industry. The results of the study show the importance of technological innovations, energy efficiency policies and environmental management strategies in developing energy efficiency within the wood and furniture industry. The analysis of energy efficiency development in Lithuanian furniture industry showed that the industrial activities are influenced by various internal and external factors such as increasing flows of products, human resources and overall management decisions; dynamic growth and increasing competition; emerging need for environmental information. In the light of these factors, Lithuanian furniture industry has undergone significant changes – restructuring, technological advances and business model innovations, allowing it to be more export-oriented and focus on upgrading quality, design and innovation.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy policy, furniture industry, technological innovation

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9723 Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Residential Buildings Case Study: Multi-Family Apartment Building in Tripoli, Lebanon

Authors: Yathreb Sabsaby

Abstract:

Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings was long ignored by public authorities who favored energy efficiency policies in new buildings, which are easier to implement. Indeed, retrofitting is more complex and difficult to organize because of the extreme diversity in existing buildings, administrative situations and occupation. Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings has now become indispensable in all economies—even emerging countries—given the constraints imposed by energy security and climate change, and because it represents considerable potential energy savings. Addressing energy efficiency in the existing building stock has been acknowledged as one of the most critical yet challenging aspects of reducing our environmental footprint on the ecosystem. Tripoli, Lebanon chosen as case study area is a typical Mediterranean metropolis in the North Lebanon, where multifamily residential buildings are all around the city. This generally implies that the density of energy demand is extremely high, even the renewable energy facilities are involved, they can just play as a minor energy provider at the current technology level in the single family house. It seems only the low energy design for buildings can be made possible, not the zero energy certainly in developing country. This study reviews the latest research and experience and provides recommendations for deep energy retrofits that aim to save more than 50% of the energy used in a typical Tripoli apartment building.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, existing building, multifamily residential building, retrofit

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9722 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

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9721 Exergy Analyses of Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

Utilization of renewable energy resources for energy conservation, pollution prevention, resource efficiency and systems integration is very important for sustainable development. In this study, we perform energy and exergy analyses of a wind turbine, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The turbine is part of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)-wind system with hydrogen storage. The power output from this turbine varies between 1.5 and 5.5 kW with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and a cut-in wind speed of 2.4 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine energy and exergy efficiencies. The energy efficiency changes between 0% to 45% while the exergy efficiency varies between 0% and 31.3%. We also determined some of the exergoeconomic parameters that are the ratios of energy and exergy loss rates to the capital cost (R en and R ex), respectively. (R en) changes between 0.96% and 59.03% for different values of velocity while R ex has a maximum value of 53.62% for the highest wind speed.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, performance evaluation, wind energy

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9720 Assessment of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Two Portuguese Slaughterhouses

Authors: M. Feliciano, F. Rodrigues, A. Gonçalves, J. M. R. C. A. Santos, V. Leite

Abstract:

With the objective of characterizing the profile and performance of energy use by slaughterhouses, surveys and audits were performed in two different facilities located in the northeastern region of Portugal. Energy consumption from multiple energy sources was assessed monthly, along with production and costs, for the same reference year. Gathered data was analyzed to identify and quantify the main consuming processes and to estimate energy efficiency indicators for benchmarking purposes. Main results show differences between the two slaughterhouses concerning energy sources, consumption by source and sector, and global energy efficiency. Electricity is the most used source in both slaughterhouses with a contribution of around 50%, being essentially used for meat processing and refrigeration. Natural gas, in slaughterhouse A, and pellets, in slaughterhouse B, used for heating water take the second place, with a mean contribution of about 45%. On average, a 62 kgoe/t specific energy consumption (SEC) was found, although with differences between slaughterhouses. A prominent negative correlation between SEC and carcass production was found specially in slaughterhouse A. Estimated Specific Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gases Intensity (GHGI) show mean values of about 50 €/t and 1.8 tCO2e/toe, respectively. Main results show that there is a significant margin for improving energy efficiency and therefore lowering costs in this type of non-energy intensive industries.

Keywords: meat industry, energy intensity, energy efficiency, GHG emissions

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9719 Summary of Technical Approaches to Improve Energy Efficiency in Electric Motor Drive Systems

Authors: Manuel Valencia Alejaandro Paz, Luz Nidia Quintero Jairo Palacios

Abstract:

In present paper a set of technical approaches to improve the energy efficiency in processes controlled by electric motor drive systems EMDS are listed and analyzed. Energy saving becomes fundamental to improve the sustainability and competitiveness of organizations all around the world; increasing costs of electricity had impulse the use of different strategies to reduce the electric power condition. A summary of these techniques is presented and evaluated in the potential for energy saving policies.

Keywords: energy saving, EMDS, induction motor, energy efficiency, sustainability

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9718 Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies

Authors: Nachtane Mourad, Tarfaoui Mostapha, Saifaoui Dennoun, El Moumen Ahmed

Abstract:

The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.

Keywords: renewable marine energy, energy transition, efficiency energy, renewable energy

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9717 Investigating the Effect of Refinancing on Financial Behaviour of Energy Efficiency Projects

Authors: Zohreh Soltani, Seyedmohammadhossein Hosseinian

Abstract:

Reduction of energy consumption in built infrastructure, through the installation of energy-efficient technologies, is a major approach to achieving sustainability. In practice, the viability of energy efficiency projects strongly depends on the cost reimbursement and profitability. These projects are subject to failure if the actual cost savings do not reimburse the project cost in a timely manner. In such cases, refinancing could be a solution to benefit from the long-term returns of the project if implemented wisely. However, very little is still known about the effect of refinancing options on financial performance of energy efficiency projects. To fill this gap, the present study investigates the financial behavior of energy efficiency projects with focus on refinancing options, such as Leveraged Loans. A System Dynamics (SD) model is introduced, and the model application is presented using an actual case-study data. The case study results indicate that while high-interest start-ups make using Leveraged Loan inevitable, refinancing can rescue the project and bring about profitability. This paper also presents some managerial implications of refinancing energy efficiency projects based on the case-study analysis. Results of this study help implementing financially viable energy efficiency projects, so the community could benefit from their environmental advantages widely.

Keywords: energy efficiency projects, leveraged loan, refinancing, sustainability

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9716 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency

Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo

Abstract:

Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable development

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9715 Analysis of Awareness and Climate Change Impact in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances

Authors: Meltem Ucal

Abstract:

It is obvious that with limited resources and increasing of energy consumption from day to day, increase in amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will increase risk of climate change. The objective of “Raising Awareness in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances and Climate Change” paper is to make the connection between climate change and energy saving to be understood. First of all, research and evaluation aiming improvement of women’s behaviors of purchasing and using household appliances and also educate next generations who will be faced risks of climate change, with their mothers will be done.

Keywords: energy efficiency, climate change, wareness, household appliences, econometrics model, logit model

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9714 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan

Abstract:

Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

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9713 Analysis on the Building Energy Performance of a Retrofitted Residential Building with RETScreen Expert Software

Authors: Abdulhameed Babatunde Owolabi, Benyoh Emmanuel Kigha Nsafon, Jeung-Soo Huh

Abstract:

Energy efficiency measures for residential buildings in South Korea is a national issue because most of the apartments built in the last decades were constructed without proper energy efficiency measures making the energy performance of old buildings to be very poor when compared with new buildings. However, the adoption of advanced building technologies and regulatory building codes are effective energy efficiency strategies for new construction. There is a need to retrofits the existing building using energy conservation measures (ECMs) equipment’s in order to conserve energy and reduce GHGs emissions. To achieve this, the Institute for Global Climate Change and Energy (IGCCE), Kyungpook National University (KNU), Daegu, South Korea employed RETScreen Expert software to carry out measurement and verification (M&V) analysis on an existing building in Korea by using six years gas consumption data collected from Daesung Energy Co., Ltd in order to determine the building energy performance after the introduction of ECM. Through the M&V, energy efficiency is attained, and the resident doubt was reduced. From the analysis, a total of 657 Giga Joules (GJ) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was consumed at the rate of 0.34 GJ/day having a peak in the year 2015, which cost the occupant the sum of $10,821.

Keywords: energy efficiency, measurement and verification, performance analysis, RETScreen experts

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