Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 701

Search results for: white certificates

701 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

Abstract:

Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: energy savings, energy efficiency, energy policy, white certificates

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
700 Leveraging Hyperledger Iroha for the Issuance and Verification of Higher-Education Certificates

Authors: Vasiliki Vlachou, Christos Kontzinos, Ourania Markaki, Panagiotis Kokkinakos, Vagelis Karakolis, John Psarras

Abstract:

Higher Education is resisting the pull of technology, especially as this concerns the issuance and verification of degrees and certificates. It is widely known that education certificates are largely produced in paper form making them vulnerable to damage while holders of such certificates are dependent on the universities and other issuing organisations. QualiChain is an EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) research project aiming to transform and revolutionise the domain of public education and its ties with the job market by leveraging blockchain, analytics and decision support to develop a platform for the verification and sharing of education certificates. Blockchain plays an integral part in the QualiChain solution in providing a trustworthy environment to store, share and manage such accreditations. Under the context of this paper, three prominent blockchain platforms (Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Iroha) were considered as a means of experimentation for creating a system with the basic functionalities that will be needed for trustworthy degree verification. The methodology and respective system developed and presented in this paper used Hyperledger Iroha and proved that this specific platform can be used to easily develop decentralize applications. Future papers will attempt to further experiment with other blockchain platforms and assess which has the best potential.

Keywords: blockchain, degree verification, higher education certificates, Hyperledger Iroha

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699 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer

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The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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698 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani

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Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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697 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu

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Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
696 Alternative Key Exchange Algorithm Based on Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Certificate and Usage in Applications

Authors: A. Andreasyan, C. Connors

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The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature algorithm-based X509v3 certificates are becoming more popular due to their short public and private key sizes. Moreover, these certificates can be stored in Internet of Things (IoT) devices, with limited resources, using less memory and transmitted in network security protocols, such as Internet Key Exchange (IKE), Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH) with less bandwidth. The proposed method gives another advantage, in that it increases the performance of the above-mentioned protocols in terms of key exchange by saving one scalar multiplication operation.

Keywords: cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, key exchange, network security protocol

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695 Examining the Racialisation of White Workers in Rural Louisiana as a Technology of Capitalist Management and Control

Authors: Kendall Artz

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In the 1950s, a wave of violent labor unrest shook a small town in south-western Louisiana leading to the racialisation of workers—previously considered white—as ‘mixed-race’ or, in local terms, ‘Redbone.’ This paper examines why the group known as ‘Redbones’ were marked as non-white in relation to strike violence and their opposition to capitalist expansion. Utilising archival research, historiography and oral testimony, I examine how an instance of labor unrest was reinterpreted by local law enforcement, an interstate capitalist class and the national press as calling into question the racial integrity of a group of workers who had been formerly marked as white. This explosive and largely unstudied strike provides an opportunity to better understand how racialisation operates as a technology of control, even over individuals who appear phenotypically white. The strike at Elizabeth allows a glimpse at the tactics of representatives of white supremacy when white workers do not fully embrace the ‘wages of whiteness.

Keywords: American federation of labor, labor history, Louisiana history, wages of whiteness

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694 Comparative Analysis of White Bean Cake and Soybean Cake through Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu, Linda Ojeyokan

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This study produced and compared the acceptability of white bean cake (akara) and soy bean cake (akara) through sensory evaluation. Two varieties of beans were used; white (haricot) beans and soy beans; processed in the wet (paste) form and dry (flour) form. They were all used in the production of samples of bean cake (akara) under the same condition. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the products; 100% white beans cake paste was labeled (A1), 50% white bean and 50% soya bean cake paste was (B1), 100% white bean cake flour was (A2); 50% white bean cake flour and 50% soya bean cake flour (B2). A five (5) point hedonic scale rating, very good (5), good (4), fair (3), poor (2) and very poor (1) was administered on the ten panel of judge. 40 questionnaires were administered to the general public to access their knowledge of soya beans akara. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine which product is more acceptable. Table, percentages and mean score were methods employed in analyzing data collected. The analysis revealed that soya bean (akara) is generally acceptable except for sample B1 that was rated poor with 2 points, white beans cake was rated very well with 5 points. It was recommended that the hospitality industry could introduce soya bean cakes in the breakfast menu. Families can also include these products in their breakfast.

Keywords: akara, bean cake, soybean, white bean

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693 Constructing White-Box Implementations Based on Threshold Shares and Composite Fields

Authors: Tingting Lin, Manfred von Willich, Dafu Lou, Phil Eisen

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A white-box implementation of a cryptographic algorithm is a software implementation intended to resist extraction of the secret key by an adversary. To date, most of the white-box techniques are used to protect block cipher implementations. However, a large proportion of the white-box implementations are proven to be vulnerable to affine equivalence attacks and other algebraic attacks, as well as differential computation analysis (DCA). In this paper, we identify a class of block ciphers for which we propose a method of constructing white-box implementations. Our method is based on threshold implementations and operations in composite fields. The resulting implementations consist of lookup tables and few exclusive OR operations. All intermediate values (inputs and outputs of the lookup tables) are masked. The threshold implementation makes the distribution of the masked values uniform and independent of the original inputs, and the operations in composite fields reduce the size of the lookup tables. The white-box implementations can provide resistance against algebraic attacks and DCA-like attacks.

Keywords: white-box, block cipher, composite field, threshold implementation

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692 Counselor and Object of Hate: A Case Study of Latina Clinician and Two White Supremacist Patients

Authors: Reagan Rodriguez

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The following research is a case study of two white patients with white extremist values and their Latina Clinician. Researchers suggest that white supremacy as an ideology has been documented in the United States since the early 1800s. Ethnicity and race were growing key factors linked to central motives behind hate crimes in U.S., which may suggest that we are living in another wave of white supremacist and domestic terrorism that seek to eradicate a threatening and dangerous “other”. This research seeks to address and contribute a qualitative perspective to white supremacist ideology within a bio-psycho-social framework. The current research seeks to contribute to address the gap in literature on ethnic minority clinicians and white patients with racist ideology. The research also seeks to examine the themes not commonly found in racially matched and gendered matched therapeutic dyads where patients hold white extremist values. This case study examines white supremacist ideology from a psychodynamic perspective, examining themes such as “feeling forgotten”, reduced empathy related to “broken promises”, sexualization of the passing minority counselor, and utilizing minimal autonomy in verbal and non-verbal signals. A thematic analysis of case notes and quotes are used to further contextualize emerging therapeutic themes and the psychodynamic analysis of the manifestation of white supremacist actions ranging from active to passive forms of violence.

Keywords: case study, extremism, race and gender, white supremacist ideology

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691 Lanthanide Incorporated Dendron Based White Light Emitting Material

Authors: Prashant Kumar, Edamana Prasad

Abstract:

The White light emitting material has an emerging field in recent years due to their widespread application in the field of optoelectronics and cellular display. In the present study, we have achieved white light emission in gel medium through partial resonance energy transfer from different donors (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) to lanthanides {Eu(III) and Tb(III)}. The gel was formed by the self- assembly of glucose cored poly(aryl ether) dendrons in DMSO-Water mixture (1:9 v/v). The white light emission was further confirmed by the CIE coordinates (Commission Internationale d’ Eclairage). Moreover, we have developed three different white light emitting system by utilizing three different donor moiety namely, naphthalene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {I}, phenanthrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {II}, and pyrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {III}. The CIE coordinates for I, II and III were (0.35, 0.37), (0.33, 0.32) and (0.35, 0.33) respectively. Furthermore, we have investigated the energy transfer from different donors (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene) to lanthanide {Eu(III)}. The efficiency of energy transfer from phenanthrene-Eu(III), naphthalene-Eu(III) and pyrene-Eu(III) systems was 11.9%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Detailed mechanistic aspects will be displayed in the poster.

Keywords: dendron, lanthanide, resonance energy transfer, white light emission

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690 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi

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Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.

Keywords: white rice, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, food science, triglycerides

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689 Self-Compacting White Concrete Mix Design Using the Particle Matrix Model

Authors: Samindi Samarakoon, Ørjan Sletbakk Vie, Remi Kleiven Fjelldal

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White concrete facade elements are widely used in construction industry. It is challenging to achieve the desired workability in casting of white concrete elements. Particle Matrix model was used for proportioning the self-compacting white concrete (SCWC) to control segregation and bleeding and to improve workability. The paper presents how to reach the target slump flow while controlling bleeding and segregation in SCWC. The amount of aggregates, binders and mixing water, as well as type and dosage of superplasticizer (SP) to be used are the major factors influencing the properties of SCWC. Slump flow and compressive strength tests were carried out to examine the performance of SCWC, and the results indicate that the particle matrix model could produce successfully SCWC controlling segregation and bleeding.

Keywords: white concrete, particle matrix model, mix design, construction industry

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688 Comparison of White Sauce Prepared from Native and Chemically Modified Corn and Pearl Millet Starches

Authors: Marium Shaikh, Tahira M. Ali, Abid Hasnain

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Physical and sensory properties of white sauces prepared from native and chemically modified corn and pearl millet starches were compared. Interestingly, no syneresis was observed in hydroxypropylated corn and pearl millet starch containing white sauce even after nine days of cold storage (4 °C), while other modifications also reduced the syneresis significantly in comparison to their native counterparts. White sauce containing succinylated corn starch showed least oil separation due to its greater emulsion stability. Light microscopy was used to visualize the size and shape of fat globules, and it was found that they were most homogenously distributed in succinylated and hydroxypropylated samples. Sensory results revealed that chemical modification of corn and pearl millet starch improved the consistency, thickness and overall acceptability of white sauces. Viscosity profiles showed that pasting parameters of native pearl millet starch are almost similar to native corn starch suggesting pearl millet starch as an alternative of corn starch. Also, white sauce prepared from modified pearl millet starch showed better cold storage stability in terms of various textural attributes like hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness.

Keywords: corn starch, pearl millet, hydroxypropylation, succinylation, white sauce

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687 Influence of Sintering Temperatures in Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ Tri-Doped Y₂O₃ Nanophosphors

Authors: Hyeon Mi Noh, Ju Hyun Oh, Jung Hyun Jeong, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hwan Kim

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The Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors were synthesized by solvothermal method and its temperature dependence of the white upconversion emission has been studied by using 975 nm laser diode. The upconversion emission spectra in 1 mol% Er³⁺/5 mol% Yb³⁺/xTm³ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors sintered at 1000 °C with x from 0 to 0.5 mol%. The blue emission intensity increase with Tm³⁺ concentration from 0 to 0.5 mol%, it is due to the 2F7/2→2F5/2 transition of Yb³⁺ around 10,000 cm-1 could easily reach the Tm³⁺ sates. The white light is composed with the blue (1G4→3H6 of Tm³⁺), green (2H11/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺), and red (4F9/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺) upconversion radiations. The Y₂O₃: Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ nanophosphors show from white to green upconversion emission at power of 600 mW/cm² as sintering temperature increased. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates can be located in the white area with various sintering temperatures, in sintered at 1000 °C, and their color coordinates are very close to the standard white-light emission (0.33, 0.33). Their upconversion processes were explained by measuring the upconversion luminescence spectra and pump power dependence and energy level diagram.

Keywords: white upconversion emission, nanophosphors, energy transfer, solvothermal method

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686 Track and Trace Solution on Land Certificate Production: Indonesian Land Certificate

Authors: Adrian Rifqi, Febe Napitupulu, Erdi Hermawan, Edwin Putra, Yang Leprilian

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This article focuses on the implementation of the production improvement process of the Indonesian land certificate product that printed in Perum Peruri as the state-owned enterprises. Based on the data obtained, there are several complaints from customers of the 2019 land certificate production. The complaints become a negative value to loyal customers of Perum Peruri. Almost all the complaints are referring to ‘defective printouts and the difference between products in packaging and packaging labels both in terms of type and quantity’. To overcome this problem, we intend to make an improvement to the production process that focuses on complaints ‘there is a difference between products in packaging with packaging labels’. Improvements in the land certificate production process are relying on the technology of the scales and QR code on the packaging label. In addition, using the QR code on the packaging label will facilitate the process of tracking product data. With this method, we hope to reduce the error rate between products in packaging with the packaging label both in terms of quantity, type, and product number on the land certificate and error rate of sending land certificates, which will be sent to many places to 0%. With this solution, we also hope to get precise data and real-time reports on the production of land certificates in the near future, so track and trace implementation can be done as the solution of the land certificate production.

Keywords: land certificates, QR code, track and trace, packaging

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685 Morphological Comparison of the Gustatory Papillae of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Using Scanning Electron Microscopic Examinations

Authors: Mohamed Abumandour

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This research presents a comparison of the morphological structure of the gustatory papillae in New Zealand white rabbits as domestic mammals and Egyptian fruit bats as wild mammals. In this study, the tongues of adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits and Egyptian fruit bats of both sexes were used. In the New Zealand white rabbits, there are three types of the gustatory papillae; fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae while the Egyptian fruit bats tongue contain only two types; fungiform and circumvallate papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only one subtype is the round shape fungiform papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are two subtypes; small rectangular fungiform papillae and large round fungiform papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only two circumvallate papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are three papillae. The shape, size, number, and distribution of the lingual papillae were varied according to their location within the tongue (region-specific) in relation to the feeding habits, strategies for obtaining food, climate conditions, and types of food particles.

Keywords: morphology, circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae, foliate papillae

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684 Character Bioacoustics White-Rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus as a Cage-Bird

Authors: Novia Liza Rahmawaty, Wilson Novarino, Muhammad Nazri Janra

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Indonesian people love to keep songbird in cage to be competed, such as White-rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus). Each individual White-rumped Shama will be pitted their song and try to imitate the rhythm of the enemy with its songs. This study was conducted to see the natural song characters of White-rumped Shama and song character from birds that had been trained and comparison in three different places in West Sumatra. Individuals were recorded totaling 30 individuals in three areas in West Sumatra namely Padang, Solok and Pariaman and sound recordings of White-rumped Shama in nature were taken in HBW and Xenocanto website. Research has done conducted from June to October 2016 at place group practice of birdsongs and recorded at 16:00 to 18:00 pm. These voices were analyzed by Avisoft SAS-Lab Lite inform of oscillogram and sonogram. Measured parameters included: the length of voice, repertoire size, number of syllable type, syllable repertoire, and song repertoire. The results showed that repertoire composition of White-rumped Shama in nature less than the sound which was trained and has repeat songs composed by the same type of repertoire composition. Comparison of song character White-rumped Shama in three different places in West Sumatra, those birds in Solok had the best quality of voice or song than Padang and Pariaman. It showed by higher repertoire composition in Solok.

Keywords: repertoire composition, song characters, songbird, white-rumped shama

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683 Analytical Modeling of Globular Protein-Ferritin in α-Helical Conformation: A White Noise Functional Approach

Authors: Vernie C. Convicto, Henry P. Aringa, Wilson I. Barredo

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This study presents a conformational model of the helical structures of globular protein particularly ferritin in the framework of white noise path integral formulation by using Associated Legendre functions, Bessel and convolution of Bessel and trigonometric functions as modulating functions. The model incorporates chirality features of proteins and their helix-turn-helix sequence structural motif.

Keywords: globular protein, modulating function, white noise, winding probability

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682 New Estimation in Autoregressive Models with Exponential White Noise by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman Suparman

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A white noise in autoregressive (AR) model is often assumed to be normally distributed. In application, the white noise usually do not follows a normal distribution. This paper aims to estimate a parameter of AR model that has a exponential white noise. A Bayesian method is adopted. A prior distribution of the parameter of AR model is selected and then this prior distribution is combined with a likelihood function of data to get a posterior distribution. Based on this posterior distribution, a Bayesian estimator for the parameter of AR model is estimated. Because the order of AR model is considered a parameter, this Bayesian estimator cannot be explicitly calculated. To resolve this problem, a method of reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is adopted. A result is a estimation of the parameter AR model can be simultaneously calculated.

Keywords: autoregressive (AR) model, exponential white Noise, bayesian, reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)

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681 Assessment of Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal in Vigna unguculata (White Beans) Sold in Kazaure Market, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdu Umar Adamu, Saidu Akun Abdullahi, Al-Hassan Muhammed, Hamisu Abdu

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Leguminous plants such as beans have been considered as a source of protein in this present work. The proximate analysis on beans (Vigna unguiculata) were determined in order to identify the nutritional content as well as presence of some heavy metals accumulation in washed and unwashed beans (white Beans) sold in Kazaure market Jigawa State Nigeria. On the average comparative analysis, the result has indicated that, the Vigna unguiculata had protein content of 61.1%, fibre 4.5%, ash 10.4%, moisture 5%, carbohydrate 15.8% and total lipid 4.9%, therefore it could be suggested that beans has enough nutritional content that helps the people health. The heavy metal analysis of unwashed white beans showed that Fe (17.37 ± 6.71)mg/kg had the highest concentration followed by Zn (6.41 ± 3.09), Cu (5.69 ± 2.42), Cd (0.46 ± 0.65) and Pb (0.57 ± 0.94)mg/kg , while the washed beans shows that Zn (0.11 ± 0.17), Fe (0.01 ± 0.006), Cd (0.02 ± 0.01), Cu (0.03 ± 0.021), Pb (0.01 ± 0.006)mg/kg. The washed white beans are safe for consumption and also the concentration of heavy metal are negligible and of nontoxic effect to human health.

Keywords: white beans, protein, proximate composition, heavy metal

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680 Critical Dialogue: Anti-Racism Teacher Education in Predominantly White Schools

Authors: Claire M. Hollocou, Denise Johnson

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As racism permeates the foundation of America's educational system, educators hold a level of responsibility to address racism and the power of white privilege in the classroom by implementing anti-racist practices. This study aims to discuss the practices of anti-racist education across two predominantly affluent white schools. It offers our perspectives as white and black female teachers committed to implementing and reflecting on our antiracist work. Through communities of practice and the critical dialogue framework, we will provide an environment for one another to share our experiences implementing anti-racist education. We will spend a couple of months engaging in dialogue together to support our praxis. With critical reflection, we will look for themes that emerge through the conversations as well as develop a protocol for building an antiracist community of practice. This study is a work in progress.

Keywords: anti-racism, critical dialogue, race and racism, teacher education

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679 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

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A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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678 Determining Antecedents of Employee Turnover: A Study on Blue Collar vs White Collar Workers on Marco Level

Authors: Evy Rombaut, Marie-Anne Guerry

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Predicting voluntary turnover of employees is an important topic of study, both in academia and industry. Researchers try to uncover determinants for a broader understanding and possible prevention of turnover. In the current study, we use a data set based approach to reveal determinants for turnover, differing for blue and white collar workers. Our data set based approach made it possible to study actual turnover for more than 500000 employees in 15692 Belgian corporations. We use logistic regression to calculate individual turnover probabilities and test the goodness of our model with the AUC (area under the ROC-curve) method. The results of the study confirm the relationship of known determinants to employee turnover such as age, seniority, pay and work distance. In addition, the study unravels unknown and verifies known differences between blue and white collar workers. It shows opposite relationships to turnover for gender, marital status, the number of children, nationality, and pay.

Keywords: employee turnover, blue collar, white collar, dataset analysis

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677 White Light Emission through Downconversion of Terbium and Europium Doped CEF3 Nanophosphors

Authors: Mohit Kalra, Varun S., Mayuri Gandhi

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CeF3 nanophosphors has been extensively investigated in the recent years for lighting and numerous bio-applications. Down conversion emissions in CeF3:Eu3+/Tb3+ phosphors were studied with the aim of obtaining a white light emitting composition, by a simple co-precipitation method. The material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Photoluminescence (PL). Uniformly distributed nanoparticles were obtained with an average particle size 8-10 nm. Different doping concentrations were performed and fluorescence study was carried out to optimize the dopants concentration for maximum luminescence intensity. The steady state and time resolved luminescence studies confirmed efficient energy transfer from the host to activator ions. Different concentrations of Tb 3+, Eu 3+ were doped to achieve a white light emitting phosphor for UV-based Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of respective dopants (Eu 3+, Tb3+) when excited at the 4f→5d transition of Ce3+. The chromaticity coordinates for these samples were calculated and the CeF3 doped with Eu 3+ and Tb3+ gave an emission very close to white light. These materials may find its applications in optoelectronics and various bio applications.

Keywords: white light down-conversion, nanophosphors, LEDs, rare earth, cerium fluoride, lanthanides

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676 An Anthropological Reading of the Italian Shockumentary Mondo Cane: Whiteness Made Visible and Racial Discourses

Authors: Claudia Pisano

Abstract:

The Italian shockumentary Mondo cane (1962), directed by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara, and Franco Prosperi, has often been criticized for its supposed racist and colonialist stances. Several critics consider it a film that proclaims, without explicitly mentioning it, the superiority of the white Euro-American individual over the people who do not belong to white-western societies. This paper proposes a different interpretation of the way in which Mondo cane engages with the discourse of race. Through an analysis of crucial scenes and of the relationship between images and voice-over, and through a comparison between the representation of non-white societies in Mondo cane and in some popular Italian newsreels of the 50s-60s, such as 'La Settimana Incom' and 'Mondo Libero,' the paper argues that Mondo cane debunks the western-white superiority that, according to some critics, the film would promote. The continuous and rapid alternance of scenes set in the western world, for example in Europe or in the United States, and scenes set in exotic countries inhabited by non-white peoples highlights the commonalities between these far-away realities, rather than pointing out the superiority of the white-western one. In addition, the subtle irony employed by the voice-over distances Mondo cane from the newsreels that it much resembles for its documentary style. Mondo cane’s treatment and representation of race is analyzed in the light of the work of Australian Aboriginal anthropologist Aileen Moreton-Robinson, which is based on key concepts such as whiteness and whiteness invisibility. Whiteness is defined as the invisible and omnipresent norm based on which everything that does not belong to the white world is labeled as an odd and inferior 'other.' To overcome racial discrimination, it is necessary to make whiteness visible; that is to say, to deprive it of that aura of normalcy and unquestionable righteousness that surrounds it. This essay argues that Mondo cane participates in the process of making whiteness visible through the confrontation of the white people with the visible 'other'. Because the film shows that the common features on which this confrontation is based are violence and bestiality, the paper suggests that the film does not support the idea of the white world being superior to the non-white; on the contrary, it underlines that the entire world is characterized by the same shocking savagery.

Keywords: irony, race, shockumentary, whiteness, whiteness invisibility

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675 Uncanny Orania: White Complicity as the Abject of the Discursive Construction of Racism

Authors: Daphne Fietz

Abstract:

This paper builds on a reflection on an autobiographical experience of uncanniness during fieldwork in the white Afrikaner settlement Orania in South Africa. Drawing on Kristeva’s theory of abjection to establish a theory of Whiteness which is based on boundary threats, it is argued that the uncanny experience as the emergence of the abject points to a moment of crisis of the author’s Whiteness. The emanating abject directs the author to her closeness or convergence with Orania's inhabitants, that is a reciprocity based on mutual Whiteness. The experienced confluence appeals to the author’s White complicity to racism. With recourse to Butler’s theory of subjectivation, the abject, White complicity, inhabits both the outside of a discourse on racism, and of the 'self', as 'I' establish myself in relation to discourse. In this view, the qualities of the experienced abject are linked to the abject of discourse on racism, or, in other words, its frames of intelligibility. It then becomes clear, that discourse on (overt) racism functions as a necessary counter-image through which White morality is established instead of questioned, because here, by White reasoning, the abject of complicity to racism is successfully repressed, curbed, as completely impossible in the binary construction. Hence, such discourse endangers a preservation of racism in its pre-discursive and structural forms as long as its critique does not encompass its own location and performance in discourse. Discourse on overt racism is indispensable to White ignorance as it covers underlying racism and pre-empts further critique. This understanding directs us towards a form of critique which does necessitate self-reflection, uncertainty, and vigilance, which will be referred to as a discourse of relationality. Such a discourse diverges from the presumption of a detached author as a point of reference, and instead departs from attachment, dependence, mutuality and embraces the visceral as a resource of knowledge of relationality. A discourse of relationality points to another possibility of White engagement with Whiteness and racism and further promotes a conception of responsibility, which allows for and highlights dispossession and relationality in contrast to single agency and guilt.

Keywords: abjection, discourse, relationality, the visceral, whiteness

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674 Evaluating the Performance of Color Constancy Algorithm

Authors: Damanjit Kaur, Avani Bhatia

Abstract:

Color constancy is significant for human vision since color is a pictorial cue that helps in solving different visions tasks such as tracking, object recognition, or categorization. Therefore, several computational methods have tried to simulate human color constancy abilities to stabilize machine color representations. Two different kinds of methods have been used, i.e., normalization and constancy. While color normalization creates a new representation of the image by canceling illuminant effects, color constancy directly estimates the color of the illuminant in order to map the image colors to a canonical version. Color constancy is the capability to determine colors of objects independent of the color of the light source. This research work studies the most of the well-known color constancy algorithms like white point and gray world.

Keywords: color constancy, gray world, white patch, modified white patch

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673 Non-Invasive Techniques of Analysis of Painting in Forensic Fields

Authors: Radka Sefcu, Vaclava Antuskova, Ivana Turkova

Abstract:

A growing market with modern artworks of a high price leads to the creation and selling of artwork counterfeits. Material analysis is an important part of the process of assessment of authenticity. Knowledge of materials and techniques used by original authors is also necessary. The contribution presents possibilities of non-invasive methods of structural analysis in research on paintings. It was proved that unambiguous identification of many art materials is feasible without sampling. The combination of Raman spectroscopy with FTIR-external reflection enabled the identification of pigments and binders on selected artworks of prominent Czech painters from the first half of the 20th century – Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Václav Špála and Jan Zrzavý. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of a wide range of white pigments - lead white, zinc white, titanium white, barium white and also Freeman's white as a special white pigment of painting. Good results were obtained for red, blue and most of the yellow areas. Identification of green pigments was often impossible due to strong fluorescence. Oil was confirmed as a binding medium on most of the analyzed artworks via FTIR - external reflection. Collected data present the valuable background for the determination of art materials characteristic for each painter (his palette) and its development over time. Obtained results will further serve as comparative material for the authentication of artworks. This work has been financially supported by the project of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic: The Development of a Strategic Cluster for Effective Instrumental Technological Methods of Forensic Authentication of Modern Artworks (VJ01010004).

Keywords: non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-external reflection, forgeries

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672 Association of Leptin Gene T3469C Polymorphism on Reproductive Performance of Purebred Sows

Authors: Mariedel Autriz, Angel Lambio, Renato Vega, Severino Capitan, Rita Laude

Abstract:

The study was conducted to associate genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene T3469C with reproductive performance in purebred sows. DNA were isolated from hair follicles of 29 Landrace and 24 Large White sows. Amplification of the leptin gene was done followed by Hinf1digestion to determine the base at the T3469C site. Electrophoresis of the digestion products revealed that there were 25 Landrace and 15 Large White sows with the TT genotype while there were 3 Landrace and 6 Large White TC. There was 1 CC for Landrace and 3 for Large White. Significant genotype associations were observed for total litter size born and total born alive. Significant breed differences, on the other hand, was observed for gestation length and average birth weight. Significant breed by genotype interaction was observed in litter size total born and litter size born alive.

Keywords: genetic polymorphism, leptin, swine, T3469C

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