Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Nurlan Ibrayev

5 Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Nurlan Ibrayev

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.

Keywords: energy efficiency in Kazakhstan, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, sustainable development

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4 Demetallization of Crude Oil: Comparative Analysis of Deasphalting and Electrochemical Removal Methods of Ni and V

Authors: Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Aliya Kurbanova, Gulnar Sugurbekova, Murat Baisariyev

Abstract:

Extraction of the vanadium and nickel compounds is complex due to the high stability of porphyrin, nickel is catalytic poison which deactivates catalysis during the catalytic cracking of the oil, while vanadyl is abrasive and valuable metal. Thus, high concentration of the Ni and V in the crude oil makes their removal relevant. Two methods of the demetallization of crude oil were tested, therefore, the present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits in to the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for Ni and 51.2% for V. Thus, applying the voltammetry, ICP MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper.

Keywords: electrochemistry, deasphalting of crude oil, demetallization of crude oil, petrolium engineering

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3 Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Crude Oil by Using Solvent Extraction and Electrochemical Process

Authors: Aliya Kurbanova, Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Yerzhigit Sugurbekov, Ramiz Zulkharnay, Gulzat Demeuova, Murat Baisariyev, Gulnar Sugurbekova

Abstract:

Last decades crude oils have tended to become more challenge to process due to increasing amounts of sour and heavy crude oils. Some crude oils contain high vanadium and nickel content, for example Pavlodar LLP crude oil, which contains more than 23.09 g/t nickel and 58.59 g/t vanadium. In this study, we used two types of metal removing methods such as solvent extraction and electrochemical. The present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Applying the cyclic voltametric analysis (CVA) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for nickel and 51.2% for vanadium content from crude oil. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits into the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V.

Keywords: demetallization, deasphalting, electrochemical removal, heavy metals, petroleum engineering, solvent extraction

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2 Associations of Gene Polymorphism of IL-17 a (C737T) with Its Level in Patients with Erysipelas Kazakh Population

Authors: Nazira B. Bekenova, Lydia A. Mukovozova, Andrej M. Grjibovski, Alma Z. Tokayeva, Yerbol M. Smail, Nurlan E. Aukenov

Abstract:

Erysipelas is an infectious disease with socio-economic significance and prone to prolonged recurrent course (30%). Contribution of genetic factors, in particular the gene polymorphism of cytokines, can be essential in disease etiology and pathogenesis. Interleukin – 17 A are produced by T helpers of 17 type and plays a key role in development of local inflammation process. Local inflammatory process is a dominant in the clinic of erysipelas. Established that the skin and mucosas are primary areas of migration (homing) Th17-cell and their cytokines are stimulate the barrier function of the epithelium. We studied associations between gene polymorphism of IL-17A (C737T) rs 8193036 and IL-17A level in patients with erysipelas Kazakh population. Altogether, 90 cases with erysipelas and 90 healthy controls from an ethnic Kazakh population comprised the sample. Cases were identified at Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital of Semey (Kazakhstan). The IL-17A (rs8193036) polymorphism was analyzed by a real time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma levels of IL-17 A were assessed by immuneenzyme analysis method using ‘Vector-Best’ test-system (Russia). Differences in levels of IL-17 A between CC, TT, CT groups were studied using Kruskal — Wallis test. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction (New significance level was set to 0.025). We found, that in patients with erysipelas with CC genotype the level of IL-17 A was higher (p= 0, 010) compared to the carriers of CT genotype. When compared the level of IL – 17 A between the patients with TT genotype and patients with CC genotype, also between the patients with CT genotype and patients with TT genotype statistically significant differences are not revealed (p = 0.374 and p = 0.043, respectively). Comparisons of IL-17 A plasma levels between the CC and CT genotypes, between the CC and TT genotypes, and between the TT and CT in healthy patients did not reveal significant differences (p = 0, 291). Therefore, we are determined the associations of gene polymorphism of IL-17 A (C737T) with its level in patients erysipelas carriers CC genotype.

Keywords: erysipelas, interleukin – 17 A, Kazakh, polymorphism

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1 Sheep Pox Virus Recombinant Proteins To Develop Subunit Vaccines

Authors: Olga V. Chervyakova, Elmira T. Tailakova, Vitaliy M. Strochkov, Kulyaisan T. Sultankulova, Nurlan T. Sandybayev, Lev G. Nemchinov, Rosemarie W. Hammond

Abstract:

Sheep pox is a highly contagious infection that OIE regards to be one of the most dangerous animal diseases. It causes enormous economic losses because of death and slaughter of infected animals, lower productivity, cost of veterinary and sanitary as well as quarantine measures. To control spread of sheep pox infection the attenuated vaccines are widely used in the Republic of Kazakhstan and other Former Soviet Union countries. In spite of high efficiency of live vaccines, the possible presence of the residual virulence, potential genetic instability restricts their use in disease-free areas that leads to necessity to exploit new approaches in vaccine development involving recombinant DNA technology. Vaccines on the basis of recombinant proteins are the newest generation of prophylactic preparations. The main advantage of these vaccines is their low reactogenicity and this fact makes them widely used in medical and veterinary practice for vaccination of humans and farm animals. The objective of the study is to produce recombinant immunogenic proteins for development of the high-performance means for sheep pox prophylaxis. The SPV proteins were chosen for their homology with the known immunogenic vaccinia virus proteins. Assay of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the target SPV protein genes. It has been shown that four proteins SPPV060 (ortholog L1), SPPV074 (ortholog H3), SPPV122 (ortholog A33) and SPPV141 (ortholog B5) possess transmembrane domains at N- or C-terminus while in amino acid sequences of SPPV095 (ortholog А 4) and SPPV117 (ortholog А 27) proteins these domains were absent. On the basis of these findings the primers were constructed. Target genes were amplified and subsequently cloned into the expression vector рЕТ26b(+) or рЕТ28b(+). Six constructions (pSPPV060ΔТМ, pSPPV074ΔТМ, pSPPV095, pSPPV117, pSPPV122ΔТМ and pSPPV141ΔТМ) were obtained for expression of the SPV genes under control of T7 promoter in Escherichia coli. To purify and detect recombinant proteins the amino acid sequences were modified by adding six histidine molecules at C-terminus. Induction of gene expression by IPTG was resulted in production of the proteins with molecular weights corresponding to the estimated values for SPPV060, SPPV074, SPPV095, SPPV117, SPPV122 and SPPV141, i.e. 22, 30, 20, 19, 17 and 22 kDa respectively. Optimal protocol of expression for each gene that ensures high yield of the recombinant protein was identified. Assay of cellular lysates by western blotting confirmed expression of the target proteins. Recombinant proteins bind specifically with antibodies to polyhistidine. Moreover all produced proteins are specifically recognized by the serum from experimentally SPV-infected sheep. The recombinant proteins SPPV060, SPPV074, SPPV117, SPPV122 and SPPV141 were also shown to induce formation of antibodies with virus-neutralizing activity. The results of the research will help to develop a new-generation high-performance means for specific sheep pox prophylaxis that is one of key moments in animal health protection. The research was conducted under the International project ISTC # K-1704 “Development of methods to construct recombinant prophylactic means for sheep pox with use of transgenic plants” and under the Grant Project RK MES G.2015/0115RK01983 "Recombinant vaccine for sheep pox prophylaxis".

Keywords: prophylactic preparation, recombinant protein, sheep pox virus, subunit vaccine

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