Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: toll plaza

79 Energy Efficiency Factors in Toll Plazas

Authors: S. Balubaid, M. Z. Abd Majid, R. Zakaria

Abstract:

Energy efficiency is one of the most important issues for green buildings and their sustainability. This is not only due to the environmental impacts, but also because of significantly high energy cost. The aim of this study is to identify the potential actions required for toll plaza that lead to energy reduction. The data were obtained through set of questionnaire and interviewing targeted respondents, including the employees at toll plaza, and architects and engineers who are directly involved in design of highway projects. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics analysis method. The findings of this study are the critical elements that influence the energy usage and factors that lead to energy wastage. Finally, potential actions are recommended to reduce energy consumption in toll plazas.

Keywords: energy efficiency, toll plaza, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
78 Evaluation of Impact on Traffic Conditions Due to Electronic Toll Collection System Design in Thailand

Authors: Kankrong Suangka

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This research explored behaviors of toll way users that impact their decision to use the Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC). It also went on to explore and evaluated the efficiency of toll plaza in terms of number of ETC booths in toll plaza and its lane location. The two main parameters selected for the scenarios analyzed were (1) the varying ration of ETC enabled users (2) the varying locations of the dedicated ETC lane. There were a total of 42 scenarios analyzed. Researched data indicated that in A.D.2013, the percentage of ETC user from the total toll user is 22%. It was found that the delay at the payment booth was reduced by increasing the ETC booth by 1 more lane under the condition that the volume of ETC users passing through the plaza less than 1,200 vehicles/hour. Meanwhile, increasing the ETC lanes by 2 lanes can accommodate an increased traffic volume to around 1,200 to 1,800 vehicles/hour. Other than that, in terms of the location of ETC lane, it was found that if for one ETC lane-plazas, installing the ETC lane at the far right are the best alternative. For toll plazas with 2 ETC lanes, the best layout is to have 1 lane in the middle and 1 lane at the far right. This layout shows the least delay when compared to other layouts. Furthermore, the results from this research showed that micro-simulator traffic models have potential for further applications and use in designing toll plaza lanes. Other than that, the results can also be used to analyze the system of the nearby area with similar traffic volume and can be used for further design improvements.

Keywords: the electronic toll collection system, average queuing delay, toll plaza configuration, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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77 Microscopic Simulation of Toll Plaza Safety and Operations

Authors: Bekir O. Bartin, Kaan Ozbay, Sandeep Mudigonda, Hong Yang

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The use of microscopic traffic simulation in evaluating the operational and safety conditions at toll plazas is demonstrated. Two toll plazas in New Jersey are selected as case studies and were developed and validated in Paramics traffic simulation software. In order to simulate drivers’ lane selection behavior in Paramics, a utility-based lane selection approach is implemented in Paramics Application Programming Interface (API). For each vehicle approaching the toll plaza, a utility value is assigned to each toll lane by taking into account the factors that are likely to impact drivers’ lane selection behavior, such as approach lane, exit lane and queue lengths. The results demonstrate that similar operational conditions, such as lane-by-lane toll plaza traffic volume can be attained using this approach. In addition, assessment of safety at toll plazas is conducted via a surrogate safety measure. In particular, the crash index (CI), an improved surrogate measure of time-to-collision (TTC), which reflects the severity of a crash is used in the simulation analyses. The results indicate that the spatial and temporal frequency of observed crashes can be simulated using the proposed methodology. Further analyses can be conducted to evaluate and compare various different operational decisions and safety measures using microscopic simulation models.

Keywords: microscopic simulation, toll plaza, surrogate safety, application programming interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
76 Analysis of Waiting Time and Drivers Fatigue at Manual Toll Plaza and Suggestion of an Automated Toll Tax Collection System

Authors: Muhammad Dawood Idrees, Maria Hafeez, Arsalan Ansari

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Toll tax collection is the earliest method of tax collection and revenue generation. This revenue is utilized for the development of roads networks, maintenance, and connecting to roads and highways across the country. Pakistan is one of the biggest countries, covers a wide area of land, roads networks, and motorways are important source of connecting cities. Every day millions of people use motorways, and they have to stop at toll plazas to pay toll tax as majority of toll plazas are manually collecting toll tax. The purpose of this study is to calculate the waiting time of vehicles at Karachi Hyderabad (M-9) motorway. As Karachi is the biggest city of Pakistan and hundreds of thousands of people use this route to approach other cities. Currently, toll tax collection is manual system which is a major cause for long time waiting at toll plaza. This study calculates the waiting time of vehicles, fuel consumed in waiting time, manpower employed at toll plaza as all process is manual, and it also leads to mental and physical fatigue of driver. All wastages of sources are also calculated, and a most feasible automatic toll tax collection system is proposed which is not only beneficial to reduce waiting time but also beneficial in reduction of fuel, reduction of manpower employed, and reduction in physical and mental fatigue. A cost comparison in terms of wastages is also shown between manual and automatic toll tax collection system (E-Z Pass). Results of this study reveal that, if automatic tool collection system is implemented at Karachi to Hyderabad motorway (M-9), there will be a significance reduction in waiting time of vehicles, which leads to reduction of fuel consumption, environmental pollution, mental and physical fatigue of driver. All these reductions are also calculated in terms of money (Pakistani rupees) and it is obtained that millions of rupees can be saved by using automatic tool collection system which will lead to improve the economy of country.

Keywords: toll tax collection, waiting time, wastages, driver fatigue

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75 Providing a Road Pricing and Toll Allocation Method for Toll Roads

Authors: Ali Babaei

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There is a worldwide growing tendency toward construction of infrastructures with the possibility of private sector participation instead of free exploitation of public infrastructures. The construction and development of roads through private sector participation is performed by different countries because of appropriate results and benefits such as compensation of public budget deficit in road construction and maintenance and responding to traffic growth (demand). Toll is the most definite form of budget provision in road development. There are two issues in the toll rate assignment: A. costing of transport, B. Cost allocation and distribution of cost between different types of vehicles as each vehicle pay its own share. There can be different goals in toll collection and its extent is variable according to the strategy of toll collection. Costing principles in different countries are based on inclusion of the whole transport and not peculiar to the toll roads. For example, fuel tax policy functions where the road network users pay transportation cost (not just users of toll road). Whereas transportation infrastructures in Iran are free, these methods are not applicable. In Iran, different toll freeways have built by public investment and government provides participation in the road construction through encouragement of financial institutions. In this paper, the existing policies about the toll roads are studied and then the appropriate method of costing and cost allocation to different vehicles is introduced.

Keywords: toll allocation, road pricing, transportation, financial and industrial systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
74 A Study on Strategy of Coordinative Symbiosis between New and Old Buildings: Case Study of Shanghai Citic Plaza and Surroundings

Authors: Tianyi Qin

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Along with the acceleration of Chinese urbanization, the expansion, renovation and demolition of old buildings is on the stage together with the design and construction of new buildings every day in downtown of the old city area. The coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is an important problem which needs to be solved in the process of urban development. By studying and analyzing the case of Shanghai Citic Plaza and surroundings, this paper contributes to discussing the concept, value and problems to be solved of the coordination of new and old buildings, meanwhile, striking the balance between new and old buildings from the aspects of architectural form, space, function and local context. As a result, the strategy of the coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is summarized, which can offer some guiding principles to urban development from now on.

Keywords: coordinative symbiosis, new and old buildings, Shanghai Citic Plaza, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
73 Risk Identification of Investment Feasibility in Indonesia’s Toll Road Infrastructure Investment

Authors: Christo Februanto Putra

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This paper presents risk identification that affects investment feasibility on toll road infrastructure in Indonesia using qualitative methods survey based on the expert practitioner in investor, contractor, and state officials. The problems on infrastructure investment in Indonesia, especially on KPBU model contract, is many risk factors in the investment plan is not calculated in detail thoroughly. Risk factor is a value used to provide an overview of the risk level assessment of an event which is a function of the probability of the occurrence and the consequences of the risks that arise. As results of the survey which is to show which risk factors impacts directly to the investment feasibility and rank them by their impacts on the investment.

Keywords: risk identification, indonesia toll road, investment feasibility

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72 Acceptability Process of a Congestion Charge

Authors: Amira Mabrouk

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This paper deals with the acceptability of urban toll in Tunisia. The price-based regulation, i.e. urban toll, is the outcome of a political process hampered by three-fold objectives: effectiveness, equity and social acceptability. This produces both economic interest groups and functions that are of incongruent preferences. The plausibility of this speculation goes hand in hand with the fact that these economic interest groups are also taxpayers who undeniably perceive urban toll as an additional charge. This wariness is coupled with an inquiry about the conditions of usage, the redistribution of the collected tax revenue and the idea of the leviathan state completes the picture. In a nutshell, if researches related to road congestion proliferate, no de facto legitimacy can be pleaded. Nonetheless, the theory on urban tolls engenders economists’ questioning of ways to reduce negative external effects linked to it. Only then does the urban toll appear to bear an answer to these issues. Undeniably, the urban toll suggests inherent conflicts due to the apparent no-payment principal of a public asset as well as to the social perception of the new measure as a mere additional charge. However, when the main concern is effectiveness is its broad sense and the social well-being, the main factors that determine the acceptability of such a tariff measure along with the type of incentives should be the object of a thorough, in-depth analysis. Before adopting this economic role, one has to recognize the factors that intervene in the acceptability of a congestion toll which brought about a copious number of articles and reports that lacked mostly solid theoretical content. It is noticeable that nowadays uncertainties float over the exact nature of the acceptability process. Accepting a congestion tariff could differ from one era to another, from one region to another and from one population to another, etc. Notably, this article, within a convenient time frame, attempts at bringing into focus a link between the social acceptability of the urban congestion toll and the value of time through a survey method barely employed in Tunisia, that of stated preference method. How can the urban toll, as a tax, be defined, justified and made acceptable? How can an equitable and effective tariff of congestion toll be reached? How can the costs of this urban toll be covered? In what way can we make the redistribution of the urban toll revenue visible and economically equitable? How can the redistribution of the revenue of urban toll compensate the disadvantaged while introducing such a tariff measure? This paper will offer answers to these research questions and it follows the line of contribution of JULES DUPUIT in 1844.

Keywords: congestion charge, social perception, acceptability, stated preferences

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71 Evaluation of the Efficiency of Intelligent Systems in Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

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Traffic congestion pricing as one of the demand management strategies constrains expenditure to network users so that it helps reduction in traffic congestion and environment pollution like air pollution. Despite the development of congestion pricing schemes for traffic in our country, the matters of traditional toll collection, drivers’ waste of time and delay in traffic are still widespread. Electronic toll collection as a part of the intelligent transportation system provides the possibility of collecting tolls without car-stop and traffic disruption. Unlike the satisfying outcomes of using intelligent systems in congestion pricing schemes, implementation costs and technological problems are the barriers in these schemes. In this research first, a variety of electronic pay toll systems and their components are introduced then their functional usage is discussed. In the following, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of intelligent systems are described and the results show that the choice of the best technology depends on the various parameters which, by examining them, it is concluded that in a long-term run and by providing the necessary conditions, DSRC technology as the main system in the schemes and ANPR as a major backup system of the main one can be employed.

Keywords: congestion pricing, electronic toll collection, intelligent systems, technology, traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
70 Reconstruction of Wujiaochang Plaza: A Potential Avenue Towards Sustainability

Authors: Caiwei Chen, Jianhao Li, Jiasong Zhu

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The reform and opening-up stimulated economic and technological take-off in China while resulting in massive urbanization and motorization. Wujiaochang area was set as a secondary business district in Shanghai to meet the growing demand, with the reconstruction of Wujiaochang Plaza in 2005 being a milestone of this intended urban renewal. Wujiaochang is now an economically dynamic area providing much larger traffic and transit capacity transportation-wise. However, this rebuilding has completely changed the face of the district. It is, therefore, appropriate to evaluate its impact on neighborhoods and communities while assessing the overall sustainability of such an operation. In this study, via an online questionnaire survey among local residents and daily visitors, we assess the perceptions and the estimated impact of Wujiaochang Plaza's reconstruction. We then confront these results to the 62 answers from local residents to a questionnaire collected on paper. The analysis of our data, along with observation and other forms of information -such as maps analysis or online applications (Dianping)- demonstrate major improvement in economic sustainability but also significant losses in environmental sustainability, especially in terms of active transportation. As for the social viewpoint, local residents' opinions tend to be rather positive, especially regarding traffic safety and access to consumption, despite the lack of connectivity and radical changes induced by Wujiaochang massive transformations. In general, our investigation exposes the overall positive outcomes of Wujiaochang Plaza reconstruction but also unveils major drawbacks, especially in terms of soft mobility and traffic fluidity. We gather that our approach could be of tremendous help for future major urban interventions, as such approaches in municipal regeneration are widely implemented in Chinese cities and yet still need to be thoroughly assessed in terms of sustainability.

Keywords: China's reform and opening-up, economical revitalization, neighborhood identity, sustainability assessment, urban renewal

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69 Pricing Techniques to Mitigate Recurring Congestion on Interstate Facilities Using Dynamic Feedback Assignment

Authors: Hatem Abou-Senna

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Interstate 4 (I-4) is a primary east-west transportation corridor between Tampa and Daytona cities, serving commuters, commercial and recreational traffic. I-4 is known to have severe recurring congestion during peak hours. The congestion spans about 11 miles in the evening peak period in the central corridor area as it is considered the only non-tolled limited access facility connecting the Orlando Central Business District (CBD) and the tourist attractions area (Walt Disney World). Florida officials had been skeptical of tolling I-4 prior to the recent legislation, and the public through the media had been complaining about the excessive toll facilities in Central Florida. So, in search for plausible mitigation to the congestion on the I-4 corridor, this research is implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of different toll pricing alternatives that might divert traffic from I-4 to the toll facilities during the peak period. The network is composed of two main diverging limited access highways, freeway (I-4) and toll road (SR 417) in addition to two east-west parallel toll roads SR 408 and SR 528, intersecting the above-mentioned highways from both ends. I-4 and toll road SR 408 are the most frequently used route by commuters. SR-417 is a relatively uncongested toll road with 15 miles longer than I-4 and $5 tolls compared to no monetary cost on 1-4 for the same trip. The results of the calibrated Orlando PARAMICS network showed that percentages of route diversion vary from one route to another and depends primarily on the travel cost between specific origin-destination (O-D) pairs. Most drivers going from Disney (O1) or Lake Buena Vista (O2) to Lake Mary (D1) were found to have a high propensity towards using I-4, even when eliminating tolls and/or providing real-time information. However, a diversion from I-4 to SR 417 for these OD pairs occurred only in the cases of the incident and lane closure on I-4, due to the increase in delay and travel costs, and when information is provided to travelers. Furthermore, drivers that diverted from I-4 to SR 417 and SR 528 did not gain significant travel-time savings. This was attributed to the limited extra capacity of the alternative routes in the peak period and the longer traveling distance. When the remaining origin-destination pairs were analyzed, average travel time savings on I-4 ranged between 10 and 16% amounting to 10 minutes at the most with a 10% increase in the network average speed. High propensity of diversion on the network increased significantly when eliminating tolls on SR 417 and SR 528 while doubling the tolls on SR 408 along with the incident and lane closure scenarios on I-4 and with real-time information provided. The toll roads were found to be a viable alternative to I-4 for these specific OD pairs depending on the user perception of the toll cost which was reflected in their specific travel times. However, on the macroscopic level, it was concluded that route diversion through toll reduction or elimination on surrounding toll roads would only have a minimum impact on reducing I-4 congestion during the peak period.

Keywords: congestion pricing, dynamic feedback assignment, microsimulation, paramics, route diversion

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68 Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems

Authors: Wern-Yarng Shieh, Chao Qian, Bingnan Pei

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A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22° and 10°, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal "long-and-narrow" characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.

Keywords: dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), electronic toll collection (ETC), infrared communication, intelligent transportation system (ITS), multilane free flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
67 Economic Impact of Rana Plaza Collapse

Authors: Md. Omar Bin Harun Khan

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The collapse of the infamous Rana Plaza, a multi-storeyed commercial building in Savar, near Dhaka, Bangladesh has brought with it a plethora of positive and negative consequences. Bangladesh being a key player in the export of clothing, found itself amidst a wave of economic upheaval following this tragic incident that resulted in numerous Bangladeshis, most of whom were factory workers. This paper compares the consequences that the country’s Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector is facing now, two years into the incident. The paper presents a comparison of statistical data from study reports and brings forward perspectives from all dimensions of Labour, Employment and Industrial Relations in Bangladesh following the event. The paper brings across the viewpoint of donor organizations and donor countries, the impacts of several initiatives taken by foreign organizations like the International Labour Organization, and local entities like the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) in order to reinforce compliance and stabilize the shaky foundation that the RMG sector had found itself following the collapse. Focus of the paper remains on the stance taken by the suppliers in Bangladesh, with inputs from buying houses and factories, and also on the reaction of foreign brands. The paper also focuses on the horrific physical, mental and financial implications sustained by the victims and their families, and the consequent uproar from workers in general regarding compliance with work safety and workers’ welfare conditions. The purpose is to get across both sides of the scenario: the economic impact that suppliers / factories/ sellers/ buying houses/exporters have faced in Bangladesh as a result of complete loss of reliability on them regarding working standards; and also to cover the aftershock felt on the other end of the spectrum by the importers/ buyers, particularly the foreign entities, in terms of the sudden accountability of being affiliated with non- compliant factories. The collapse of Rana Plaza has received vast international attention and strong criticism. Nevertheless, the almost immediate strengthening of labourrights and the wholesale reform undertaken on all sides of the supply chain, evidence a move of all local and foreign stakeholders towards greater compliance and taking of precautionary steps for prevention of further disasters. The tragedy that Rana Plaza embodies served as a much-needed epiphany for the soaring RMG Sector of Bangladesh. Prompt co-operation on the part of all stakeholders and regulatory bodies now show a move towards sustainable development, which further ensures safeguarding against any future irregularities and pave the way for steady economic growth.

Keywords: economy, employment standards, Rana Plaza, RMG

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66 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken

Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan

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Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.

Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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65 Structural Characterization of TIR Domains Interaction

Authors: Sara Przetocka, Krzysztof Żak, Grzegorz Dubin, Tadeusz Holak

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play central role in the innate immune response and inflammation by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A fundamental basis of TLR signalling is dependent upon the recruitment and association of adaptor molecules that contain the structurally conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) is the universal adaptor for TLRs and cooperates with Mal (MyD88 adapter-like protein, also known as TIRAP) in TLR4 response which is predominantly used in inflammation, host defence and carcinogenesis. Up to date two possible models of MyD88, Mal and TLR4 interactions have been proposed. The aim of our studies is to confirm or abolish presented models and accomplish the full structural characterisation of TIR domains interaction. Using molecular cloning methods we obtained several construct of MyD88 and Mal TIR domain with GST or 6xHis tag. Gel filtration method as well as pull-down analysis confirmed that recombinant TIR domains from MyD88 and Mal are binding in complexes. To examine whether obtained complexes are homo- or heterodimers we carried out cross-linking reaction of TIR domains with BS3 compound combined with mass spectrometry. To investigate which amino acid residues are involved in this interaction the NMR titration experiments were performed. 15N MyD88-TIR solution was complemented with non-labelled Mal-TIR. The results undoubtedly indicate that MyD88-TIR interact with Mal-TIR. Moreover 2D spectra demonstrated that simultaneously Mal-TIR self-dimerization occurs which is necessary to create proper scaffold for Mal-TIR and MyD88-TIR interaction. Final step of this study will be crystallization of MyD88 and Mal TIR domains complex. This crystal structure and characterisation of its interface will have an impact in understanding the TLR signalling pathway and possibly will be used in development of new anti-cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, MyD88, TIR domains, Toll-like receptors

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64 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, Xiaokun Li, Jisheng Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Nile tilapia, TLR-3, cloning, gene expression

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63 Efficacy of Sparganium stoloniferum–Derived Compound in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Pilot Study

Authors: Wanvipa Thongborisute, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pichit Suvanprakorn, Anan Jiraviroon

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Background: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic problems, and can have a significant psychological and physical effect on patients. Propionibacterium acnes' roles in acne vulgaris involve the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathways. By activating these pathways, inflammatory events of acne lesions, comedogenesis and sebaceous lipogenesis can occur. Currently, there are several topical agents commonly use in treating acne vulgaris that are known to have an effect on TLRs, such as retinoic acid and adapalene, but these drugs still have some irritating effects. At present, there is an alarming increase in rate of bacterial resistance due to irrational used of antibiotics both orally and topically. For this reason, acne treatments should contain bioactive molecules targeting at the site of action for the most effective therapeutic effect with the least side effects. Sparganium stoloniferumis a Chinese aquatic herb containing a compound called Sparstolonin B (SsnB), which has been reported to selectively blocks Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signals. Therefore, this topical TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist, in a form of Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound containing SsnB, should give a benefit in reducing inflammation of acne vulgaris lesions and providing an alternative treatments for patients with this condition. Materials and Methods: The objectives of this randomized double blinded split faced placebo controlled trial is to study the safety and efficacy of the Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound. 32 volunteered patients with mild to moderate degree of acne vulgaris according to global acne grading system were included in the study. After being informed and consented the subjects were given 2 topical treatments for acne vulgaris, one being topical 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) and the other, placebo. The subjects were asked to apply each treatment to either half of the face daily morning and night by randomization for 8 weeks, and come in for a weekly follow up. For each visit, the patients went through a procedure of lesion counting, including comedones, papules, nodules, pustules, and cystic lesions. Results: During 8 weeks of experimentation, the result shows a reduction in total lesions number between the placebo and the treatment side show statistical significance starting at week 4, where the 95% confidence interval begin to no longer overlap, and shows a trend of continuing to be further apart. The decrease in the amount of total lesions between week 0 and week 8 of the placebo side shows no statistical significant at P value >0.05. While the decrease in the amount of total lesions of acne vulgaris of the treatment side comparing between week 0 and week 8 shows statistical significant at P value <0.001. Conclusion: The data demonstrates that 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) is more effective in treating acne vulgaris comparing to topical placebo in treating acne vulgaris, by showing significant reduction in the total numbers of acne lesions. Therefore, this topical Sparganium stoloniferum extraction could become a potential alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.

Keywords: acne vulgaris, sparganium stoloniferum, sparstolonin B, toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 4

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62 The Characteristics of Porcine Immune Synapse via Flow Cytometry and Transmission Electron Microscope

Authors: Ann Ying-An Chen, Yi-Lun Tsai, Hso-Chi Chaung

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An understanding of pathogens and the immune system has played an utmost important role in agricultural research for the development of vaccinations. The immunological synapse, cell to cell interaction play a crucial role in triggering the body's immune system, such as activation between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and different subsets of T-cell. If these interactions are regulated appropriately, the host has the ability to defend itself against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens. The aim of this study is to establish and to characterize a porcine immune synapse system by co-culturing T cell/APC. In this study, blood samples were collected from specific-pathogen-free piglets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by using Ficoll-Pague. The PBMC were then stained with CD4 (FITC) and CD25 (PE) antibodies. Different subsets of T cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting flow cytometer were co-cultured for 24 hrs with alveolar macrophages, and the profiles of cytokine secretion and mRNA transcription levels of Toll-like receptors were examined after. Results showed that the three stages of immune synapse were clearly visible and identified under both transmission and scanning electron microscope (TEM and SEM). The significant interaction differences in toll-like receptor expressions within the co-cultured cell system were observed. The TLR7 mRNA expressions in CD4+CD25- cells were lower than those in CD4+CD25+ and CD4 -CD25+. Interestingly, the IL-10 production levels in CD4+CD25- cells (7.732 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those of CD4+CD25+ (2.636 pg/mL) and CD4 -CD25+ (2.48 pg/mL). These findings demonstrated that a clear understanding of the porcine immune synapse system can contribute greatly for further investigations on the mechanism of T-cell activation, which can benefit in the discovery of potential adjuvant candidate or effective antigen epitopes in the development of vaccinations with high efficacy.

Keywords: antigen-presenting cells, immune synapse, pig, T subsets, toll-like receptor

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61 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
60 Exploring Influence Range of Tainan City Using Electronic Toll Collection Big Data

Authors: Chen Chou, Feng-Tyan Lin

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Big Data has been attracted a lot of attentions in many fields for analyzing research issues based on a large number of maternal data. Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) is one of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications in Taiwan, used to record starting point, end point, distance and travel time of vehicle on the national freeway. This study, taking advantage of ETC big data, combined with urban planning theory, attempts to explore various phenomena of inter-city transportation activities. ETC, one of government's open data, is numerous, complete and quick-update. One may recall that living area has been delimited with location, population, area and subjective consciousness. However, these factors cannot appropriately reflect what people’s movement path is in daily life. In this study, the concept of "Living Area" is replaced by "Influence Range" to show dynamic and variation with time and purposes of activities. This study uses data mining with Python and Excel, and visualizes the number of trips with GIS to explore influence range of Tainan city and the purpose of trips, and discuss living area delimited in current. It dialogues between the concepts of "Central Place Theory" and "Living Area", presents the new point of view, integrates the application of big data, urban planning and transportation. The finding will be valuable for resource allocation and land apportionment of spatial planning.

Keywords: Big Data, ITS, influence range, living area, central place theory, visualization

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59 Prosthesis Design for Bilateral Hip Disarticulation Management

Authors: Mauricio Plaza, Willian Aperador

Abstract:

Hip disarticulation is an amputation through the hip joint capsule, removing the entire lower extremity, with a closure of the remaining musculature over the exposed acetabulum. Tumors of the distal and proximal femur were treated by total femur resection; a hip disarticulation sometimes is a performance for massive trauma with crush injuries to the lower extremity. This article discusses the design a system for rehabilitation of a patient with bilateral hip disarticulations. The prosthetics designed allowed the patient to do natural gait suspended between parallel articulate crutches with the body weight support between the crutches. The care of this patient was a challenge due to bilateral amputations at such a high level and the special needs of a patient mobility.

Keywords: amputation, prosthesis, mobility, hemipelvectomy

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58 The Effect of the Construction Contract System by Simulating the Comparative Costs of Capital to the Financial Feasibility of the Construction of Toll Bali Mandara

Authors: Mas Pertiwi I. G. AG Istri, Sri Kristinayanti Wayan, Oka Aryawan I. Gede Made

Abstract:

Ability of government to meet the needs of infrastructure investment constrained by the size of the budget commitments for other sectors. Another barrier is the complexity of the process of land acquisition. Public Private Partnership can help bridge the investment gap by including the amount of funding from the private sector, shifted the responsibility of financing, construction of the asset, and the operation and post-project design and care to them. In principle, a construction project implementation always requires the investor as a party to provide resources in the form of funding which it must be contained in a successor agreement in the form of a contract. In general, construction contracts consist of contracts which passed in Indonesia and contract International. One source of funding used in the implementation of construction projects comes from funding that comes from the collaboration between the government and the private sector, for example with the system: BLT (Build Lease Transfer), BOT (Build Operate Transfer), BTO (Build Transfer Operate) and BOO (Build Operate Own). And form of payment under a construction contract can be distinguished several ways: monthly payment, payments based on progress and payment after completed projects (Turn Key). One of the tools used to analyze the feasibility of the investment is to use financial models. The financial model describes the relationship between different variables and assumptions used. From a financial model will be known how the cash flow structure of the project, which includes revenues, expenses, liabilities to creditors and the payment of taxes to the government. Net cash flow generated from the project will be used as a basis for analyzing the feasibility of investment source of project financing Public Private Partnership could come from equity or debt. The proportion of funding according to its source is a comparison of a number of investment funds originating from each source of financing for a total investment cost during the construction period by selected the contract system and several alternative financing percentage ratio determined according to sources will generate cash flow structure that is different. Of the various possibilities for the structure of the cash flow generated will be analyzed by software is to test T Paired to compared the contract system used by various alternatives comparison of financing to determine the effect of the contract system and the comparison of such financing for the feasibility of investment toll road construction project for the economic life of 20 (twenty) years. In this use case studies of toll road contruction project Bali Mandara. And in this analysis only covered two systems contracts, namely Build Operate Transfer and Turn Key. Based on the results obtained by analysis of the variable investment feasibility of the NPV, BCR and IRR between the contract system Build Operate Transfer and contract system Turn Key on the interest rate of 9%, 12% and 15%.

Keywords: contract system, financing, internal rate of return, net present value

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57 The Impact of E-Commerce in Changing Shopping Lifestyle of Urban Communities in Jakarta

Authors: Juliana Kurniawati, Helen Diana Vida

Abstract:

Visiting mall is one of the Indonesian communities’ lifestyle who live in urban areas. Indonesian people, especially who live in Jakarta, use a shopping mall as one of the favourite places to get pleasure. This mall visitors come from various social classes. They use the shopping mall as a place to identify themselves as urban people. Jakarta has a number of great shopping malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Plaza Senayan, Pondok Indah Mall, etc. The shopping malls become one of the popular places since Jakarta's public sphere such as parks and playgrounds are very limited in number compared to that of shopping malls. In Jakarta, people do not come to a shopping mall only for shopping. Sometimes they go there to look around, meet up with some friends, or watch a movie. We can find everything in the shopping malls. The principle of one-stop shopping becomes an attractive offer for urban people. The items for selling are various, from the cheap goods to the expensive ones. A new era in consumer culture began with the advent of shopping was localized in France in the 19th century. Since the development of the online store and the easier way to access the internet, everyone can shop 24 hours anywhere they want. The emergence of online store indirectly has an impact on the viability of conventional stores. In October 2017, in Indonesia, two outlets branded goods namely Lotus and Debenhams were closed. This may a result of increasingly rampant online stores and shopping style urban society shift. The rising of technology gives some influence on the development of e-commerce in Indonesia. Everyone can access e-commerce. However, those who can do it are the middle up class to high class people. The development of e-commerce in Indonesia is quite fast, we can observe the emergence of various online shopping sites on various social media platforms such as Zalora, Berrybenka, Bukalapak, Lazada, and Tokopedia. E-commerce is increasingly affecting people's lives in line with the development of lifestyle and increasing revenue. This research aims to know the reasons of urban society choosing e-commerce as a medium for grocery shopping, how e-commerce is affecting their shopping styles, as well as why society provides confidence in the online store for shopping. This research uses theories of lifestyle by David Chaney. The subject of this research is urban society who actively shop online on Zalora, the communities based in Jakarta. Zalora site was chosen because the site is selling branded goods. This research is expected to explain in detail about the changing style of the urban community from the shopping mall to digital media by emphasizing the aspect of public confidence towards the online store.

Keywords: e-commerce, shopping, lifestyle, changing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
56 A Computational Approach to Screen Antagonist’s Molecule against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c)

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

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Tuberculosis (TB) caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues to take a disturbing toll on human life and healthcare facility worldwide. The global burden of TB remains enormous. The alarming rise of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis calls for an increase in research efforts towards the development of new target specific therapeutics against diverse strains of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, the discovery of new molecular scaffolds targeting new drug sites should be a priority for a workable plan for fighting resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb non-acylated lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) has a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist actions that depend on its association with triacylated glycolipids binding specifically with the hydrophobic pocket of Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The detection of a glycolipid carrier function has important implications for the role of LprG in Mycobacterial physiology and virulence. Therefore, considering the pivotal role of glycolipids in mycobacterial physiology and host-pathogen interactions, designing competitive antagonist (chemotherapeutics) ligands that competitively bind to glycolipid binding domain in LprG lipoprotein, will lead to inhibition of tuberculosis infection in humans. In this study, a unified approach involving ligand-based virtual screening protocol USRCAT (Ultra Shape Recognition) software and molecular docking studies using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.2 using the X-ray crystal structure of Mtb LprG protein was implemented. The docking results were further confirmed by DSX (DrugScore eXtented), a robust program to evaluate the binding energy of ligands bound to the Ligand binding domain of the Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The ligand, which has the higher hypothetical affinity, also has greater negative value. Based on the USRCAT, Lipinski’s values and molecular docking results, [(2R)-2,3-di(hexadecanoyl oxy)propyl][(2S,3S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2,6-bis[[(2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6 (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxy]cyclohexyl] phosphate (XPX) was confirmed as a promising drug-like lead compound (antagonist) binding specifically to the hydrophobic domain of LprG protein with affinity greater than that of PIM2 (agonist of LprG protein) with a free binding energy of -9.98e+006 Kcal/mol and binding affinity of -132 Kcal/mol, respectively. A further, in vitro assay of this compound is required to establish its potency in inhibiting molecular evasion mechanism of MTB within the infected host macrophages. These results will certainly be helpful in future anti-TB drug discovery efforts against Multidrug-Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Keywords: antagonist, agonist, binding affinity, chemotherapeutics, drug-like, multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB), RV1411c protein, toll-like receptor (TLR2)

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55 The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use

Authors: Giselly Barros Rodrigues, Carlos Leite de Souza

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In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.

Keywords: urbanity, space for public use, appropriation of space, segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
54 Customer Satisfaction for Integrated Marketing Communication in Department Store Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Teerapong Chaisen, Pornpan Puttaraksa, Chayanit Chitchai, Peeraya Somsak, Rinyaphat Kecharananta

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This paper aims to study integrated marketing communication (IMC) of department store in Chiang Mai with the object to understand how department stores manage communication in order to inform customer and how customers react to the received information. We study the example of 300 customers both Thai and foreigners who received the given information from the department stores and the reactions of these customers. This paper shows Central festival is the top destination to visit for Thai customers. On the other hand, Central Plaza is favored by foreign customers. However, all department stores need to use more IMC to make awareness for customer.

Keywords: integrated marketing communication, satisfaction, department store, consumer

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53 Shopping Centers in the Context of a Growing and Changing City: The Case of Konya Kent Plaza

Authors: H. Derya Arslan

Abstract:

Shopping centers have become an important part of urban life. The numbers of shopping centers have rapidly increased for ten years, in Turkey. Malls that have been built with increasing speed in the last two decades meet most social and cultural needs of people. In this study, architectural characteristics of a recent mall built in the city of Konya in Turkey have been discussed. The assessment of the mall in question has been made in the context of a growing and changing city. The study opened up new horizons and discussion areas to entrepreneurs who make significant investments in shopping centers, architects who design shopping centers as efficient commercial and social environments, and social scientists that investigate the effects of increase in these closed urban spaces on urban life.

Keywords: shopping center, architecture, city, social

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52 Soy Candle vs Paraffin Candle

Authors: Otana A. Jakpor

Abstract:

Air pollution is without a doubt one of the gravest environmental threats the world is facing today in terms of its sheer toll on human lives. Each year an estimated 70,000 Americans lose their lives to air pollution -- a number equal to deaths from both breast and prostate cancer combined. Since Americans spend nearly 90% of their time indoors, more research is needed on indoor air pollution and common exposures such as candles. Paraffin wax is a by-product of petroleum, and similarities have been observed between fine particulate emissions from paraffin candles and diesel exhaust. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not paraffin candles are a major potential source of indoor air pollution. Furthermore, this study aims to determine whether or not soy candles are a safer, cleaner alternative to paraffin candles.

Keywords: soy candle, soy, paraffin candle, paraffin

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51 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed

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The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

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50 Innate Immunity of Insects in Brief

Authors: Ehsan Soleymaninejadian

Abstract:

As the field of immunology is growing day by day, and its chaotic system amazes more people, greed of research in this area is growing; however dealing with human or mammalian cells such as mice make the research expensive. Although there are some differences between higher animals with insects, importance of innate immunity during evolution made it untouched. So, for understanding the innate immunity insects can be good models. They are cheap; reproduction is fast and in the case genetics, less complicated. In this review, we tried to briefly tackle with important factors in insects’ innate immunity such as melanization, encapsulation, JAK-STAT, IMD, and Toll pathways. At the end, we explained how hormones and nerve system also can impact on immune system and make it more beautiful. In concluding remarks, the possibility of taking help from insect immune system to fight against diseases such as cancer has been considered.

Keywords: insects, innate immunity, melanization, intracellular pathways, hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 96