Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Tarfaoui Mostapha

8 Dynamic Response and Damage Modeling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Pipes: Numerical Investigation

Authors: Ammar Maziz, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Said Rechak


The high mechanical performance of composite pipes can be adversely affected by their low resistance to impact loads. Loads in dynamic origin are dangerous and cause consequences on the operation of pipes because the damage is often not detected and can affect the structural integrity of composite pipes. In this work, an advanced 3-D finite element (FE) model, based on the use of intralaminar damage models was developed and used to predict damage under low-velocity impact. The performance of the numerical model is validated with the confrontation with the results of experimental tests. The results show that at low impact energy, the damage happens mainly by matrix cracking and delamination. The model capabilities to simulate the low-velocity impact events on the full-scale composite structures were proved.

Keywords: composite materials, low velocity impact, FEA, dynamic behavior, progressive damage modeling

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7 Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies

Authors: Nachtane Mourad, Tarfaoui Mostapha, Saifaoui Dennoun, El Moumen Ahmed


The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.

Keywords: renewable marine energy, energy transition, efficiency energy, renewable energy

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6 Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Offshoring Polymer Composite Pipes in Thermal Environment

Authors: Hamza Benyahia, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Ahmed El-Moumen, Djamel Ouinas


Composite pipes are commonly used in the oil industry, and extreme flow of hot and cold gas fluid can cause degradation of their mechanical performance and properties. Therefore, it is necessary to consider thermomechanical behavior as an important parameter in designing these tubular structures. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted on composite glass/epoxy tubes, with a thickness of 6.2 mm and 86 mm internal diameter made by filament winding of (Փ = ± 55°), to investigate the effects of extreme thermal condition on their mechanical properties b over a temperature range from -40 to 80°C. The climatic chamber is used for the thermal aging and then, combine split disk system is used to perform tensile tests on these composite pies. Thermal aging is carried out for 8hr but each specimen was subjected to various temperature ranges and then, uniaxial tensile test is conducted to evaluate their mechanical performance. Experimental results show degradation in the mechanical properties of composite pipes with an increase in temperature. The rigidity of pipes increases progressively with a decrease in thermal load and results in a radical decrease in their elongation before fracture, thus, decreasing their ductility. However, with an increase in the temperature, there is a decrease in the yield strength and an increase in yield strain, which confirmed an increase in the plasticity of composite pipes.

Keywords: composite pipes, thermal-mechanical properties, filament winding, thermal degradation

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5 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia


In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

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4 Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Benyahia


Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.

Keywords: adhesively-bonded composite joints, damage, dynamic compression tests, energy balance, heat dissipation, SHPB, thermomechanical behavior

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3 Moroccan Human Ecological Behavior: Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: Dalal Tarfaoui, Salah Zkim


Today, environmental sustainability is everyone’s concern as it contributes in many aspects to a country's development. Morocco is also aware of the increasing threats to its natural resources. Accordingly, many projects and research have been discussed pointing mainly to water security, pollution, desertification, and land degradation, but few studies bothered to dig into the human demeanor to disclose its ecological behavior. Human behavior is accountable for environment deterioration in the first place, but we keep fighting the symptoms instead of limiting the root causes. In the conceptual framework highlighted in the present article, semi-structured interviews have been conducted using a grounded theory approach. Initially this study will serve as a pilot study and a cornerstone to approve a bigger project now in progress. Beyond the existing general ecological measures (GEM), this study has chosen the grounded theory approach to bring out firsthand insights, and probe to which extent an ecological dimension exists in Morocco as a developing country. The discourse of the ecological behavior within the Moroccan context is seen in more realist, social, and community philosophy. The study has revealed an appreciative ecological behavior that is unfortunately repressed by variables beyond people’s control, which would prevent the people’s environmental good intentions to be translated into real ecological actions.

Keywords: ecological behavior, ecological dimension, variables beyond people’s control, Morocco

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2 Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints

Authors: H. I. Beloufa, M. Tarfaoui


For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.

Keywords: adhesive, double lap joints, static and dynamic behavior, tensile tests

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1 Multi-Criteria Evaluation of IDS Architectures in Cloud Computing

Authors: Elmahdi Khalil, Saad Enniari, Mostapha Zbakh


Cloud computing promises to increase innovation and the velocity with witch applications are deployed, all while helping any enterprise meet most IT service needs at a lower total cost of ownership and higher return investment. As the march of cloud continues, it brings both new opportunities and new security challenges. To take advantages of those opportunities while minimizing risks, we think that Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) integrated in the cloud is one of the best existing solutions nowadays in the field. The concept of intrusion detection was known since past and was first proposed by a well-known researcher named Anderson in 1980's. Since that time IDS's are evolving. Although, several efforts has been made in the area of Intrusion Detection systems for cloud computing environment, many attacks still prevail. Therefore, the work presented in this paper proposes a multi criteria analysis and a comparative study between several IDS architectures designated to work in a cloud computing environments. To achieve this objective, in the first place we will search in the state of the art of several consistent IDS architectures designed to work in a cloud environment. Whereas, in a second step we will establish the criteria that will be useful for the evaluation of architectures. Later, using the approach of multi criteria decision analysis Mac Beth (Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique we will evaluate the criteria and assign to each one the appropriate weight according to their importance in the field of IDS architectures in cloud computing. The last step is to evaluate architectures against the criteria and collecting results of the model constructed in the previous steps.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud security, intrusion detection/prevention system, multi-criteria decision analysis

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