Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: habitat

264 Habitat Model Review and a Proposed Methodology to Value Economic Trade-Off between Cage Culture and Habitat of an Endemic Species in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia

Authors: Ivana Yuniarti, Iwan Ridwansyah

Abstract:

This paper delivers a review of various methodologies for habitat assessment and a proposed methodology to assess an endemic fish species habitat in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia as a part of a Ph.D. project. This application is mainly aimed to assess the trade-off between the economic value of aquaculture and the fisheries. The proposed methodology is a generalized linear model (GLM) combined with GIS to assess presence-absence data or habitat suitability index (HSI) combined with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Further, a cost of habitat replacement approach is planned to be used to calculate the habitat value as well as its trade-off with the economic value of aquaculture. The result of the study is expected to be a scientific consideration in local decision making and to provide a reference for other areas in the country.

Keywords: AHP, habitat, GLM, HSI, Maninjau

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263 Dynamic Evaluation of Shallow Lake Habitat Quality Based on InVEST Model: A Case in Baiyangdian Lake

Authors: Shengjun Yan, Xuan Wang

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Water level changes in a shallow lake always introduce dramatic land pattern changes. To achieve sustainable ecosystem service, it is necessary to evaluate habitat quality dynamic and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from water level changes, which can provide a scientific basis for protection of biodiversity and planning of wetland ecological system. Landsat data in the spring was chosen to obtain landscape data at different times based on the high, moderate and low water level of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake. We used the InVEST to evaluate the habitat quality, habitat degradation, and habitat scarcity. The result showed that: 1) the water level of shallow lake changes from high to low lead to an obvious landscape pattern changes and habitat degradation, 2) the most change area occurred in northwestward and southwest of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake, which there was a 21 percent of suitable habitat and 42 percent of moderately suitable habitat lost. Our findings show that the changes of water level in the shallow lake would have a strong relationship with the habitat quality.

Keywords: habitat quality, habitat degradation, water level changes, shallow lake

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
262 Physical Habitat Simulation and Comparison within a Lerma River Reach, with Respect to the Same but Modified Reach, to Create a Linear Park

Authors: Garcia-Rodriguez Ezequiel, Luis A. Ochoa-Franco, Adrian I. Cervantes-Servin

Abstract:

In this work, the Ictalurus punctatus species estimated available physical habitat is compared with the estimated physical habitat for the same but modified river reach, with the aim of creating a linear park, along a length of 5 500 m. To determine the effect of ecological park construction, on physical habitat of the Lerma river stretch of study, first, the available habitat for the Ictalurus punctatus species was estimated through the simulation of the physical habitat, by using surveying, hydraulics, and habitat information gotten at the river reach in its actual situation. Second, it was estimated the available habitat for the above species, upon the simulation of the physical habitat through the proposed modification for the ecological park creation. Third, it is presented a comparison between both scenarios in terms of available habitat estimated for Ictalurus punctatus species, concluding that in cases of adult and spawning life stages, changes in the channel to create an ecological park would produce a considerable loss of potentially usable habitat (PUH), while in the case of the juvenile life stage PUH remains virtually unchanged, and in the case of life stage fry the PUH would increase due to the presence of velocities and depths of lesser magnitude, due to the presence of minor flow rates and lower volume of the wet channel. It is expected that habitat modification for linear park construction may produce the lack of Ictalurus punktatus species conservation at the river reach of the study.

Keywords: Habitat modification, Ictalurus punctatus, Lerma, river, linear park

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
261 Uneven Habitat Characterisation by Using Geo-Gebra Software in the Lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera), Knowing When to Calculate the Habitat: Creating More Informative Ecological Experiments

Authors: Hakan Bozdoğan

Abstract:

A wide variety of traditional methodologies has been enhanced for characterising smooth habitats in order to find out different environmental objectives. The habitats were characterised based on size and shape by using Geo-Gebra Software. In this study, an innovative approach to researching habitat characterisation in the lacewing species, GeoGebra software is utilised. This approach is demonstrated using the example of ‘surface area’ as an analytical concept, wherein the goal was to increase clearness for researchers, and to improve the quality of researching in survey area. In conclusion, habitat characterisation using the mathematical programme provides a unique potential to collect more comprehensible and analytical information about in shapeless areas beyond the range of direct observations methods. This research contributes a new perspective for assessing the structure of habitat, providing a novel mathematical tool for the research and management of such habitats and environments. Further surveys should be undertaken at additional sites within the Amanos Mountains for a comprehensive assessment of lacewings habitat characterisation in an analytical plane. This paper is supported by Ahi Evran University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit, Projects No:TBY.E2.17.001 and TBY.A4.16.001.

Keywords: uneven habitat shape, habitat assessment, lacewings, Geo-Gebra Software

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
260 Habitat Use by Persian Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in Bydoye Protected Area, Iran

Authors: S. Aghanajafizadeh, M. Poursina

Abstract:

We studied the selection of winter habitat by Persian Gazelle (Gazella subguttrosa) in Bydoyeh protected area. Habitat variables such as plant species number, vegetation percent, distance to the nearest water sources and plant patch of present sites were compared with randomly selected non- used sites. The results showed that the most important factors influencing habitat selection were number and vegetation percent of Artemisia sieberi. Vegetation percent of plants. vegetation percent and number of Artemisia sieberi were significantly higher compared with the control area.

Keywords: Persian gazelle, habitat use, Bydoyeh protected area, Kerman, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
259 Species Distribution Modelling for Assessing the Effect of Land Use Changes on the Habitat of Endangered Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wardatutthoyyibah, Satyawan Pudyatmoko, Sena Adi Subrata, Muhammad Ali Imron

Abstract:

The proboscis monkey is an endemic species to the island of Borneo with conservation status IUCN (The International Union for Conservation of Nature) of endangered. The population of the monkey has a specific habitat and sensitive to habitat disturbances. As a consequence of increasing rates of land-use change in the last four decades, its population was reported significantly decreased. We quantified the effect of land use change on the proboscis monkey’s habitat through the species distribution modeling (SDM) approach with Maxent Software. We collected presence data and environmental variables, i.e., land cover, topography, bioclimate, distance to the river, distance to the road, and distance to the anthropogenic disturbance to generate predictive distribution maps of the monkeys. We compared two prediction maps for 2000 and 2015 data to represent the current habitat of the monkey. We overlaid the monkey’s predictive distribution map with the existing protected areas to investigate whether the habitat of the monkey is protected under the protected areas networks. The results showed that almost 50% of the monkey’s habitat reduced as the effect of land use change. And only 9% of the current proboscis monkey’s habitat within protected areas. These results are important for the master plan of conservation of the endangered proboscis monkey and provide scientific guidance for the future development incorporating biodiversity issue.

Keywords: endemic species, land use change, maximum entropy, spatial distribution

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258 Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) on Mount Ungaran: Are their Habitat Threatened?

Authors: Margareta Rahayuningsih, Nugroho Edi K., Siti Alimah

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Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) is the one of hornbill species (Family: Bucerotidae) that found on Mount Ungaran. In the preservation or planning in situ conservation of Wreathed Hornbill require the habitat condition data. The objective of the research was to determine the land cover change on Mount Ungaran using satellite image data and GIS. Based on the land cover data on 1999-2009 the research showed that the primer forest on Mount Ungaran was decreased almost 50%, while the seconder forest, tea and coffee plantation, and the settlement were increased.

Keywords: GIS, Mount Ungaran, threatened habitat, Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus)

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
257 The Influence of Forest Management Histories on Dead and Habitat Trees in the Old Growth Forest in Northern Iran

Authors: Kiomars Sefidi

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Dead and habitat tree such as fallen logs, snags, stumps and cracks and loos bark etc. is regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend, yet its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research was to compare the amounts of dead tree and habitat in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (PS), the short-term implication of management (NS) which were compared with semi virgin forest (GS). The number of 405 individual dead and habitat trees were recorded and measured at 109 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of the dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead and habitat tree in three sites showed that dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Also, the numbers of habitat trees including cavities, Cracks and loose bark and Fork split trees significantly vary among sites. Reaching their highest in virgin site and their lowest in the site with the long term implication of management, it was concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead and habitat tree. Forest management history affect the forest's ability to generate dead tree especially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead tree in a full range of size.

Keywords: forest biodiversity, cracks trees, fork split trees, sustainable management, Fagus orientalis, Iran

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256 Distribution and Habitat Preference of Red Panda (Ailurus Fulgens Fulgens) in Jumla District, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi, Sher Singh Thagunna

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Reliable and sufficient information regarding status, distribution and habitat preference of red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is lacking in Nepal. The research activities on red panda in the mid-western Nepal are very limited, so the status of red panda in the region is quite unknown. The study conducted during May, 2013 in three Village Development Committees (VDCs) namely Godhemahadev, Malikathata and Tamti of Jumla district was an important step for providing vital information including distribution and habitat preference of this species. The study included the reconnaissance, key informants survey, interviews, and consultation for the most potential area identification, opportunistic survey comprising the direct observation and indirect sign count method for the presence and distribution, habitat assessment consisting vegetation sampling and ocular estimation. The study revealed the presence of red panda in three forests namely Bahirepatan, Imilchadamar and Tyakot of Godhemahadev, Tamti and Malikathata VDCs respectively. The species was found distributed between 2880 and 3244 m with an average dropping encounter rate of 1.04 per hour of searching effort and 12 pellets per dropping. Red panda mostly preferred the habitat in the elevation range of 2900 - 3000 m with southwest facing steep slopes (36˚ - 45˚), associated with water sources at the distance of ≤100 m. Trees such as Acer spp., Betula utilis and Quercus semecarpifolia, shrub species of Elaeagnus parvifolia, Drepanostachyum spp. and Jasminum humile, and the herbs like Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Fragaria nubicola and Galium asperifolium were found to be the most preferred species by red panda. The red panda preferred the habitat with dense crown coverage ( >20% - 100%) and 31% - 50% ground cover. Fallen logs (39%) were the most preferred substrate used for defecation.

Keywords: distribution, habitat preference, jumla, red panda

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255 The Influence of Environment Characteristics in the Distribution of Vegetation Communities in Rawdhat Salasil, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Suliman Mohammed Alghanem

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Ecological and botanical surveys were conducted on Rawdhat Salasil, Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. The survey also includes the study of the plant communities in the study area by sampling the associated species in each community using the List Count Quadrant method to study the density, frequency, and plant cover. The present study has shown an account of the under-mentioned five different communities: Haloxylonpersicum community is a dominant perennial shrub with an important value of 47.88%. This community is represented by 20 associated species. The chemical analysis of the soil of this habitat exhibits more alkalinity with low salinity. Tamarixnilotica communityis a perennial shrub with an important value of 60.48%. This community is represented by 14 associated species. The chemical analysis of the soil of this habitat demonstrates richness in alkalis with high salinity.Salsolaimbricata communityis a perennial herb with an important value of 60.18%. This community is represented by 17 associated species. The chemical analysis of the soil of this habitat exhibits richness in alkalis with low salinity.Panicumturgidum is a perennial herb with an important value of 65.1%. This community is represented by 11 associated species. The chemical analysis of the soil of this habitat exhibits richness in alkalis and the absence of salinity. Pulicariaundulata community is predominantly an annual shrub with an important value of 91.79%. This community is represented by 16 species. The chemical analysis of the soil of this habitat exhibits richness in alkalis, and the absence of salinity.

Keywords: rangelands, plant communities, Rawdhat Salasil, edaphic factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
254 Effect of Human Use, Season and Habitat on Ungulate Densities in Kanha Tiger Reserve

Authors: Neha Awasthi, Ujjwal Kumar

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Density of large carnivores is primarily dictated by the density of their prey. Therefore, optimal management of ungulates populations permits harbouring of viable large carnivore populations within protected areas. Ungulate density is likely to respond to regimes of protection and vegetation types. This has generated the need among conservation practitioners to obtain strata specific seasonal species densities for habitat management. Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR) of 2074 km2 area comprises of two distinct management strata: The core (940 km2), devoid of human settlements and buffer (1134 km2) which is a multiple use area. In general, four habitat strata, grassland, sal forest, bamboo-mixed forest and miscellaneous forest are present in the reserve. Stratified sampling approach was used to access a) impact of human use and b) effect of habitat and season on ungulate densities. Since 2013 to 2016, ungulates were surveyed in winter and summer of each year with an effort of 1200 km walk in 200 spatial transects distributed throughout Kanha Tiger Reserve. We used a single detection function for each species within each habitat stratum for each season for estimating species specific seasonal density, using program DISTANCE. Our key results state that the core area had 4.8 times higher wild ungulate biomass compared with the buffer zone, highlighting the importance of undisturbed area. Chital was found to be most abundant, having a density of 30.1(SE 4.34)/km2 and contributing 33% of the biomass with a habitat preference for grassland. Unlike other ungulates, Gaur being mega herbivore, showed a major seasonal shift in density from bamboo-mixed and sal forest in summer to miscellaneous forest in winter. Maximum diversity and ungulate biomass were supported by grassland followed by bamboo-mixed habitat. Our study stresses the importance of inviolate core areas for achieving high wild ungulate densities and for maintaining populations of endangered and rare species. Grasslands accounts for 9% of the core area of KTR maintained in arrested stage of succession, therefore enhancing this habitat would maintain ungulate diversity, density and cater to the needs of only surviving population of the endangered barasingha and grassland specialist the blackbuck. We show the relevance of different habitat types for differential seasonal use by ungulates and attempt to interpret this in the context of nutrition and cover needs by wild ungulates. Management for an optimal habitat mosaic that maintains ungulate diversity and maximizes ungulate biomass is recommended.

Keywords: distance sampling, habitat management, ungulate biomass, diversity

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253 Nesting Habitat Preference of Indigenous Bumblebee, Bombus haemorrhoidalis in Himalayan Range of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

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Non Apis bee like the bumblebees are important due to their utilization of diverse floral plants and belong to the richest and most conspicuous flower visitors in alpine, temperate and arctic environments for pollination in both natural and managed cropping systems. These bees generally construct underground nests and habitat devastation and crumbling are major causes for their decline in nature. The present study was conducted in the Himalayan range of Azad Jammu, and Kashmir, Pakistan, surveys were conducted during the early spring season to observe maximum Bombus haemorrhoidalis queens (emerged after winter diapauses) searching for a nesting place. Whole study area was grouped into four types of landscape (open field, relatively open , relatively wooded and wooded), five habitat types (field, field boundary, pasture forest boundary and forest) and these habitat further grouped into four different patch types including withered grass, new grass, tussocks and stones and moss. Maximum nest seeking bumblebee queens preferred relatively open field landscape followed by open fields and forest boundaries. Field boundaries were recorded as most proffered habitat along with withered grasses for nesting sites of B. haemorrhoidalis queens. A wooded landscape with stone and moss type of patches were found least preferred nesting sites. This study will be helpful in the future for conservation program this for declining bumblebee species in this region. It will also provide the baseline for the conservation of other bumblebee species of the world.

Keywords: bumblebee, Bombus haemorrhoidalis, habitat, nest seeking preference, Pakistan

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252 Occurrence and Habitat Status of Osmoderma barnabita in Lithuania

Authors: D. Augutis, M. Balalaikins, D. Bastyte, R. Ferenca, A. Gintaras, R. Karpuska, G. Svitra, U. Valainis

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Osmoderma species complex (consisting of Osmoderma eremita, O. barnabita, O. lassallei and O. cristinae) is a scarab beetle serving as indicator species in nature conservation. Osmoderma inhabits cavities containing sufficient volume of wood mould usually caused by brown rot in veteran deciduous trees. As the species, having high demands for the habitat quality, they indicate the suitability of the habitat for a number of other specialized saproxylic species. Since typical habitat needed for Osmoderma and other species associated with hollow veteran trees is rapidly declining, the species complex is protected under various legislation, such as Bern Convention, EU Habitats Directive and the Red Lists of many European states. Natura 2000 sites are the main tool for conservation of O. barnabita in Lithuania, currently 17 Natura 2000 sites are designated for the species, where monitoring is implemented once in 3 years according to the approved methodologies. Despite these monitoring efforts in species reports, provided to EU according to the Article 17 of the Habitats Directive, it is defined on the national level, that overall assessment of O. barnabita is inadequate and future prospects are poor. Therefore, research on the distribution and habitat status of O. barnabita was launched on the national level in 2016, which was complemented by preparatory actions of LIFE OSMODERMA project. The research was implemented in the areas equally distributed in the whole area of Lithuania, where O. barnabita was previously not observed, or not observed in the last 10 years. 90 areas, such as Habitats of European importance (9070 Fennoscandian wooded pastures, 9180 Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes, and ravines), Woodland key habitats (B1 broad-leaved forest, K1 single giant tree) and old manor parks, were chosen for the research after review of habitat data from the existing national databases. The first part of field inventory of the habitats was carried out in 2016 and 2017 autumn and winter seasons, when relative abundance of O. barnabita was estimated according to larval faecal pellets in the tree cavities or around the trees. The state of habitats was evaluated according to the density of suitable and potential trees, percentage of not overshadowed trees and amount of undergrowth. The second part of the field inventory was carried out in the summer with pheromone traps baited with (R)-(+)-γ –decalactone. Results of the research show not only occurrence and habitat status of O. barnabita, but also help to clarify O. barnabita habitat requirements in Lithuania, define habitat size, its structure and distribution. Also, it compares habitat needs between the regions in Lithuania and inside and outside Natura 2000 areas designated for the species.

Keywords: habitat status, insect conservation, Osmoderma barnabita, veteran trees

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
251 Ecological Study of Habitat Conditions and Distribution of Cistanche tubulosa (Rare Plant Species) in Pakpattan District, Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor

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C. tubulosa is a rare parasitic plant. It is found to be endangered and it acquires nutrition by penetrating roots deep in host roots. It has momentous potential to fulfill local and national health needs. This specie became endangered due to its parasitic mode of life and lack of awareness. Investigation of distribution and habitat conditions of C. tubulosa from District Pakpattan is the objective of this study. To explore its habitat conditions and community ecology phytosociological survey of C. tubulosa in different habitats i.e roadsides and graveyards was carried out. It was found that C. tubulosa occurs successfully in different habitats like graveyards and roadsides with specific neighboring species. Soil analysis was carried out by taking soil samples from seven sites. Soil was analyzed for pH, EC, soil texture, OM, N %age, Ca, Mg, P and K, which shows that soil of C. tubulosa is rich in all these nutrients.

Keywords: organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
250 Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preference of Red Panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi

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The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is distributed throughout the Himalayas and is found in both protected and unprotected areas of Nepal. Loss and fragmentation of habitat threaten red panda population throughout its range, and as a consequence, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Despite this pressing situation, data on the ecology of the red panda in western Nepal are lacking. Our aim in the current study was to determine the distribution, associated habitats, and summer diet of the red panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR), Nepal. Evidence of red pandas was found in all 7 blocks of the reserve, spanning an area of 345.8 km2, between elevations of 2800 m and 4000 m and predominantly (> 75%) in forests comprising plant communities dominated by Abies spectabilis, Acer caesium, Tsuga domusa, and Betula utilis, with ground cover of Arundinaria spp. The dominant plant found in scat of the red panda was Arundinaria spp. (81.7%), with Acer spp., B. utilis, and lichen also frequently present. Livestock grazing and human activities were significantly higher in habitats where signs of pandas were recorded than in areas where they were absent. This habitat overlap between the red panda and livestock potentially poses a major threat to the panda’s survival in the DHR, a fact that should be taken into account in devising management strategies for this threatened species.

Keywords: red panda, Dhorpatan hunting reserve, diet, habitat preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
249 A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka

Authors: H. E. M. W. G. M. K. Ekanayake, J. Dharmasena

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Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, urban wetlands, landscape connectivity, patch metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
248 Bacteria Flora in the Gut and Respiratory Organs of Clarias gariepinus in Fresh and Brackish Water Habitats of Ondo State, South/West Nigeria

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Bacteria flora of Clarias gariepinus collected from two natural habitats namely Owena River (freshwater) and Igbokoda lagoon (brackish water) were examined using standard microbiological procedures. Thirteen bacterial species were identified. The result indicated that from the identified bacteria isolated, Vibrio sp, Proteus sp. Shigella sp. and E. coli were present in both habitats (fresh and brackish waters). Others were habitat-selective such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp, Enterococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp. that were found only in freshwater habitat. While Branhamella sp, Streptococcus sp. and Micrococcus sp. were found in brackish water habitat. Bacteria load from Owena river (freshwater) was found to be the highest load recorded at 6.21 x 104cfu. T-test analysis also revealed that there was a marked significant difference between bacterial load in guts of sampled Clarias from fresh water and brackish water habitats.

Keywords: bacteria flora, gut, Clarias gariepinus, Owena river

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247 An Analytical View to the Habitat Strategies of the Butterfly-Like Insects (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae)

Authors: Hakan Bozdoğan

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The goal of this paper is to evaluate the species richness, diversity and structure of in different habitats in the Kahramanmaraş Province in Turkey by using a mathematical program called as Geo-Gebra Software. The Ascalaphidae family comprises the most visually remarkable members of the order Neuroptera due to large dimensions, aerial predatory behaviour and dragonfly-like (or even butterfly-like) habits, allowing an immediate recognition also for occasional observers. Otherwise, they are one of the more poorly known families of the order in respect to biology, ecology and especially larval morphology. This discrepancy appears particularly noteworthy considering that it is a fairly large family (ca. 430 species) widely distributed in tropical and temperate areas of the World. The use of Dynamic Geometry, Analytical Softwares provides researchers a great way of visualising mathematical objects and encourage them to carry out tasks to interact with such objects and add to support of their researching. In this study we implemented; Circle with Center Through Point, Perpendicular Line, Vectors and Rays, Segments and Locus to elucidate the ecological and habitat behaviours of Butterfly-like lacewings in an analytical plane by using Geo-Gebra.

Keywords: neuroptera, Ascalaphidae, geo-gebra software, habitat selectivity

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246 Assessing the Sheltering Response in the Middle East: Studying Syrian Camps in Jordan

Authors: Lara A. Alshawawreh, R. Sean Smith, John B. Wood

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This study focuses on the sheltering response in the Middle East, specifically through reviewing two Syrian refugee camps in Jordan, involving Zaatari and Azraq. Zaatari camp involved the rapid deployment of tents and shelters over a very short period of time and Azraq was purpose built and pre-planned over a longer period. At present, both camps collectively host more than 133,000 occupants. Field visits were taken to both camps and the main issues and problems in the sheltering response were highlighted through focus group discussions with camp occupants and inspection of shelter habitats. This provided both subjective and objective research data sources. While every case has its own significance and deployment to meet humanitarian needs, there are some common requirements irrespective of geographical region. The results suggest that there is a gap in the suitability of the required habitat needs and what has been provided. It is recommended that the global international response and support could be improved in relation to the habitat form, construction type, layout, function and critically the cultural aspects. Services, health and hygiene are key elements to the shelter habitat provision. The study also identified the amendments to shelters undertaken by the beneficiaries providing insight into their key main requirements. The outcomes from this study could provide an important learning opportunity to develop improved habitat response for future shelters.

Keywords: culture, post-disaster, refugees, shelters

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245 Attitudes of the Adolescent Students towards People with Disabilities and Demographic Variables: An Indian Context

Authors: Santoshi Halder, Bijoya Saha

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Adolescent’s attitude is one of the most important variables in the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article investigated attitudes of general adolescent in the eastern part of India (Kolkata), India, towards people with disabilities measured by responses on the Attitude toward Disabled Persons Scale. The present study examined 400, High School adolescent students of Mean Age 14 from various schools in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. The study measured whether demographic characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status (SES) habitat affect the attitudes of adolescent students towards people with disabilities. The results of this study indicate that habitat and socioeconomic status are some of the significant factors affecting the attitudes of the general adolescent students towards people with disabilities (PwD). However findings also indicate no significant effect on the attitude of the students towards people with disabilities (PwD) with respect to gender. Implication of this study: Broader and wide range of exposure to students and healthy family environment in order to increase positive attitudes towards people with disabilities.

Keywords: attitudes, People with Disabilities (PwD), adolescent students, socioeconomic status, gender, habitat, inclusion

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244 An Inquiry into Bioregionalism as a Holistic Development Paradigm in Developing Small Towns

Authors: K. C. Surekha

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The natural habitat forms the setting for every urban development. The tangible and intangible characteristics of the site contributed to the sustenance of various urban dimensions of early civilizations. However, as the towns were continuously evolving and developing, the attitude towards the natural habitat changed. The after effects of this self-centered attitude resulted in various natural and manmade catastrophes. At the same time the social habitat, cities and new towns were increasingly over-populated; and will become even more numerous and crowded in the future. The coexistence of natural and urban components is necessary for a sustainable future and preserving the region’s unique features. Therefore, there is an urgent need to rethink actively on alternative development paradigms to achieve sustenance of all living forms on the planet in a more sustainable way. The main aim of this paper is to understand bioregionalism as an alternative development paradigm, its theory, concepts as well as the key aspects of bioregional planning. The paper will try to understand the concept of bioregionalism theoretically and take case studies. The critical interpretation of theory and analysis of case studies will be used to form a set of design parameters which can be physically implemented from an urban design and planning standpoint.

Keywords: bioregion, bioregionalism, holistic, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
243 Towards Conservation and Recovery of Species at Risk in Ontario: Progress on Recovery Planning and Implementation and an Overview of Key Research Needs

Authors: Rachel deCatanzaro, Madeline Austen, Ken Tuininga, Kathy St. Laurent, Christina Rohe

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In Canada, the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides protection for wildlife species at risk and a national legislative framework for the conservation or recovery of species that are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern under Schedule 1 of SARA. Key aspects of the federal species at risk program include the development of recovery documents (recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans) outlining threats, objectives, and broad strategies or measures for conservation or recovery of the species; the identification and protection of critical habitat for threatened and endangered species; and working with groups and organizations to implement on-the-ground recovery actions. Environment Canada’s progress on the development of recovery documents and on the identification and protection of critical habitat in Ontario will be presented, along with successes and challenges associated with on-the ground implementation of recovery actions. In Ontario, Environment Canada is currently involved in several recovery and monitoring programs for at-risk bird species such as the Loggerhead Shrike, Piping Plover, Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler and has provided funding for a wide variety of recovery actions targeting priority species at risk and geographic areas each year through stewardship programs including the Habitat Stewardship Program, Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk, and the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund. Key research needs relevant to the recovery of species at risk have been identified, and include: surveys and monitoring of population sizes and threats, population viability analyses, and addressing knowledge gaps identified for individual species (e.g., species biology and habitat needs). The engagement of all levels of government, the local and international conservation communities, and the scientific research community plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of species at risk in Ontario– through surveying and monitoring, filling knowledge gaps, conducting public outreach, and restoring, protecting, or managing habitat – and will be critical to the continued success of the federal species at risk program.

Keywords: conservation biology, habitat protection, species at risk, wildlife recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
242 A Study on Diversity of the Family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Forest Habitat of Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Rashmi Nautiyal, Sudhir Singh

Abstract:

Encyrtidae is the largest family of superfamily Chalcidoidea of parasitic Hymenoptera group. They are endoparasitoids or hyperparasitoids of other arthropods and have the greatest impact on maintaining diversity. It not only forms a major component of diversity itself but also is very important in sustaining diversity in other groups. They are used as efficient biological control agents against key insect pests world over. The present study is based on the collection of Encyrtidae (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera) made during a survey in Doon Valley from 2008 to 2011 in all the five seasons (Spring, Summer cum Pre-monsoon, Monsoon, Post-monsoon, Winter) for each year. The collections were made from forest habitat in different localities of the Valley using sweep net and yellow pan trap methods. A total of 1346 specimens of encyrtids were collected and identified from the forest habitat (745 with a sweep net and 601with yellow pan trap).Of these, season-wise (post monsoon, spring, summer, monsoon, and winter) represented Encyrtids were 30.46%, 19.31%, 17.16%, 16.64% and 16.41%, respectively. A total of 161 species of Encyrtids belonging to 43 genera under 2 subfamilies were recorded.

Keywords: diversity, Encyrtidae, sweep net, yellow pan

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241 Using Hierarchical Modelling to Understand the Role of Plantations in the Abundance of Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

Authors: Kita R. Ashman, Anthony R. Rendall, Matthew R. E. Symonds, Desley A. Whisson

Abstract:

Forest cover is decreasing globally, chiefly due to the conversion of forest to agricultural landscapes. In contrast, the area under plantation forestry is increasing significantly. For wildlife occupying landscapes where native forest is the dominant land cover, plantations generally represent a lower value habitat; however, plantations established on land formerly used for pasture may benefit wildlife by providing temporary forest habitat and increasing connectivity. This study investigates the influence of landscape, site, and climatic factors on koala population density in far south-west Victoria where there has been extensive plantation establishment. We conducted koala surveys and habitat characteristic assessments at 72 sites across three habitat types: plantation, native vegetation blocks, and native vegetation strips. We employed a hierarchical modeling framework for estimating abundance and constructed candidate multinomial N-mixture models to identify factors influencing the abundance of koalas. We detected higher mean koala density in plantation sites (0.85 per ha) than in either native block (0.68 per ha) or native strip sites (0.66 per ha). We found five covariates of koala density and using these variables, we spatially modeled koala abundance and discuss factors that are key in determining large-scale distribution and density of koala populations. We provide a distribution map that can be used to identify high priority areas for population management as well as the habitat of high conservation significance for koalas. This information facilitates the linkage of ecological theory with the on-ground implementation of management actions and may guide conservation planning and resource management actions to consider overall landscape configuration as well as the spatial arrangement of plantations adjacent to the remnant forest.

Keywords: abundance modelling, arboreal mammals plantations, wildlife conservation

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240 Nest-Site Selection of Crested Lark (Galerida cristata) in Yazd Province, Iran

Authors: Shirin Aghanajafizadeh

Abstract:

Nest site selection of Crested Lark was investigated in Boroyeh wildlife sanctuary of Harat during spring 2014. Habitat variables such as number of plant species, soil texture, distance to the nearest water resources, farms and roads were compared in the species presence plots with absence ones. Our analysis showed that the average number of Zygophyllum atriplicoidesand, Artemisia sieberi were higher while fine-textured soil percent cover (with very little and gravel) was lower in species presence plots than control plots. We resulted that the most affecting factor in the species nest site selection is the number of Z .atriplicoides and soil texture. Z. atriplicoides and A. sieberi can provide cover for nests and chickens against predators and environmental harsh events such as sunshine and wind. The stability of built nest forces the birds to select sites with not fine-textured soil. Some of the nests were detected in Alfalfa farms that can be related to its cover producing capability.

Keywords: habitat selection, Yazd Province, presence and absence plots, habitat variables

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239 An Alternative to Resolve Land use Conflicts: the Rétköz Lake Project

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár

Abstract:

Today, there is no part of the world that does not bear the mark of man in some way. This process seems unstoppable. So perhaps the best thing we can do is to touch that handprint gently and with the utmost care. There are multiple uses for the same piece of land, the coordination of which requires careful and sustainable spatial planning. The case study of the Rétközlake in north-eastern Hungary illustrates a habitat rehabilitation project in which a number of human uses were coordinated with the conservation and restoration of the natural environment. Today, the good condition of the habitat can only be maintained artificially, but the project has paid particular attention to finding a sustainable solution. The rehabilitation of Lake Rétköz is considered good practice in resolving land-use conflicts.

Keywords: sustainability, ecosystem service, land use conflict, landscape utilization

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238 The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch

Authors: Cenkmen R. Begburs

Abstract:

In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.

Keywords: reef trap, Antalya, environment, damage

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237 Evaluating Habitat Manipulation as a Strategy for Rodent Control in Agricultural Ecosystems of Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

Habitat manipulation is an important technique that can be used for controlling rodent damage in agricultural ecosystems. It involves intentionally manipulation of vegetation cover in adjacent habitats around the active burrows of rodents to reduce shelter, food availability and to increase predation pressure. The current study was conducted in the Pothwar Plateau during the respective non-crop period of wheat-groundnut (post-harvested and un-ploughed/non-crop fallow lands) with the aim to assess the impact of the reduction in vegetation height of adjacent habitats (field borders) on rodent’s richness and abundance. The study area was divided into two sites viz. treated and non-treated. At the treated sites, habitat manipulation was carried out by removing crop cache, and non-crop vegetation’s over 10 cm in height to a distance of approximately 20 m from the fields. The trapping sessions carried out at both treated and non-treated sites adjacent to wheat-groundnut fields were significantly different (F 2, 6 = 13.2, P = 0.001) from each other, which revealed that a maximum number of rodents were captured from non-treated sites. There was a significant difference in the overall abundance of rodents (P < 0.05) between crop stages and between treatments in both crops. The manipulation effect was significantly observed on damage to crops, and yield production resulted in the reduction of damage within the associated croplands (P < 0.05). The outcomes of this study indicated a significant reduction of rodent population at treated sites due to changes in vegetation height and cover which affect important components, i.e., food, shelter, movements and increased risk sensitivity in their feeding behavior; therefore, they were unable to reach levels where they cause significant crop damage. This method is recommended for being a cost-effective and easy application.

Keywords: agricultural ecosystems, crop damage, habitat manipulation, rodents, trapping

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236 Adaptive Architecture and Urbanism - A Study of Coastal Cities, Climate Change Problems, Effects, Risks And Opportunities for Making Sustainable Habitat

Authors: Santosh Kumar Ketham

Abstract:

Climate change creating most dramatic and destructive consequences, the result is global warming and sea-level rise, flooding coastal cities around the world forming vulnerable situations affecting in multiple ways: environment, economy, social and political. The aim and goal of the research is to develop cities on water. Taking the problem as an opportunity to bring science, engineering, policies and design together to make a resilient and sustainable floating community on water considering existing/new technologies of floating. The quest is to make sustainable habitat on water to live, work, learn and play.  To make sustainable energy generation and storage alongside maintaining balance of land and marine to conserve Ecosystem. The research would serve as a model for sustainable neighbourhoods designed in a modular way and thus can easily extend or re-arranged, to adapt for future socioeconomic realities.  This research paper studies primarily on climate change problems, effects, risks and opportunities. It does so, through analysing existing case studies, books and writings published on coastal cities and understanding its various aspects for making sustainable habitat.

Keywords: floating cities, flexible modular typologies, rising sea levels, sustainable architecture and urbanism

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235 Hydraulic Analysis on Microhabitat of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Riparian Riffles

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim

Abstract:

Hydraulic analysis on microhabitat of Benthic Macro- invertebrates was performed at riparian riffles of Hongcheon River and Gapyeong Stream. As for the representative species, Ecdyonurus kibunensis, Paraleptophlebia cocorata, Chironomidae sp. and Psilotreta kisoensis iwata were chosen. They showed hydraulically different habitat types by flow velocity and particle diameters of streambed materials. Habitat conditions of the swimmers were determined mainly by the flow velocity rather than by flow depth or by riverbed materials. Burrowers prefer sand and silt, and inhabited at the riverbed. Sprawlers prefer cobble or boulder and inhabited for velocity of 0.05-0.15 m/s. Clingers prefer pebble or cobble and inhabited for velocity of 0.06-0.15 m/s. They were found to be determined mainly by the flow velocity.

Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates, riffles, clinger, swimmer, burrower, sprawler

Procedia PDF Downloads 114