Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Phlebotomus papatasi

6 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian

Abstract:

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

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5 The Survey of Phlebotomine Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Al-Asaba Area in the Northwest Region of the Libya

Authors: Asherf El-Abaied, Elsadik Anan, Badereddin Annajar, Mustafa Saieh, Abudalnaser El-Buni

Abstract:

Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) has been endemic in the Northwestern region of Libya for over nine decades. Survey of sandfly fauna in the region revealed that 13 species have been recorded with various distribution and abundance patterns. Phlebotomus papatasi proved to be the main vector of the disease in many areas. To identify sandfly species present in the Al-Asaba town and determine their spatial and seasonal abundance. An epidemiological analysis of the data obtained from the recorded cases was also carried out. Sand flies collected from various sites using sticky traps and CDC miniature light traps during the period from March-November 2006. Recorded ZCL cases were collected from the local Primary Health Care Department and analysed using SPSS statistical package. Ten species of sandflies were identified, seven belong to the genus Phlebotomus and three belong to the genus Sergentomyia. P. papatasi was the most abundant species with peak season recorded in September. The prevalence of the disease was low however; notable increase of ZCL cases in last three years has been indicated.

Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi, sandfly fauna, Libya

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4 Molecular Detection of Leishmania from the Phlebotomus Genus: Tendency towards Leishmaniasis Regression in Constantine, North-East of Algeria

Authors: K. Frahtia, I. Mihoubi, S. Picot

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease with a varied clinical expression caused by flagellate protozoa of the Leishmania genus. These diseases are transmitted to humans and animals by the sting of a vector insect, the female sandfly. Among the groups of dipteral disease vectors, Phlebotominae occupy a prime position and play a significant role in human pathology, such as leishmaniasis that affects nearly 350 million people worldwide. The vector control operation launched by health services throughout the country proves to be effective since despite the prevalence of the disease remains high especially in rural areas, leishmaniasis appears to be declining in Algeria. In this context, this study mainly concerns molecular detection of Leishmania from the vector. Furthermore, a molecular diagnosis has also been made on skin samples taken from patients in the region of Constantine, located in the North-East of Algeria. Concerning the vector, 5858 sandflies were captured, including 4360 males and 1498 females. Male specimens were identified based on their morphological. The morphological identification highlighted the presence of the Phlebotomus genus with a prevalence of 93% against 7% represented by the Sergentomyia genus. About the identified species, P. perniciosus is the most abundant with 59.4% of the male identified population followed by P. longicuspis with 24.7% of the workforce. P. perfiliewi is poorly represented by 6.7% of specimens followed by P. papatasi with 2.2% and 1.5% S. dreyfussi. Concerning skin samples, 45/79 (56.96%) collected samples were found positive by real-time PCR. This rate appears to be in sharp decline compared to previous years (alert peak of 30,227 cases in 2005). Concerning the detection of Leishmania from sandflies by RT-PCR, the results show that 3/60 PCR performed genus are positive with melting temperatures corresponding to that of the reference strain (84.1 +/- 0.4 ° C for L. infantum). This proves that the vectors were parasitized. On the other side, identification by RT-PCR species did not give any results. This could be explained by the presence of an insufficient amount of leishmanian DNA in the vector, and therefore support the hypothesis of the regression of leishmaniasis in Constantine.

Keywords: Algeria, molecular diagnostic, phlebotomus, real time PCR

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3 Infection of Phlebotomus Sergenti with Leishmania Tropica in a Classical Focus of Leishmania Major in Tunisia

Authors: Kaouther Jaouadi, Jihene Bettaieb, Amira Bennour, Ghassen Kharroubi, Sadok Salem, Afif Ben Salah

Abstract:

In Tunisia, chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L) tropica is an important health problem. Its spreading has not been fully elucidated. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance since vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. In total, 650 sandflies were captured between June and August 2015 using sticky paper traps in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, a classical focus of L. major in the Central-West of Tunisia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and sequencing were used for Leishmania detection and identification. Ninety-seven unfed females were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA. Six Phlebotomus sergenti were found positive for L. tropica. This finding enhances the understanding of the cycle extension of L. tropica outside its original focus of Tataouine in the South-East of the country.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica, sandflies, Tunisia

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2 An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus argentipes in Laboratory

Authors: Faizan Hassan, Seema Kumari, V. P. Singh, Pradeep Das, Diwakar Singh Dinesh

Abstract:

Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.

Keywords: artificial food, nutrients, Phlebotomus argentipes, sand fly

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1 Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Layegheh Daliri

Abstract:

Introduction: Leishmaniasis occurs in infectious diseases of Leishmania protozoa in Afghanistan, anthroponotic leishmaniasis and common cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Anthroponotic skin leishmania tropica may cause urban diseases and transmitted by Phlebotomus Sergenti. In different parts of Afghanistan, different species of Leishmania are observed. We report the epidemiological characteristics of prevention and treatment in this study. Methods: This study examines the epidemiology and prevention of religious diseases in Afghanistan. Knowledge gaps were analyzed and collected with our own data. Results: In Afghanistan, most of the Lishmania Tropic seekers are Four species of Leishmania in northern Afghanistan, including Leishmania Tropica, L. Major and L. Donovani, cause skin lesions, but L. Donovani and L. infantum are visible. Even combined prevention can significantly reduce the amount of infection. Conclusion: Skinny, as well as visceral leishmaniasis, can occur among the returnees from Afghanistan. Unusual and poor skin lesions can be created by L. Donovani. In most pathogenic areas, the transmission of common diseases between humans and animals. Home dogs are the main reservoir, transferring in some areas such as India and Sudan.

Keywords: leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica, treatment, disease, epidemiology

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