Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1407

Search results for: bridge employment

1407 Retirement Planning and Job Satisfaction: Cushion to Avoid Bridge Employment?

Authors: Zaiton Osman, Imbarine Bujang, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Grace Phang Ing, Mohd Rizwan Abdul Majid, Izyanti Awang Razli

Abstract:

Retirement forces older workers to disconnect with their previous behavioural patterns and economic position. Transition and adjustment from working life to retirement places create psychological pressure and financial distress on older workers, especially those with dependent children. Bridge employment provides a solution for older workers to continue working after retirement while transitioning into retirement slowly and smoothly. As losing the job role has a significant impact on the psychological well-being of retirees, engageing in bridge employment helps to fulfill the important psychological functions of older workers by providing an adaptive style to retirement. This study investigates the influence of retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study and a total of 523 samples were collected for nine major district in Sabah. Data were analysed using Partial Least Square (PLS) method wersion 2.0. The result shows a significant relationship between retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment, explaining 4.7% the variance in bridge employment and job satisfaction was found to be the strongest predictor of bridge employment.

Keywords: ageing population, retirement planning, job satisfaction, bridge employment

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1406 Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment

Authors: Li Lei, Jia Jidong

Abstract:

Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.

Keywords: discrimination, employment of public servants, right of labor, law

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1405 Egyptian Women in the Informal Economy: Implications of the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Hagar Wahba

Abstract:

In an attempt to bridge a literature gap, the study explores the different gendered consequences of economic globalization on Egyptian women in informal employment. Under the intersectionality theory, the study highlights issues related to equal economic opportunities among women in different segments of informal employment during Covid-19. Accordingly, this study explores the different vulnerabilities of women in lower segments of the informal sector in Egypt, which intersected with inequalities brought by the pandemic. Therefore, through collecting primary data, the study was able to gain a more intersectional understanding of women’s experiences in informal employment during Covid-19. In women in technology-based work in Egypt were proven to be in a more advantaged position than other women whose jobs depended on face-to-face interactions during the pandemic.

Keywords: economic globalisation, informal employment, women, egypt, intersectional feminism, decent work, Covid-19

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1404 Used MATLAB Code to Study the Vehicle Bridge Coupling Vibration Based On the Method of Newmark-β

Authors: Saidi Abdelkrim, Hamouine Abdelmadjid, Abdellatif Megnounif

Abstract:

The study of interaction between vehicles and bridge structures has become extremely important. Large deflections and vibration induced by heavy and high-speed vehicles affect significantly the safety and efficiency of bridge. The vibration of a bridge caused by passage of vehicles is one of the most imperative considerations in the design of a bridge as a common sort of transportation structure. A major goal of this study is to create a simplified model of a vehicle bridge system in MATLAB. The model will then be used to study the influence of parameters to vehicle-bridge vibrations.

Keywords: vehicle-bridge interaction, Newmark-β, MATLAB code

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1403 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh

Abstract:

Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

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1402 Precarious Employment Experience; Developing a Precariousness Scale

Authors: Gul Selin Erben

Abstract:

Precariousness can be evaluated as the new employment climate of the neo-liberal employment markets. As the word refers to a new mode of employment experience and working practices, it was felt as a necessity to reveal the basic characteristics of this kind of employment experience. Furthermore, according to the literature, precarious employment practices have some negative outcomes such as alienation, sense of anger, and anomy. Thus, it has quite significant to reveal the conditions' characteristics and practices of precarious employment. This study has the purpose to develop an instrument which measures the precarious employment practices. In order to develop a precariousness scale, the relevant literature was examined, and 30 statements were established as a result of the literature review. The development and validation of the scale were done by a sample of 123 individuals who work in different sectors in İstanbul as a white color employee. Convenience sampling was used as a sampling methodology. Reliability and factor analysis were conducted. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were gathered.

Keywords: employment, employment experience, precariousness, scale development

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1401 CO2 Emissions Quantification of the Modular Bridge Superstructure

Authors: Chanhyuck Jeon, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Many industries put emphasis on environmentally-friendliness as environmental problems are on the rise all over the world. Among themselves, the Modular Bridge research is going on. Also performing cross-section optimization and duration reducing, this research aims at developing the modular bridge with Environment-Friendliness and economic feasibility. However, the difficulty lies in verifying environmental effectiveness because there are no field applications of the modular bridge until now. Therefore, this thesis is categorized according to the form of the modular bridge superstructure and assessed CO₂ emission quantification per work types and materials according to each form to verify the environmental effectiveness of the modular bridge.

Keywords: modular bridge, CO2 emission, environmentally friendly, quantification, carbon emission factor, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

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1400 The Accuracy of Small Firms at Predicting Their Employment

Authors: Javad Nosratabadi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the difference between firms' actual and expected employment along with the amount of loans invested by them. In addition, it examines the relationship between the amount of loans received by firms and wages. Empirically, using a causal effect estimation and firm-level data from a province in Iran between 2004 and 2011, the results show that there is a range of the loan amount for which firms' expected employment meets their actual one. In contrast, there is a gap between firms' actual and expected employment for any other loan amount. Furthermore, the result shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between the amount of loan invested by firms and wages.

Keywords: expected employment, actual employment, wage, loan

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1399 Numerical Simulation of the Remaining Life of Ramshir Bridge over the Karoon River

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, V.Tavvaf, E. Akhlaghi, H. Mohammadi Majd, A. Shirani, S. M. Moravvej, M. Kazemi, A. R. Aboudi Asl, A. Jaderi

Abstract:

The static and corrosion behavior of the bridge using for pipelines in the south of country have been evaluated. The bridge was constructed more than 40 years ago on the Karoon River. Mentioned bridge is located in Khuzestan province and at a distance of 15 km east from the suburbs of Ahwaz. In order to determine the mechanical properties, the experimental tools such as measuring the thickness and static simulations based on the actual load were used. In addition, the metallurgical studies were used to achieve a rate of corrosion of pipes in the river and in the river bed. The aim of this project is to determine the remaining life of the bridge using mechanical and metallurgical studies.

Keywords: FEM, stress, corrosion, bridge

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1398 The Application of Artificial Neural Network for Bridge Structures Design Optimization

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, A. Aminullah, J. Kiyono, R. A. Safitri

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the application of ANN for optimizing of bridge structure design. ANN has been applied in various field of science concerning prediction and optimization. The structural optimization has several benefit including accelerate structural design process, saving the structural material, and minimize self-weight and mass of structure. In this paper, there are three types of bridge structure that being optimized including PSC I-girder superstructure, composite steel-concrete girder superstructure, and RC bridge pier. The different optimization strategy on each bridge structure implement back propagation method of ANN is conducted in this research. The optimal weight and easier design process of bridge structure with satisfied error are achieved.

Keywords: bridge structures, ANN, optimization, back propagation

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1397 Human-Induced Vibration and Degree of Human Comfortability Analysis of Intersection Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Yaowen Sheng, Jiuxian Liu

Abstract:

In order to analyze the pedestrian bridge dynamic characteristics and degree of comfortability, the finite element method and live load time history method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge. The example bridge’s dynamic characteristics and degree of human comfortability need to be analyzed. The project background is a three-way intersection. The intersection has three side blocks. An intersection bridge is designed to help people cross the streets. The finite element model of the bridge is established by the Midas/Civil software, and the analysis of the model is done. The strength, stiffness, and stability checks are also completed. Apart from the static analysis of the bridge, the dynamic analysis of the bridge is also completed to avoid the problems resulted from vibrations. The results show that the pedestrian bridge has different dynamic characteristics compared to other normal bridges. The degree of human comfortability satisfies the requirements of Chinese and British specifications. The live load time history method can be used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, steel box girder, human-induced vibration, finite element analysis, degree of human comfortability

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1396 Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments

Authors: Dawei Shen, Ming Xu, Pengfei Liu

Abstract:

The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.

Keywords: geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge, nonlinear hysteretic model, numerical analysis, seismic response

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1395 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational students

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1394 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi

Abstract:

The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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1393 Vibration-Based Monitoring of Tensioning Stay Cables of an Extradosed Bridge

Authors: Chun-Chung Chen, Bo-Han Lee, Yu-Chi Sung

Abstract:

Monitoring the status of tensioning force of stay cables is a significant issue for the assessment of structural safety of extradosed bridges. Moreover, it is known that there is a high correlation between the existing tension force and the vibration frequencies of cables. This paper presents the characteristic of frequencies of stay cables of a field extradosed bridge by using vibration-based monitoring methods. The vibration frequencies of each stay cables were measured in stages from the beginning to the completion of bridge construction. The result shows that the vibration frequency variation trend of different lengths of cables at each measured stage is different. The observed feature can help the application of the bridge long-term monitoring system and contribute to the assessment of bridge safety.

Keywords: vibration-based method, extradosed bridges, bridge health monitoring, bridge stay cables

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1392 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines

Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

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1391 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

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1390 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

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1389 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan

Abstract:

A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

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1388 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem

Abstract:

A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D, settlement

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1387 Development of the Parametric BIM Model of Bridge Components and the Integration of Bridge Model By VPL

Authors: Elfrido Elias Tita, Gakuho Watanabe, Shao Peilun

Abstract:

Recently, the number of transportation facilities like bridges has grown significantly due to economic growth and an increase in traffic. Since the conventional bridge design method requires a manual and repetitive process, it consumes much time, cost and energy for designers and engineers. To decrease those burdens and get high productivity, Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Visual programming language (VPL) technologies have emerged as modern and innovative design methods and document projects. It enables the bridge engineers to optimize their design and modeling workflows effectively, faster, and accurately. In this research, the parametric BIM model for bridge components to optimize the design processes is developed for a PC-balanced cantilever bridge. It enables to speed up the modeling and reduces the time and costs of bridge design projects. In addition, VPL provides automatic assembling of the bridge models from their components, significantly reducing the burden of iterative processes in the design project.

Keywords: BIM, parametric model, VPL, automatic assembling

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1386 Early Detection of Damages in Railway Steel Truss Bridges from Measured Dynamic Responses

Authors: Dinesh Gundavaram

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation on bridge damage detection based on the dynamic responses estimated from a passing vehicle. A numerical simulation of steel truss bridge for railway was used in this investigation. The bridge response at different locations is measured using CSI-Bridge software. Several damage scenarios are considered including different locations and severities. The possibilities of dynamic properties of global modes in the identification of structural changes in truss bridges were discussed based on the results of measurement.

Keywords: bridge, damage, dynamic responses, detection

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1385 A Study on the Waiting Time for the First Employment of Arts Graduates in Sri Lanka

Authors: Imali T. Jayamanne, K. P. Asoka Ramanayake

Abstract:

Transition from tertiary level education to employment is one of the challenges that many fresh university graduates face after graduation. The transition period or the waiting time to obtain the first employment varies with the socio-economic factors and the general characteristics of a graduate. Compared to other fields of study, Arts graduates in Sri Lanka, have to wait a long time to find their first employment. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the transition from higher education to employment of these graduates using survival models. The study is based on a survey that was conducted in the year 2016 on a stratified random sample of Arts graduates from Sri Lankan universities who had graduated in 2012. Among the 469 responses, 36 (8%) waiting times were interval censored and 13 (3%) were right censored. Waiting time for the first employment varied between zero to 51 months. Initially, the log-rank and the Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were performed to identify the significant factors. Gender, ethnicity, GCE Advanced level English grade, civil status, university, class received, degree type, sector of first employment, type of first employment and the educational qualifications required for the first employment were significant at 10%. The Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to model the waiting time for first employment with these significant factors. All factors, except ethnicity and type of employment were significant at 5%. However, since the proportional hazard assumption was violated, the lognormal Accelerated failure time (AFT) model was fitted to model the waiting time for the first employment. The same factors were significant in the AFT model as in Cox proportional model.

Keywords: AFT model, first employment, proportional hazard, survey design, waiting time

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1384 Mitigation of Seismic Forces Effect on Highway Bridge Using Aseismic Bearings

Authors: Kaoutar Zellat, Tahar Kadri

Abstract:

The purpose of new aseismic techniques is to provide an additional means of energy dissipation, thereby reducing the transmitted acceleration into the superstructure. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of aseismic bearings technique and understand the behavior of seismically isolated bridges by such devices a three-span continuous deck bridge made of reinforced concrete is considered. The bridge is modeled as a discrete model and the relative displacements of the isolation bearing are crucial from the design point of view of isolation system and separation joints at the abutment level. The systems presented here are passive control systems and the results of some important experimental tests are also included. The results show that the base shear in the piers is significantly reduced for the isolated system as compared to the non isolated system in the both directions of the bridge. This indicates that the use of aseismic systems is effective in reducing the earthquake response of the bridge.

Keywords: aseismic bearings, bridge isolation, bridge, seismic response

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1383 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance

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1382 Comparison Of Data Mining Models To Predict Future Bridge Conditions

Authors: Pablo Martinez, Emad Mohamed, Osama Mohsen, Yasser Mohamed

Abstract:

Highway and bridge agencies, such as the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario, use the Bridge Condition Index (BCI) which is defined as the weighted condition of all bridge elements to determine the rehabilitation priorities for its bridges. Therefore, accurate forecasting of BCI is essential for bridge rehabilitation budgeting planning. The large amount of data available in regard to bridge conditions for several years dictate utilizing traditional mathematical models as infeasible analysis methods. This research study focuses on investigating different classification models that are developed to predict the bridge condition index in the province of Ontario, Canada based on the publicly available data for 2800 bridges over a period of more than 10 years. The data preparation is a key factor to develop acceptable classification models even with the simplest one, the k-NN model. All the models were tested, compared and statistically validated via cross validation and t-test. A simple k-NN model showed reasonable results (within 0.5% relative error) when predicting the bridge condition in an incoming year.

Keywords: asset management, bridge condition index, data mining, forecasting, infrastructure, knowledge discovery in databases, maintenance, predictive models

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1381 Barriers of Successful Employment of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Mubarak Aldosari

Abstract:

The focus of this qualitative study was to explore the main barriers of successful employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: The semi-structured interviews were used to explore perception of a sample of eight managers/supervisors of employees who had ID regarding the main barriers that face successful employment of individuals with ID. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed four major themes that impede successful employment of individuals with ID: experiences of work, (b) social skills, (c) attitudes to individuals with ID, and (d) transportation. Conclusion: The current study was designed to provide important information to policymakers, officials, educators and parents regarding the challenges and barriers that face the successful employment of individuals with ID. The study show the importance of the support as well as effective and planned preparation for individuals with ID during schools to be qualified and have skills that they to be successful in the employment. Additionally, the results of this study will encourage further study of transition to post schools for individuals with ID in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: barriers, employment, individuals with mild intellectual disabilities, social skills

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1380 The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Enhancing Self-Employment: Students' Perspective

Authors: Stanley Fore, Gaetan Ngabonziza

Abstract:

In spite of the need for skilled labour in South Africa, tertiary education graduates are increasingly faced with unemployment, which poses a serious obstacle to the economic growth of the country. This paper is an outcome of the study that investigated students’ perceptions on the role of entrepreneurship education in enhancing graduates’ self-employment. The study was descriptive in nature and used a survey questionnaire to answer questions pertaining to the extent to which entrepreneurship education is important in enhancing self-employment endeavours. Collected data were analysed using of the statistical software for social science (SPSS) for descriptive statistics in the form of tables and charts. The study found that entrepreneurship education is critical in providing knowledge and skills that are required to succeed in self-employment. As one module of entrepreneurship does not ensure self-employment orientation or more positive expectations about entrepreneurial abilities and careers, this study suggests that students, irrespective of their field of study, should be given entrepreneurship modules in every academic year. This will help in reminding them that their success does not solely rely on their ability to find a better-paying employment but also on their ability to employ themselves.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, education, self-employment, students

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1379 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis

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1378 Role of MGNREGA(s) in Seasonal Labour Migration: Micro Evidence from Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijay Korra

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is to examine the performance, outcomes and impacts of MGNREGA Scheme in particular on migrant beneficiary households. This article is based on a field survey carried out in 2010 in three randomly selected villages in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, India. It was found that majority of the job card holders are only able to get employment/work between 30-60 days and receive wages maximum between Rs.60 to 70 per day wherein wage discrimination was prevalent in line with gender. It concludes by saying that the government sponsored employment programme has indeed given rural poor a sense of hope about livelihood security through guaranteed employment. On the other hand, the scheme is defected in providing full employment days, wages, and thus unable to prevent the working class from migrating to cities/towns in search of employment mainly due to malpractices involved in the implementation of the scheme.

Keywords: MGNREGA(s), labour, employment, wages, livelihood, seasonal migration

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