Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6777

Search results for: unemployment rate

6777 Forecasting Unemployment Rate in Selected European Countries Using Smoothing Methods

Authors: Ksenija Dumičić, Anita Čeh Časni, Berislav Žmuk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to select the most accurate forecasting method for predicting the future values of the unemployment rate in selected European countries. In order to do so, several forecasting techniques adequate for forecasting time series with trend component, were selected, namely: double exponential smoothing (also known as Holt`s method) and Holt-Winters` method which accounts for trend and seasonality. The results of the empirical analysis showed that the optimal model for forecasting unemployment rate in Greece was Holt-Winters` additive method. In the case of Spain, according to MAPE, the optimal model was double exponential smoothing model. Furthermore, for Croatia and Italy the best forecasting model for unemployment rate was Holt-Winters` multiplicative model, whereas in the case of Portugal the best model to forecast unemployment rate was Double exponential smoothing model. Our findings are in line with European Commission unemployment rate estimates.

Keywords: European Union countries, exponential smoothing methods, forecast accuracy unemployment rate

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6776 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

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The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural education

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6775 The Challenges of Unemployment Situation and Trends in Nigeria

Authors: Simon Oga Egboja

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In Africa, particularly in Nigeria, unemployment is a serious issue of concern to every citizen. Hence, this paper focuses on the employment situation and trends in Nigeria. It also investigated the causes why unemployment persists in the country. Prominent among them is the population explosion and rapid expansion of education opportunities all over the country without a corresponding increase in industrial establishment. The paper also discusses the way of reducing the rate of unemployment by encouraging graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria to read professional courses and also to indulge in the habit of establishing small-scale enterprises so that after them school they can be self-employed rather than relying solely on government for employment.

Keywords: causes, population, remedy, unemployment

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6774 The Challenge of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: The Role of Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Sunday Ose Ugadu

Abstract:

Unemployment, especially graduate unemployment is, for now, the greatest problem facing Nigeria as a nation. It is responsible for most of the other ills of the country, including kidnapping, armed robbery, youth restiveness, thuggery, to mention but a few. More and more people in Nigeria are now losing confidence in the prospect of tertiary education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. This paper, therefore, critically examined the problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. It briefly traced the history of university education in Nigeria. The rate and causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria were also discussed. Previous attempts made by the government to solve the problem of unemployment were highlighted. The paper also harped on the prospect of entrepreneurship education as an instrument for fighting graduate unemployment identifying obstacles to entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. The paper drew conclusion, and major recommendation made was a call for converting the National Youth Service Corps Scheme in Nigeria to entrepreneurship and skills acquisition scheme as soon as possible.

Keywords: graduate, unemployment, entrepreneurship education, national development

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6773 Macroeconomic Impact of Economic Growth on Unemployment: A Case of South Africa

Authors: Ashika Govender

Abstract:

This study seeks to determine whether Okun’s Law is valid for the South African economy, using time series data for the period 2004 to 2014. The data were accessed from the South African Reserve Bank and Stats SA. The stationarity of the variables was analysed by applying unit root tests via the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADF), the Phillips-Perron (PP) test, and the Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin test (KPSS) test. The study used an ordinary least square (OLS) model in analysing the dynamic version of Okun’s law. The Error Correction Model (ECM) was used to analyse the short-run impact of GDP growth on unemployment, as well as the speed of adjustment. The results indicate a short run and long run relationship between unemployment rate and GDP growth rate in period 2004q1-2014q4, suggesting that Okun’s law is valid for the South African economy. With a 1 percent increase in GDP, unemployment can decrease by 0.13 percent, ceteris paribus. The research culminates in important policy recommendations, highlighting the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in the spirit of the National Development Plan.

Keywords: unemployment, economic growth, Okun's law, South Africa

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6772 Inflation and Unemployment Rates as Indicators of the Transition European Union Countries Monetary Policy Orientation

Authors: Elza Jurun, Damir Piplica, Tea Poklepović

Abstract:

Numerous studies carried out in the developed western democratic countries have shown that the ideological framework of the governing party has a significant influence on the monetary policy. The executive authority consisting of a left-wing party gives a higher weight to unemployment suppression and central bank implements a more expansionary monetary policy. On the other hand, right-wing governing party considers the monetary stability to be more important than unemployment suppression and in such a political framework the main macroeconomic objective becomes the inflation rate reduction. The political framework conditions in the transition countries which are new European Union (EU) members are still highly specific in relation to the other EU member countries. In the focus of this paper is the question whether the same monetary policy principles are valid in these transitional countries as well as they apply in developed western democratic EU member countries. The data base consists of inflation rate and unemployment rate for 11 transitional EU member countries covering the period from 2001 to 2012. The essential information for each of these 11 countries and for each year of the observed period is right or left political orientation of the ruling party. In this paper we use t-statistics to test our hypothesis that there are differences in inflation and unemployment between right and left political orientation of the governing party. To explore the influence of different countries, through years and different political orientations descriptive statistics is used. Inflation and unemployment should be strongly negatively correlated through time, which is tested using Pearson correlation coefficient. Regarding the fact whether the governing authority is consisted from left or right politically oriented parties, monetary authorities will adjust its policy setting the higher priority on lower inflation or unemployment reduction.

Keywords: inflation rate, monetary policy orientation, transition EU countries, unemployment rate

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6771 Gender Inequality in the Nigerian Labour Market as a Cause of Unemployment among Female Graduates

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

The absence of equity and transparency in Nigeria's economic system has resulted in unemployment. Women’s unemployment rate remains higher because women's range of jobs is often narrower due to discriminatory attitudes of employers and gender segregation in the labor market. Gender inequality is one of the strong factors of unemployment, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where the female gender is marginalized in the labor force market. However, gender equality in terms of labor market access and employment condition has not yet been attained. Feminist theory is considered as an appropriate theory for this study. The study will use a mixed-method design, collecting qualitative and quantitative data to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the present situation of gender inequality in the Nigerian labor market.

Keywords: unemployment, gender inequality, gender equality, labor market, female graduate

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6770 Programs in Nigerian Higher Institutions and Graduates Unemployment

Authors: Evuarherhe Veronica Abolo

Abstract:

The study investigated the programs in Nigerian higher institutions and how they influence unemployment of graduates in the country. The study employed the survey design. The population of the study includes two universities, two polytechnics and two colleges of education in Lagos State. A total of 350 participants, which include graduates and students were sampled for the study. A structured interview schedule and direct observation were used to collect data on the three research questions drawn for the study. The data were analyzed using rating of the structured interview in tables and percentages. The results of the study revealed that Nigerian graduates are not only unemployed but can hardly meet the requirements of available job vacancies due to the stereotype nature in scope, content and methods of the programs in the institutions. Recommendations such as collaboration of companies (end- users) and institutions in the training of students, restructuring of the content and methodology of programs and providing soft loans and other facilities to the young graduates were proffered to reduce the rate of graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria.

Keywords: higher institution, graduate unemployment, soft loan, unemployment

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6769 Capital Accumulation and Unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa

Authors: Abubakar Dikko

Abstract:

The research investigates the causes of unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, and the role of Capital Accumulation in reducing the unemployment profile of these economies as proposed by the post-Keynesian economics. This is conducted through extensive review of literature on the NAIRU models and focused on the post-Keynesian view of unemployment within the NAIRU framework. The NAIRU (non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment) model has become a dominant framework used in macroeconomic analysis of unemployment. The study views the post-Keynesian economics arguments that capital accumulation is a major determinant of unemployment. Unemployment remains the fundamental socio-economic challenge facing African economies. It has been a burden to citizens of those economies. Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa are great African nations battling with high unemployment rates. In 2013, the countries recorded high unemployment rates of 16.9%, 23.9% and 24.9% respectively. Most of the unemployed in these economies comprises of youth. Roughly about 40% working age South Africans has jobs, whereas in Nigeria and Namibia is less than that. Unemployment in Africa has wide implications on households which has led to extensive poverty and inequality, and created a rampant criminality. Recently in South Africa there has been a case of xenophobic attacks which were caused by the citizens of the country as a result of unemployment. The high unemployment rate in the country led the citizens to chase away foreigners in the country claiming that they have taken away their jobs. The study proposes that there is a strong relationship between capital accumulation and unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, and capital accumulation is responsible for high unemployment rates in these countries. For the economies to achieve steady state level of employment and satisfactory level of economic growth and development there is need for capital accumulation to take place. The countries in the study have been selected after a critical research and investigations. They are selected based on the following criteria; African economies with high unemployment rates above 15% and have about 40% of their workforce unemployed. This level of unemployment is the critical level of unemployment in Africa as expressed by International Labour Organization (ILO). The African countries with low level of capital accumulation. Adequate statistical measures have been employed using a time-series analysis in the study and the results revealed that capital accumulation is the main driver of unemployment performance in the chosen African countries. An increase in the accumulation of capital causes unemployment to reduce significantly. The results of the research work will be useful and relevant to federal governments and ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) of Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa to resolve the issue of high and persistent unemployment rates in their economies which are great burden that slows growth and development of developing economies. Also, the result can be useful to World Bank, African Development Bank and International Labour Organization (ILO) in their further research and studies on how to tackle unemployment in developing and emerging economies.

Keywords: capital accumulation, unemployment, NAIRU, Post-Keynesian economics

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6768 Application of Nonparametric Geographically Weighted Regression to Evaluate the Unemployment Rate in East Java

Authors: Sifriyani Sifriyani, I Nyoman Budiantara, Sri Haryatmi, Gunardi Gunardi

Abstract:

East Java Province has a first rank as a province that has the most counties and cities in Indonesia and has the largest population. In 2015, the population reached 38.847.561 million, this figure showed a very high population growth. High population growth is feared to lead to increase the levels of unemployment. In this study, the researchers mapped and modeled the unemployment rate with 6 variables that were supposed to influence. Modeling was done by nonparametric geographically weighted regression methods with truncated spline approach. This method was chosen because spline method is a flexible method, these models tend to look for its own estimation. In this modeling, there were point knots, the point that showed the changes of data. The selection of the optimum point knots was done by selecting the most minimun value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV). Based on the research, 6 variables were declared to affect the level of unemployment in eastern Java. They were the percentage of population that is educated above high school, the rate of economic growth, the population density, the investment ratio of total labor force, the regional minimum wage and the ratio of the number of big industry and medium scale industry from the work force. The nonparametric geographically weighted regression models with truncated spline approach had a coefficient of determination 98.95% and the value of MSE equal to 0.0047.

Keywords: East Java, nonparametric geographically weighted regression, spatial, spline approach, unemployed rate

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6767 Main Tendencies of Youth Unemployment and the Regulation Mechanisms for Decreasing Its Rate in Georgia

Authors: Nino Paresashvili, Nino Abesadze

Abstract:

The modern world faces huge challenges. Globalization changed the socio-economic conditions of many countries. The current processes in the global environment have a different impact on countries with different cultures. However, an alleviation of poverty and improvement of living conditions is still the basic challenge for the majority of countries, because much of the population still lives under the official threshold of poverty. It is very important to stimulate youth employment. In order to prepare young people for the labour market, it is essential to provide them with the appropriate professional skills and knowledge. It is necessary to plan efficient activities for decreasing an unemployment rate and for developing the perfect mechanisms for regulation of a labour market. Such planning requires thorough study and analysis of existing reality, as well as development of corresponding mechanisms. Statistical analysis of unemployment is one of the main platforms for regulation of the labour market key mechanisms. The corresponding statistical methods should be used in the study process. Such methods are observation, gathering, grouping, and calculation of the generalized indicators. Unemployment is one of the most severe socioeconomic problems in Georgia. According to the past as well as the current statistics, unemployment rates always have been the most problematic issue to resolve for policy makers. Analytical works towards to the above-mentioned problem will be the basis for the next sustainable steps to solve the main problem. The results of the study showed that the choice of young people is not often due to their inclinations, their interests and the labour market demand. That is why the wrong professional orientation of young people in most cases leads to their unemployment. At the same time, it was shown that there are a number of professions in the labour market with a high demand because of the deficit the appropriate specialties. To achieve healthy competitiveness in youth employment, it is necessary to formulate regional employment programs with taking into account the regional infrastructure specifications.

Keywords: unemployment, analysis, methods, tendencies, regulation mechanisms

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6766 Occupational Diseases in the Automotive Industry in Czechia

Authors: J. Jarolímek, P. Urban, P. Pavlínek, D. Dzúrová

Abstract:

The industry constitutes a dominant economic sector in Czechia. The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in terms of gross value added and the number of employees. The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry in Czechia during the 2001-2014 period. Whereas the occurrence of OD in other sectors has generally been decreasing, it has been increasing in the automotive industry, including growing spatial discrepancies. Data on OD cases were retrieved from the National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with a focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by an assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. The employees older than 40 years had nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence compared with employees younger than 40 years (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.05-2.85). The OD occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR 3.01; 95 % CI: 2.55-3.55). The OD incidence rate was increasing with the size of the company. An association between the OD incidence and the unemployment rate was not confirmed.

Keywords: occupational diseases, automotive industry, health geography, unemployment

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6765 The Pangs of Unemployment and Its Impediment to Nation Building

Authors: Vitalis Okwuchukwu Opara

Abstract:

The task of nation building primarily consist in welding together, diverse cultural groups into a united nation state, which develops a centripetal political culture that makes its people see themselves as members of one nation linked together by more reliable ties than the coercion offered by the state. Comparatively on the contrary, most countries in the world today are comprised of diverse nationalities, each with its unique set of norms and values, which often come into conflict with others. As such, the task of nation building is in uniting these diverse cultural groups into a united nation state and various human elements that make up its geopolitical zone. The most outstanding impediment to achieving this task is unemployment. Unemployment is like a peril against the nation building. Unemployment is an obstacle for growth of a nation. Often it is said that the wise see obstacles as stepping-stones to advance further. The pangs of unemployment impede nation building such that sometimes it takes very long time to do away with the problem. In recent times, there has been a revolutionary wind blowing across the world. This wind is bound to wake up nations leaders to sit up to their responsibility. Unemployment causes youth restiveness, brings leaders to their knees. It breeds problem. This work is intended to expose the pangs of unemployment and its impending peril to nation building.

Keywords: pangs, unemployment, obstacles, nation-building

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6764 Impact of Globalization on Youth Bulge and Civil Unrest: An Empirical Approach

Authors: Swetasree Roy, Subaran Roy

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The contemporary literature documents globalization affects the stability of a country in three ways i) it increases peace ii) it decreases the likelihood of civil unrest, and iii) it creates employment. In this paper, we show that unemployment amongst youth plays a significant role in the effect of globalization and the internal stability of a country. Using recent data on globalization for 88 countries (2000-2014), we examine whether the presence of a large section of youth exacerbates the negative effects of globalization, thereby increasing chances of civil unrest. Using recent measures of globalization, we find globalization affect adversely on the stability of a country. Our results indicate that globalization in the presence of a high youth unemployment rate can create more instability in an economy. Results are robust in the presence of other socio-economic variables.

Keywords: globalization, youth bulge, civil unrest, unemployment

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6763 Economic Recession and its Psychological Effects on Educated Youth: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

An economic recession can lead people to feel more insecure about their financial situation. The series of events leading into a recession can be especially distressing for Educated Youth. One of the most salient factors linking economic recession to psychological distress is unemployment. It is proved that a large number of educated young people are facing higher unemployment rate in Pakistan. Young people are likely to get frustrated at the lack of opportunities made available to them. If the young population increases more rapidly than job opportunities, then number of unemployment is likely to increase. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between economic instability, growing rate of aggression and frustration among educated youth. The study aimed to find out the impact of increased economic instability on the learning abilities of the students. Data was gathered from six university students of Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the study consisted of three hundred male and female university students. The data was analyzed by applying Chi -square test. The results of the research indicate that there is a significant relationship between low household income and growing rate of aggression among educated youth. The increasing trend of economic instability significantly influences the learning abilities of the students. The study concludes that feeling of deprivation produce frustration and could be expressed through aggression. Therefore, if factors that are responsible for youth unemployment in Pakistan are addressed, psychological effects will be reduced. The right way of tackling the youth bulge is to turn the youth into a productive workforce. There is a dire need to transform the education system to societal needs. At the same time creating demand for the young workforce is achieved through dynamic changes in the economic structure.

Keywords: psychological effects, economic recession, educated youth, environmental factors

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6762 Women Unemployment in India: Comparative Analysis of Indian States Having Low and High Women Participation in Labour Force

Authors: Anesha Atul Shende

Abstract:

When we are aiming at high goals for economic development, such as sustainable growth and development of the economy, poverty reduction, reduction in inequality, etc., we must not forget to include each and everyone in the society in the process of achieving these goals. This study particularly talks about women participation in economic activities. The analysis is primarily done with a special focus on Indian states. The study analyses the female labour force participation rate in all many states in India. It makes a comparison between the states having low female Labour force participation with the states that have comparatively high female Labour population. In the beginning, data has been provided to know the current state of gender biases in employment. It has been found that the male workforce is dominant all across India. Further, the study highlights the major reasons for low women participation in economic activities in some of the backward states in India like Bihar, etc. These reasons basically talk about economic, cultural, and social factors that are responsible for women unemployment. Afterward, it analyses the reasons behind comparatively higher women participation in all other states in India. The case of the north-eastern state of Telangana and Tamil Nadu have been analysed in brief. These states show the improvements in female Labour participation over a few decades. This is because of government policies that have been adopted, women-friendly workplaces, availability of quality jobs for women, etc. Organization like women UN has recognized the social and economic benefits of having active women Labour force in the country. If women unemployment declines, it will improve the growth rate of the nation as well as the welfare of the society. The study discusses the reasons why an economy must try to increase women workforce participation. It further provides suggestions to improve the conditions in backward states in India, where the female unemployment rate is high. One must understand that policy interventions and government schemes are a few of the ways to recognize this issue and work on it. However, the conditions will improve only when the changes would happen from the ground level with social and moral support to the women.

Keywords: women unemployment, labour force participation, women empowerment, economic growth and development, gender disparity

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6761 Student Attitude towards Entrepreneurship: A South African and Dutch Comparison

Authors: Natanya Meyer, Johann Landsberg

Abstract:

Unemployment among the youth is a significant problem in South Africa. Large corporations and the public sector simply cannot create enough jobs. Too many youths in South Africa currently do not consider entrepreneurship as an option in order to become independent. Unlike the youth of the Netherlands, South African youth prefer to find employment in the public or private sector. The Netherlands has a much lower unemployment rate than South Africa and the Dutch are generally very entrepreneurial. From early on entrepreneurship is considered a desirable career option in the Netherlands. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the perceptions of some Dutch and South African students in terms of unemployment and entrepreneurship. Questionnaires were distributed to students at the North West University's Vaal Triangle campus in Vanderbijlpark in Gauteng, South Africa and the Technical University of Delft in the Netherlands. A descriptive statistical analysis approach was followed and the means for the independent questions were calculated. The results demonstrate that the Dutch students are not as concerned about unemployment after completion of their studies as this is not as significant a problem as it is in South Africa. Both groups had positive responses towards the posed questions, but the South African group felt more strongly about the issues. Both groups of students felt that there was a need for more practical entrepreneurship training. The South African education system should focus on practical entrepreneurship training from a young age.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, entrepreneurship development programmes, entrepreneurship intention, Netherlands, South Africa, unemployment

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6760 Employment Promotion and Its Role in Counteracting Unemployment during the Financial Crisis in the USA

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In the United States in 2007-2010 before the crisis, the US labour market policy focused mainly on providing residents with unemployment insurance, after the recession this policy changed. The aim of the article was to present quantitative research presenting the most effective labor market instruments contributing to reducing unemployment during the crisis in the USA. The article presents research based on the analysis of available documents and statistical data. The results of the conducted research show that the most effective forms of counteracting unemployment at that time were: direct job creation, job search assistance, subsidized employment, training and employment promotion using new technologies, including social media.

Keywords: lotteries, loyalty programs, competitions, bonus sales, rebate campaigns

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6759 The Effect of Absolute and Relative Deprivation on Homicides in Brazil

Authors: Temidayo James Aransiola, Vania Ceccato, Marcelo Justus

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of absolute deprivation (proxy unemployment) and relative deprivation (proxy income inequality) on homicide levels in Brazil. A database from the Brazilian Information System about Mortality and Census of the year 2000 and 2010 was used to estimate negative binomial models of homicide levels controlling for socioeconomic, demographic and geographic factors. Findings show that unemployment and income inequality affect homicides levels and that the effect of the former is more pronounced compared to the latter. Moreover, the combination of income inequality and unemployment exacerbates the overall effect of deprivation on homicide levels.

Keywords: deprivation, inequality, interaction, unemployment, violence

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6758 Self-Determination Theory at the Workplace: Associations between Need Satisfaction and Employment Outcomes

Authors: Wendy I. E. Wesseling

Abstract:

The unemployment rate has been on the rise since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008. Especially labor market entrants suffer from economic downfall. Despite the abundance of programs and agencies that help to reintegrate unemployed youth, considerable less research attention has been paid to 'fit' between these programs and its participants that ensure a durable labor market transition. According to Self-Determination Theory, need satisfaction is associated with better (mental) adjustment. As such, three hypothesis were formulated: when workers’ needs for competence (H1), relatedness (H2), and autonomy (H3) are satisfied in the workplace, they are more likely to remain employed at the same employer. To test these assumptions, a sample of approximately 800 young people enrolled in a youth unemployment policy participated in a longitudinal study. The unemployment policy was aimed at the development of generic and vocational competences, and had a maximum duration of six months. Need satisfaction during the program was measured, as well as their employment outcomes up to 12 months after completion of the policy. All hypotheses were (partly) supported. Some limitations should be noted. First, since our sample consisted primarily of highly educated white graduates, it remains to be tested whether our results generalize to other groups of unemployed youth. Moreover, we are unable to conclude whether the results are due to the intervention, participants (selection effect), or both, because of the lack of a control group.

Keywords: need satisfaction, person-job fit, self-determination theory, youth unemployment policy

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6757 Combating and Preventing Unemployment in Sweden

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In Sweden the needs of the labor market are regularly monitored. Test results and forecasts translate directly into the education system in this country, which is largely a state system. Sweden is one of the first countries in Europe that has used active labor market policies. It is realized that there is an active unemployment which includes a wide range of activities that can be divided into three groups: Active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms that affect the labor supply and active forms for people with disabilities. Most of the funding is allocated there for subsidized employment and training. Research conducted in Sweden shows that active forms of counteracting unemployment focused on the long-term unemployed can significantly raise the level of employment in this group.

Keywords: Sweden, research conducted in Sweden, labour market, labour market policies, unemployment, active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms of counteracting unemployment, employment, subsidized employment education

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6756 The Effect of LEADER and Community-Led Local Development in Spanish Municipal Unemployment: A Difference-in-Difference Approach

Authors: Miguel A. Borrella, Ana P. Fanjul, Suca Munoz, Liliana Herrera

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the impact of LEADER, a remarkable Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) approach of the European Program for Rural Development applied to rural municipalities of Spain in 2018 and 2019. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy and a newly-constructed database, results show that aided municipalities have significantly lower unemployment levels than non-aided municipalities. Results are significant for the decrease in unemployment for both women and people younger than 25 years old, two of the target groups of the policy. Nevertheless, they are larger for male and older workers. Therefore, findings suggest that LEADER 2017-2018 was successful in reducing unemployment in rural areas.

Keywords: community-led local development, ex-post evaluation, LEADER, rural development

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6755 The Youth Employment Peculiarities in Post-Soviet Georgia

Authors: M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia

Abstract:

The article analyzes the current structural changes in the economy of Georgia, liberalization and integration processes of the economy. In accordance with this analysis, the peculiarities and the problems of youth employment are revealed. In the paper, the Georgian labor market and its contradictions are studied. Based on the analysis of materials, the socio-economic losses caused by the long-term and mass unemployment of young people are revealed, the objective and subjective circumstances of getting higher education are studied. The youth employment and unemployment rates are analyzed. Based on the research, the factors that increase unemployment are identified. According to the analysis of the youth employment, it has appeared that the unemployment share in the number of economically active population has increased in the younger age group. It demonstrates the high requirements of the labour market in terms of the quality of the workforce. Also, it is highlighted that young people are exposed to a highly paid job. The following research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend, etc.) and qualitative research (in-depth interview), as well as analysis, induction and comparison methods. The article presents the data by the National Statistics Office of Georgia and the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia, policy documents of the Parliament of Georgia, scientific papers by Georgian and foreign scientists, analytical reports, publications and EU research materials on similar issues. The work estimates the students and graduates employment problems existing in the state development strategy and priorities. The measures to overcome the challenges are defined. The article describes the mechanisms of state regulation of youth employment and the ways of improving this regulatory base. As for major findings, it should be highlighted that the main problems are: lack of experience and incompatibility of youth qualification with the requirements of the labor market. Accordingly, it is concluded that the unemployment rate of young people in Georgia is increasing.

Keywords: migration of youth, youth employment, migration management, youth employment and unemployment

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6754 Youth NEET in Albania: Current Situation and Outreach Mechanisms

Authors: Emiljan Karma

Abstract:

One of the major problems of the present is young people who are not concerned with employment, education, or training (NEETs). Unfortunately, this group of people in Albania is a considerable part of working-age people, and despite the measures taken, they remain a major problem. NEETs in Albania are very heterogeneous. This is since youth unemployment and inactivity rate are at a very high level (Albania has the highest NEET rate among EU candidates/potential candidates’ countries and EU countries); the high level of NEET rate in Albania means that government agencies responsible for labour market regulation and other social actors interested in the phenomenon (representatives of employees, representatives of employers, non-governmental organizations, etc.) did not effectively materialize the policies in the field of youth employment promotion. The National Agency for Employment and Skills (NAES) delivers measures specifically designed to target unemployed youth, being the key stakeholder in the implementation of employment policies and skills development in Albania. In the context of identifying and assisting NEETs, this role becomes even stronger. The experience of different EU countries (e.g., Youth Guarantee) indicates that there are different policy-making structures and various outreach mechanisms for constraining the youth NEET phenomenon. The purpose of this research is to highlight: (1) The identification of NEETs feature in Albania; (2) The identification of tailored and efficient outreach mechanisms to assist vulnerable NEETs; (3) The fundamental importance of stakeholders’ partnership at central and regional level.

Keywords: labor market, NEETs, non-registered NEETs, unemployment

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6753 Utilizing Entrepreneurship Education for National Development: Solving the Unemployment Problems in Nigeria

Authors: Kemi Olalekan Oduntan

Abstract:

This paper is of the view that entrepreneurship education (if well utilized) can solve the problems of unemployment and the clamor for paid employment in Nigeria. Nigeria educational system is bookish too more academically oriented thereby neglecting the entrepreneurial and vocational values to a greater extent. This paper examines the utilization of entrepreneurship education as a way out of the myriad of unemployment in Nigeria, with the need to refocus Nigeria educational system towards skills acquisition that prepares Nigerians for self-reliance, hence being an employer of labor, while sustainable development and economic diversification are also stressed. The paper further argues that entrepreneurship education will equip the students and Nigeria working class youth with the skills to be jobs creators and become an employer of labor which it will solve Nigeria’s problems such as poverty, overdependence on foreign goods, low economic growth and poor infrastructural development among others. We concludes and recommends that a new pedagogy that prepares students and working class youth with knowledge and practical skills to be entrepreneurial be instituted, promoted and made compulsory in all our tertiary institutions as a way of reducing the menace unemployment in Nigeria.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, unemployment, national development, self-employment

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6752 Forecasting Regional Data Using Spatial Vars

Authors: Taisiia Gorshkova

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, spatial correlation models have been used more often to model regional indicators. An increasingly popular method for studying regional indicators is modeling taking into account spatial relationships between objects that are part of the same economic zone. In 2000s the new class of model – spatial vector autoregressions was developed. The main difference between standard and spatial vector autoregressions is that in the spatial VAR (SpVAR), the values of indicators at time t may depend on the values of explanatory variables at the same time t in neighboring regions and on the values of explanatory variables at time t-k in neighboring regions. Thus, VAR is a special case of SpVAR in the absence of spatial lags, and the spatial panel data model is a special case of spatial VAR in the absence of time lags. Two specifications of SpVAR were applied to Russian regional data for 2000-2017. The values of GRP and regional CPI are used as endogenous variables. The lags of GRP, CPI and the unemployment rate were used as explanatory variables. For comparison purposes, the standard VAR without spatial correlation was used as “naïve” model. In the first specification of SpVAR the unemployment rate and the values of depending variables, GRP and CPI, in neighboring regions at the same moment of time t were included in equations for GRP and CPI respectively. To account for the values of indicators in neighboring regions, the adjacency weight matrix is used, in which regions with a common sea or land border are assigned a value of 1, and the rest - 0. In the second specification the values of depending variables in neighboring regions at the moment of time t were replaced by these values in the previous time moment t-1. According to the results obtained, when inflation and GRP of neighbors are added into the model both inflation and GRP are significantly affected by their previous values, and inflation is also positively affected by an increase in unemployment in the previous period and negatively affected by an increase in GRP in the previous period, which corresponds to economic theory. GRP is not affected by either the inflation lag or the unemployment lag. When the model takes into account lagged values of GRP and inflation in neighboring regions, the results of inflation modeling are practically unchanged: all indicators except the unemployment lag are significant at a 5% significance level. For GRP, in turn, GRP lags in neighboring regions also become significant at a 5% significance level. For both spatial and “naïve” VARs the RMSE were calculated. The minimum RMSE are obtained via SpVAR with lagged explanatory variables. Thus, according to the results of the study, it can be concluded that SpVARs can accurately model both the actual values of macro indicators (particularly CPI and GRP) and the general situation in the regions

Keywords: forecasting, regional data, spatial econometrics, vector autoregression

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6751 The Role of Tourism Industry in the Creation of Youth Employment Opportunities in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors: Isiya Salihu Shinkafi

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to elaborate on employment opportunities within the tourism sector and the solutions to youth unemployment in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Youth unemployment creates a monumental social problem to African continent, the world over and Nigeria in particular. The intelligence of this paper was collected from secondary sources using previews researches and analysis of scholars to gather empirical data. The findings revealed that unemployment in Africa and specifically Nigeria among youths were caused by certain factors which constitute a greater challenge to the economy and the existence of the continent. The tourism sector provides the enabling environment to address the different categories of unemployment among the youths. One of the unique characteristics of the tourism industry that makes it a prime sector from which employment can be engineered; especially in the case of the African countries, are its labour intensive characteristics of both experts, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour.

Keywords: tourism industry, employment opportunities, youth employment

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6750 Applying Multivariate and Univariate Analysis of Variance on Socioeconomic, Health, and Security Variables in Jordan

Authors: Faisal G. Khamis, Ghaleb A. El-Refae

Abstract:

Many researchers have studied socioeconomic, health, and security variables in the developed countries; however, very few studies used multivariate analysis in developing countries. The current study contributes to the scarce literature about the determinants of the variance in socioeconomic, health, and security factors. Questions raised were whether the independent variables (IVs) of governorate and year impact the socioeconomic, health, and security dependent variables (DVs) in Jordan, whether the marginal mean of each DV in each governorate and in each year is significant, which governorates are similar in difference means of each DV, and whether these DVs vary. The main objectives were to determine the source of variances in DVs, collectively and separately, testing which governorates are similar and which diverge for each DV. The research design was time series and cross-sectional analysis. The main hypotheses are that IVs affect DVs collectively and separately. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were carried out to test these hypotheses. The population of 12 governorates in Jordan and the available data of 15 years (2000–2015) accrued from several Jordanian statistical yearbooks. We investigated the effect of two factors of governorate and year on the four DVs of divorce rate, mortality rate, unemployment percentage, and crime rate. All DVs were transformed to multivariate normal distribution. We calculated descriptive statistics for each DV. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, we found a significant effect in IVs on DVs with p < .001. Based on the univariate analysis, we found a significant effect of IVs on each DV with p < .001, except the effect of the year factor on unemployment was not significant with p = .642. The grand and marginal means of each DV in each governorate and each year were significant based on a 95% confidence interval. Most governorates are not similar in DVs with p < .001. We concluded that the two factors produce significant effects on DVs, collectively and separately. Based on these findings, the government can distribute its financial and physical resources to governorates more efficiently. By identifying the sources of variance that contribute to the variation in DVs, insights can help inform focused variation prevention efforts.

Keywords: ANOVA, crime, divorce, governorate, hypothesis test, Jordan, MANOVA, means, mortality, unemployment, year

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6749 Entrepreneurship, Institutional Quality, and Macroeconomic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Cleopatra Oluseye Ibukun

Abstract:

Following the endogenous growth theory, entrepreneurship has been considered pivotal to economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. Meanwhile, efforts to reduce unemployment has yielded minimal result with over 36% of youth unemployment and a dwindling economic growth despite the country’s natural and human resource endowment. This study, therefore, investigates the effects of entrepreneurship and institutional quality on economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria over the period 1996 to 2018. The data is obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI), and the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI). The study period is guided by the availability of data, and the study employs both descriptive and econometric techniques of analysis (specifically, the Auto-regressive Distributed Lag Approach). This approach is preferable given that the variables are stationary at the first difference, while the bounds test suggests the existence of co-integration among the variables. By implication, an increase in entrepreneurship significantly improves economic growth, and it reduces unemployment in both the short-run and the long-run. Besides, institutional quality proxied by the control of corruption, political stability, and government effectiveness significantly mediates the interaction between entrepreneurship and macroeconomic performance. This study concludes that improved institutional quality enhances the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria, and it recommends an improvement in Nigeria’s institutional quality because it can jeopardise or augment the effect of entrepreneurship on macroeconomic performance.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, institutional quality, unemployment, gross domestic product, Nigeria

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6748 Employers’ Perspective on Female Graduate Employability in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

In today’s changing job market economy, most employers of labor want employees who are employable and possess relevant skills. Graduates need to possess generic skills due to the continually changing nature of the job market, which requires adaptive coping strategies. Most employers of labor complain that graduates are not employable, which is one of the major factors causing a high rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. However, the number of unemployed females is higher than that of unemployed males; hence gender difference is linked to the employability of graduates. The human capital theory is considered an appropriate theory for this study. A qualitative approach will be used to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the employers’ perspective on female graduate employability in Nigeria.

Keywords: graduate employability, generic skills, graduate unemployment, gender

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