Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 708

Search results for: poverty eradication

708 Poverty Eradication Program in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Mamat, Wan Mohd Zaifurin Wan Nawang

Abstract:

Malaysia's poverty eradication program is a long-term plan that was initially implemented by the government after the riots of the races on May 13, 1969. The incident broke out due to the huge economic gap between the majority of Malaysians,Malays and non-Malays minorities. As a result of the event, the government drafted the New Economic Policy(NEP) in 1970 to reduce the differences in economic status among races in Malaysia. At the end of this policy period (NEP) in 1990, the incidence of poverty in Malaysia was around 6.5 per cent. The incidence of poverty in Malaysia continued to decline to 0.6 per cent (2014) through some other policy after the NEP. The decline in poverty has been the result of the government's efforts to implement the New Economic Policy (1970-1990), National Development Policy (1991-2000), NationalVision Policy (2001-2010), and National Transformation Policy (2011-2020).This article also explains the meaning, concepts and measurements of poverty in order to identify the Poverty Level and measure the Poverty Index using various dimensions. This explanation is very important for a country like Malaysia who has some people living below the poverty line. In such a context, an effective poverty eradication policy can benefit the poor.Consequently, this article examines the continuing involvement of the government and non-governmental organizations through the empowerment program of the hardcore poor to change their lifestyle and culture as well as the vicious circle of poverty is indispensable to ensure that poverty eradication programs are in line with current economic and social changes. In addition, the involvement of non-governmental organizations and the State Islamic Religious Council to provide assistance to the poor is appropriate as the institution has its own distinctive interpretation of poverty to determine the type of assistance, criteria and so on to enable the rights of the poor to be ensured and protected.

Keywords: economic policy, poor, poverty eradication, poverty program

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707 Eradicating Rural Poverty in Nigeria through Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Nwachukwu Ihiejeto Celestine

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Rural poverty in Nigeria has been the bake of the society. It has been a canker worm which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. Different models and principles have been applied to eradicate it, such as operation feed the nation, green revolution, NAPEP etc. Little or nothing has been done in the area of entrepreneurship education to tame this monster. It is based on this that the author wants to x-ray the role entrepreneurship education which studies “the process of identifying, bringing a vision to life” could play in the eradication of rural poverty in Nigeria. This will go along in providing appropriate principles for poverty alleviation and eradication in Nigeria. Some selected states in the eastern Geo-political region could be x-rayed in this circumstance. It is hoped that policy makers etc will find the work cogent in formulating and implementing policy decisions.

Keywords: poverty, entrepreneurship, education, Nigeria

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706 Partnership Brokering as a Driver of Social Business

Authors: Lani Fraizer, Faiz Shah

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Extreme poverty continues to plague the world. Forty-seven million people live well-below the poverty line in Bangladesh, enduring poor quality of life, often with no access to basic human needs like shelter and healthcare. It is not surprising that poverty eradication is central to the mission of social change makers, such as Muhammad Yunus, who have demonstrated how enterprise-led development initiatives empower individuals at the grassroots, and can galvanize entire communities to emerge out of poverty. Such strategies call for system-wide change, and like a number of systems leaders, social business champions have typically challenged the status quo, and broken out of silos to catalyze vibrant multi-stakeholder partnerships across sectors. Apart from individual charisma, social change makers succeed because they garner collaborative impact through socially beneficial partnerships. So while enterprise-led social development evolves in scope and complexity, in step with the need to create and sustain partnerships, Partnership Brokering is emerging as an approach to facilitate collaborative processes. As such, it may now be possible for anyone motivated by the idea of social business to acquire the skills and sophistication necessary for building enriching partnerships that harness the power of the market to address poverty. This paper examines dimensions of partnership brokering in the context of social business, and explores the implications of this emerging approach on fostering poverty eradication.

Keywords: poverty, social business, partnership brokering, social entrepreneurship, systems change, enterprise-led development, change making

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705 Remedying the Scourge of Poverty as a Social Problem: The Islamic Perspective

Authors: Maryam Umar Ladan, Arshad Munir

Abstract:

Poverty has always been a constant feature of society throughout history. It has existed in the lives of people and it is a fact that although the majority of people lives in poverty, the remaining minority lives in luxury. While some countries called the first World countries lives in luxury, the third World countries lives in poverty. It remains an undesirable phenomenon affecting a vast number of people across the globe despite governmental, institutional and private organizations’ interventions with measures aimed at cushioning its adverse effects. Unequal distribution of societal resources, accumulated wealth in the hands of few, lack of access to education and employment, individual responsibility among others, were highlighted as factors associated with poverty. Poverty predisposes the poor individual to malnutrition and starvation, exposure to disease, thereby resulting to violence, crimes, and experiencing lifelong problems. Evidence show that about 50 percent of the world population lives on less than 2.50 dollar a day, 90 percent of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia including countries where Islam is the major if not one adherent religion. As a solution to poverty, Islam prescribes a system of annual Zakat (charity). The Islamic law prescribes that every person who has a saving that reaches a certain limit should give out 2.5 percent of the total annual earning (as in income, money, farm produce) to deserving and prescribed citizens. This is to, among others; reduce the level of inequality through distribution of wealth among the Muslim Ummah (community). Furthermore, Islam encourages the rich in several places in the Qur’an to spend their wealth on poor people other than the compulsory 2.5%. Therefore, it is inarguable that the Islamic system of distribution of resources (as zakat) is the best strategy to poverty eradication. Thus, strongly recommended for desired results in poverty eradication efforts. If every rich person gives Zakat sincerely, poverty will be eradicated in the world, and not a single person will die of want of food or material things.

Keywords: Islam, charity, poverty, zakat

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704 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

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703 Assessing the Perception of Indian Youths towards Poverty

Authors: Antarjeeta Nayak, Jalandhar Pradhan, Ramakrishna Biswal

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Poverty is a complex phenomenon influenced by a large number of factors and which can be studied from many different perspectives. Most of the poverty assessments can be divided into three broad categories- construction of poverty profile (who the poor are), causes of poverty (why people are poor) and poverty alleviation strategies (what to do about poverty). In this regard, we need to know more about poverty, the factors that drive it and those that maintain it. Specifically, how people perceive and experience poverty will generate a body of knowledge that would enable government and poverty alleviation agencies to better target their interventions and understand the stigma associated with poverty. In the Indian context, the perceptions of the causes of poverty are particularly relevant because of the persistent higher percent of people below poverty line and wider economic-social inequalities despite the continuing decline of poverty in the present times. In this study we investigated the perceived attributions for poverty among youths (University students) in India. A questionnaire having 35 questions was administered to a sample of 200 University students (n=200). Findings showed that Indian youth were more inclined to attribute poverty to Structural factors; supporting system-blame hypothesis.

Keywords: poverty, perception of the causes of poverty, Indian youth, social sciences and humanities

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702 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

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This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

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701 Entrepreneurship as a Strategy for National Development and Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Authors: Udokporo Emeka Leonard

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The thrust of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurship can assist in the attainment of the first goal among the MDGs – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in Nigeria. The paper discusses how national development can be driven through employment creation and wealth generation that can lead to reduction in widespread poverty so as to attain one crucial target, in fewer years. The task before Nigeria is certainly a herculean one; it is, in fact a race against time. However, in view of the clear and present danger that the increasing rate of poverty portends for our democracy and our nation, is a race we must; for it is a time bomb on our hands. The paper has been structured into sections; with the introduction as section one. Section two discusses the concept of entrepreneurship; Section three examines the link between entrepreneurship and economic development, while section four examines the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria. In section five, measures and recommendations to boost entrepreneurship that can drive economic development that translates into poverty reduction and employment creation in Nigeria are suggested. This work is a literature review with some understanding of current trends and situations. It outlines some of the difficulties facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria as the operating environment, inadequate understanding and skewed incentive. It also makes recommendations on possible ways to significantly reduce poverty in 2015.

Keywords: development, entrepreneur, Nigeria, poverty

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700 Populism and National Unity: A Discourse Analysis of Poverty Eradication Strategies of Three Malaysian Prime Ministers

Authors: Khairil Ahmad, Jenny Gryzelius, Mohd Helmi Mohd Sobri

Abstract:

With the waning support for centrist ‘third-way’ politics across the Western world, there has been an increase in political parties and individual candidates relying on populist political discourse and rhetoric in order to capitalize on the sense of frustration apparent within the electorate. What is of note is the divergence in the discourses employed. On the one hand, there is a polarization between a growing wave of populist right-wing parties and politicians, employing a mixture of economic populism with divisive nationalistic ideals such as restricted immigration, for example, the UK’s UKIP and Donald Trump in the US. On the other hand, there are resurgent, often grassroots-led, left-wing movements and politicians, such as Podemos in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, focusing on anti-austerity measures and inclusive policies. In general, the concept of populism is often ascribed in a pejorative way. This is despite the success of populist left-wing governments across Latin America in recent times, especially in terms of reducing poverty. Nonetheless, recently, scholars such as Ernesto Laclau have tried to rethink populism as a social scientific concept which is essential in helping us make sense of contemporary political articulations. Using Laclau’s framework, this paper seeks to analyze poverty reduction policies in different iterations in the context of the tenures of three Prime Ministers of Malaysia. The first is Abdul Razak Hussein’s New Economic Policy, which focused on uplifting the economic position of Malaysia’s majority Malay population. The second is Mahathir Mohamad’s state-led neo-liberalization of the Malaysian economy, which focused on the creation of a core group of crony elites in order to spearhead economic development. The third is current Prime Minister Najib Razak’s targeted poverty eradication strategy through a focused program which directly provides benefits to recipients such as through direct cash transfers. The paper employs a discursive approach to trace elements of populism in these cases and highlight instances of how their strategies are articulated in ways that seek to appeal towards particular visions of national unity.

Keywords: discourse analysis, Malaysia, populism, poverty eradication

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699 Public Perception on Child Street Hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Anyaogu, E. U. M. Igbo

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This study examines the public view on child street hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria, its causes and effect on the child participant and society at large. The study tends to investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on child street hawking. The current situation reflects a chronic urban poverty, which disposed of parents/guardians to send their children and wards of school age to income yielding activities. A social survey research design was employed to select the respondents. A total of 1,108 questionnaires were administered to the respondents of 18 years and above and 1,038 were retrieved. Also, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted in the study area. The findings revealed that child street hawking is on the increase and a serious threat to social cohesion and national security. The study also revealed that poverty is a major cause of child street hawking. The study recommends that government should create job opportunities for urban dwellers, as well as provide social amenities and also put up poverty alleviation/eradication programmes for the people.

Keywords: Aba Urban, child street hawking, dangers, disposition, poverty

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698 A Comparison of Income and Fuzzy Index of Multidimensional Poverty in Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries

Authors: Joseph Siani

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Over the last decades, dissatisfaction with global indicators of economic performance, such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita, has shifted the attention to what is now referred to as multidimensional poverty. In this framework, poverty goes beyond income to incorporate aspects of well-being not captured by income measures alone. This paper applies the totally fuzzy approach to estimate the fuzzy index of poverty (FIP) in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data and explores whether pictures created by the standard headcount ratio at $1.90 a day and the fuzzy index of poverty tell a similar story. The results suggest that there is indeed considerable mismatch between poverty headcount and the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty, meaning that the majority of the most deprived people (as identified by the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty) would not be identified by the poverty headcount ratio. Moreover, we find that poverty is distributed differently by colonial heritage (language). In particular, the most deprived countries in SSA are French-speaking.

Keywords: fuzzy set approach, multidimensional poverty, poverty headcount, overlap, Sub-Saharan Africa

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697 Decent Work Agenda in the Philippines: A Capacity Assessment

Authors: Dianne Lyneth Alavado

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At the turn of the millennium, development paradigms in the international scene revolved around one goal: elimination of global poverty without comprising human rights. One measure which achieved high endorsement and visibility in the world of work is the Decent Work Agenda (DWA) championed by the United Nation’s (UN) specialized agency for work, the International Labour Organization (ILO). The DWA has been thoroughly promoted and recommended as an ingredient of development planning and a poverty reduction strategy, particularly in developing countries such as the Philippines. The global imperative of economic growth is measurable not only in the numbers raked in by countries in terms of expanding economy but also by the development and realization of the full capacities of their people. Decent work (DW), as an outcome and not just a development approach, promises poverty eradication by means of providing both quantity and quality work that is accompanied by rights, representation, and protection. As a party to these international pacts, the Philippines is expected to heed the call towards a world free from poverty through well-endorsed measures such as the DWA with the aid of multilateral and donor organizations such as the ILO. This study aims to assess the capacity and readiness of the Philippines to achieve the goals of the DWA. This is a qualitative research using the sociological and juridical lens in the desk analysis of existing Philippine laws, policies, and programs vis-à-vis decent work indicators set forth by the ILO. Interview with experts on the Philippine labor situation is conducted for further validation. The paper identifies gaps within the Philippine legal system and its collection of laws, acts, presidential decrees, department orders and other policy instruments aimed towards achieving the goals of the DWA. Among the major findings of this paper are: the predisposition of Philippine labor laws towards the formal sector; the need for alternative solutions for the informal sector veering away from the usual dole-outs and livelihood projects; the needs for evaluation of policies and programs that are usually self-evaluated; the minimal reach of the labour inspectorate which ensures decent work; and the lack of substantial penalty for non-compliance with labor laws. The paper concludes with policy implications and recommendations towards addressing the potholes on the road to Decent Work.

Keywords: decent work agenda, labor laws, millennium development goals, poverty eradication, sustainable development goal

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696 Changes in the Subjective Interpretation of Poverty Due to COVID-19: The Case of a Peripheral County of Hungary

Authors: Eszter Siposne Nandori

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The paper describes how the subjective interpretation of poverty changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of data collection at the end of 2020 are compared to the results of a similar survey from 2019. The methods of systematic data collection are used to collect data about the beliefs of the population about poverty. The analysis is carried out in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, one of the most backward areas in Hungary. The paper concludes that poverty is mainly linked to material values, and it did not change from 2019 to 2020. Some slight changes, however, highlight the effect of the pandemic: poverty is increasingly seen as a generational problem in 2020, and another important change is that isolation became more closely related to poverty.

Keywords: Hungary, interpretation of poverty, pandemic, systematic data collection, subjective poverty

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695 The Needs Programme and Poverty Reduction for National Development of Nigeria at 53

Authors: Owulo Thomas

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Despite Nigeria’s ranking as the 6th among oil producing countries, the country faces great challenges. One of such challenges is how to reduce poverty or eradicating it in the land that promises milk and honey to enhance national development. The government of Nigeria initiated various programmes including the NEEDS programme in which it committed her to meeting these challenges. This paper is an attempt to discuss the concept of National Development, the Nigerian poverty profile and its implication for national development, the NEEDS programmes and the extent to which it has addressed the poverty problem in Nigeria at 53.

Keywords: challenges, poverty, national development, NEEDS programme

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694 A Dynamic Panel Model to Evaluate the Impact of Debt Relief on Poverty

Authors: Loujaina Abdelwahed

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Debt relief granted to low-and middle-income countries effectively provides additional funds for governments that can be used to increase public investment on poverty-reducing services to alleviate poverty and boost economic growth. However, little is known about the extent to which the poor benefit from the increased public investment. This study aims to assess the impact of debt relief granted through multiple initiatives during the 1990s on poverty reduction. In particular, it assesses the impact on the level, depth and severity of poverty in 76 low-and middle income countries over the period 1990-2011. Debt relief is found to have a significant impact on reducing the level, the depth and the severity of poverty. Analysis of the different types of debt relief reveals that debt service relief reduces poverty, whereas debt principle relief does not have a significant impact.

Keywords: debt relief, developing countries, HIPC, poverty, system GMM estimator

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693 Analysis of Poverty Reduction Strategies as Mechanism for Development in Nigeria from 1999 to 2014

Authors: Ahmed Usman Egye, Hamza Muhammad

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Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult challenges facing third world countries in their development efforts. Evidences in Nigeria showed that the number of those in poverty has continued to increase. This paper is aimed at analyzing the performance of poverty alleviation measures undertaken by successive administrations in Nigeria with a view to addressing the quagmire. The study identified the whole gamut of factors that served as stumbling blocks to the implementation of each of the strategies and recommended the involvement of local people in the identification and design of projects so that sufficient participation could be achieved.

Keywords: poverty, development, strategies, Nigeria

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692 Multidimensional Study on the Deprivations Faced by Women in India

Authors: Ramya Rachel S.

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For women in a developing country like India, poverty is an ever-clinging problem which has rooted itself without any trace of absolute abolition. Poverty is a deprivation of many imminent needs and must be measured accordingly. Therefore, it is important to study the dimensions of education, health, and standard of living to understand the true nature of the impoverished. The study focused on studying the deprivation on these aspects using the Alkire-Foster methodology to estimate the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The study has utilized the individual data of women aged 15 to 49 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the year 2015-16. Findings reveal that women in India still face extreme levels of deprivation in various dimensions. More than one-third of the total women aged 15 to 24 in India were multidimensionally poor. Dimensional breakdown of the levels of multidimensional poverty indicates that the dimension of Education is the highest contributor to poverty. Decomposition of the multidimensional poverty among various demographic sub-groups, reveals that the multidimensional poverty level increases with age. Results point out that deprivations were higher among widowed and married women, and among women who lived alone. There was also a huge rural-urban divide with respect to poverty. The basic needs of these women must be targeted and met so that they are withdrawn from all forms of poverty.

Keywords: deprivations, multidimensional poverty, sub-group decomposition, women

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691 The Long-Run Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Malaria: Evidence from the Brazilian Eradication Campaign

Authors: Henrique Veras De Paiva Fonseca

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This paper investigates the long-term relationship between early life exposure to malaria and adult socioeconomic outcomes in Brazil. The identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in the risk of malaria outbreaks in different states and seasons of the year to identify early life exposure according to the timing and location of birth. Furthermore, Brazil has undergone a successful campaign of malaria eradication during the late 1950s, which allows for comparing outcomes of birth cohorts born just prior to and just after eradication to identify the extent of in utero exposure. Instrumental variables estimates find consistent negative treatment effects of in utero exposure to malaria on socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment and health status. The effects are stronger for exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy than during other periods of gestation. Additionally, consistent with previous findings, men are more likely to exhibit larger long-term effects.

Keywords: malaria, exposure, eradication, instrumental variables, education, health

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690 Impact of Social Transfers on Energy Poverty in Turkey

Authors: Julide Yildirim, Nadir Ocal

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Even though there are many studies investigating the extent and determinants of poverty, there is paucity of research investigating the issue of energy poverty in Turkey. The aim of this paper is threefold: First to investigate the extend of energy poverty in Turkey by using Household Budget Survey datasets belonging to 2005 - 2016 period. Second, to examine the risk factors for energy poverty. Finally, to assess the impact of social assistance program participation on energy poverty. Existing literature employs alternative methods to measure energy poverty. In this study energy poverty is measured by employing expenditure approach, where people are considered as energy poor if they disburse more than 10 per cent of their income to meet their energy requirements. Empirical results indicate that energy poverty rate is around 20 per cent during the time period under consideration. Since Household Budget Survey panel data is not available for 2005 - 2016 period, a pseudo panel has been constructed. Panel logistic regression method is utilized to determine the risk factors for energy poverty. The empirical results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant impact of work status and education level on energy poverty likelihood. In the final part of the paper the impact of social transfers on energy poverty has been examined by utilizing panel biprobit model, where social transfer participation and energy poverty incidences are jointly modeled. The empirical findings indicate that social transfer program participation reduces energy poverty. The negative association between energy poverty and social transfer program participation is more pronounced in urban areas compared with the rural areas.

Keywords: energy poverty, social transfers, panel data models, Turkey

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689 Using a Hybrid Method to Eradicate Bamboo Growth along the Route of Overhead Power Lines

Authors: Miriam Eduful

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The Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is under obligation, demanded by the Public Utility and Regulation Commission to meet set performance indices. However, in certain parts of the country, bamboo related power interruptions have become a challenge. Growth rate of the bamboo is such that the cost of regular vegetation maintenance along route of the overhead power lines has become prohibitive. To address the problem, several methods and techniques of bamboo eradication have being used. Some of these methods involved application of chemical compounds that are considered inimical and dangerous to the environment. In this paper, three methods of bamboo eradication along the route of the ECG overhead power lines have been investigated. A hybrid method has been found to be very effective and ecologically friendly. The method is locally available and comparatively inexpensive to apply.

Keywords: bamboo, eradication, hybrid method, gly gold

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688 Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis by Ardl

Authors: Syed Aziz Rasool, Ayesha Zaman

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Poverty is one of the most important problems for any developing nation. Workers’ remittances and investment plays a crucial role in development of any country by reducing the poverty level in Pakistan. This research studies the relationship between workers’ remittances and poverty alleviation. It also focused the significant effect on poverty reduction. This study uses time series data for the period of 1972-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model and Error Correction (ECM)Model has been used in order to find out the long run and short run relationship between the worker’s remittances and poverty level respectively. Thus, inflow of remittances showed the significant and negative impact on poverty level. Moreover, coefficient of error correction model explains the adjustment towards convergence and it has highly significant and negative value. According to this research, Policy makers should strongly focus on positive and effective policies to attract more remittances. JELCODE: JEL: J61

Keywords: ECM, ARDL, AIC, SC

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687 Partnership in Eradicating Corruption: Case Study of Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission Partnership with Dompet Dhuafa in Preventing Corruption

Authors: Asriana Issa Sofia, Retno Hendrowati, Dewi Kurniaty

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This study aims at analyzing the role of Corruption Eradication Commission in combating corruption cases including punishing high-profile corruptors and changing the culture of corruption in Indonesia by strengthening the relations with other agencies. Corruption Eradicating Commission was created in 2002 as Indonesia’s most trusted government institution as the anti-corruption agency that will exercise investigatory and prosecutorial power independently from the executive, legislature, and judiciary. The analysis of partnership addressed the role of collaboration with other institutions including Non-Government Organization, Youth Organization, Governmental Institution and Society. The collaboration is needed due to the limitations of Corruption Eradication Commission in preventing corruption. The collaboration focuses on the intensive communication, strengthening leadership, commitment, and creating trust. The research method used the qualitative study by employing the literature study and having a semi-structured interview with the key informant in Corruption Eradication Commission and its partners. The analysis found that intensive communication, leadership, communication, and creating trust were the important pillars in assisting Corruption Eradication Commission to prevent the incoming seed of corruption. The pillars will support the Indonesian Government to deliver better services for society.

Keywords: corruption, corruption eradicating commission, partnership, preventing actions

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686 Social Entrepreneurship and Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Fakhrul Anwar Zainol, Wan Norhayate Wan Daud, Zulhamri Abdullah, Mohd Rafi Yaacob

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Malaysia has made great strides in eradicating poverty. Based on the latest figures of the 9th Malaysian Plan Mid-term review, the overall hardcore poverty percentage is down to 0.7%, and only 3.6% of the Malaysian population is living below the overall poverty line. While in the past significant efforts had been taken by the government through various developmental project to alleviate poverty in rural area had proven successful. Today, urban poverty in Malaysia is an increasingly visible phenomenon due to rural-urban migration and the natural population growth in urban areas. Given the changing dimensions and emerging new forms of poverty as a result of unwanted effects of development there is a dire need to re-examine and re-visit urban poverty in Malaysia. Based on the leaders’ perceptions, this study affirmed that social entrepreneurship organizations in Malaysia have try to overcome the urban poverty through social entrepreneurship. The new framework has been developed from the results of this study. It shows that social entrepreneurship contributed to the organizational effectiveness. This result indicates that it is important to have social entrepreneurship in order to increase the socio economy and achieve the organization’s mission. Therefore, this study has proven that social entrepreneurship is beneficial to the Malaysian.

Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Organizational Effectiveness, Urban Poverty, Malaysia.

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685 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

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We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

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684 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

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The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: household size, poverty rate, nepal, regional development

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683 Quality Education as a Tool for Global Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ibrahim Auwalu

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The main thrust of this paper is the examination of Quality Education as opposed to low level knowledge acquisition in the promotion of quality of life, health, individual and national growth and development. The paper reviews the role education plays in developed, developing and third world economies. It further explores the real meaning of poverty in the context it exists. That is poverty in terms of its dimensions– shortened lives, illiteracy, social exclusion and lack of material means to improve family circumstances. The paper concludes that education not only helps individuals escape poverty by developing the skills needed to improve their livelihoods, but also generates productivity gains that fuel economic growth.

Keywords: quality, education, global, poverty alleviation

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682 People Who Live in Poverty Usually Do So Due to Circumstances Far Beyond Their Control: A Multiple Case Study on Poverty Simulation Events

Authors: Tracy Smith-Carrier

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Burgeoning research extols the benefits of innovative experiential learning activities to increase participants’ engagement, enhance their individual learning, and bridge the gap between theory and practice. This presentation discusses findings from a multiple case study on poverty simulation events conducted with two samples: undergraduate students and community participants. After exploring the nascent research on the benefits and limitations of poverty simulation activities, the study explores whether participating in a poverty simulation resulted in changes to participants’ beliefs about the causes and effects of poverty, as well as shifts in their attitudes and actions toward people experiencing poverty. For the purposes of triangulation, quantitative and qualitative data from a variety of sources were analyzed: participant feedback surveys, qualitative responses, and pre, post, and follow-up questionnaires. Findings show statistically significant results (p<.05) from both samples on cumulative scores of the modified Attitudes Toward Poverty Scale, indicating an improvement in participants’ attitudes toward poverty. Although generally positive about their experiences, participating in the simulation did not appear to have prompted participants to take specific actions to reduce poverty. Conclusions drawn from the research study suggest that poverty simulation planners should be wary of adopting scenarios that emphasize, or fail to adequately contextualize, behaviours or responses that might perpetuate individual explanations of poverty. Moreover, organizers must carefully consider how to ensure participants in their audience currently experiencing low-income do not become emotionally distressed, triggered or further marginalized in the process. While overall participants were positive about their experiences in the simulation, the events did not appear to have prompted them to action. Moving beyond the goal of increasing participants’ understandings of poverty, interventions that foster greater engagement in poverty issues over the long-term are necessary.

Keywords: empathy, experiential learning, poverty awareness, poverty simulation

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681 The Role of Zakah and Waqf in Poverty Alleviation: A Strategy for West Africa

Authors: Maryam Idris Bakori

Abstract:

The level of poverty in our region (West Africa) is a severe problem. The statistics about it are scary and alarming. For example, Report on Economic and Social Conditions in West Africa by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa gives the following gloomy picture of social conditions in the region: In West Africa, approximately one person in three in the towns, and one in two in the rural areas, cannot afford the expenditure needed to cover their basic needs. The situation has reached emergency proportions and calls for urgent social action (Recent Economic and Social Developments in West Africa and Prospects for 2010). Many different policies and programs to combat the poverty in the region have been embarked upon by the government of various countries in West Africa, but yet the ugly face of poverty persists. However, to explore opportunities and avenues for making positive contributions to national and regional development, this paper sets out to examine the role of two Islamic institutions; Zakah and Waqf, in poverty alleviation and how Islam uses these two institutions among others to eradicate poverty. The paper suggests that the governments of various countries of West Africa should endeavor to integrate Zakah and Waqf into their poverty alleviation programs by borrowing a leaf from some countries in Africa and Asia that have integrated these Islamic institutions into their poverty reduction programs, and they have started to reap the positive result from the policy.

Keywords: waqf, poverty, zakah, Islamic economy, education

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680 Herb's Market Development for Capability Poverty Alleviation: Case Study of Bagh- E- Narges Village under Komak Charity's Support

Authors: Seyedeh Afsoon Mohseni

Abstract:

The importance of the approach to the poverty definition is revealed regarding to it’s effect on the nature of planning poverty alleviation programs. This research employs the capability deprivation approach to alleviate rural poverty and seeks to develop herb’s market to alleviate capability poverty with an NGO’s intervene, Komak charity foundation. This research has employed qualitative approach; the data were collected through field observations, review of documents and interviews. Subsequently they were analyses by thematic analysis method. According to the findings, Komak charity can provide the least sustenance of the rural poor and alleviate capability poverty emergence through Herb’s market development of the village. Employing the themes, the market development is planned in two phases of empirical production and product development. Komak charity can intervene as a facilitator by providing micro credits, cooperative and supervising. Furthermore, planning on education and raising participation are prerequisites for the efficiency of the plan.

Keywords: capability poverty, Herb's market development, NGO, Komak charity foundation

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679 The Effect of Health Subsidies on Poverty Level in Indonesia

Authors: Ikhsan Fahmi, Hasti Amanda Ilmi Putri

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic caused Large Scale Social Restrictions which have an impact on aspects of the nation’s life, such as the level of poverty. One of the causes of poverty is the lack level of public health. The calculation of poverty is seen as an inability from an economic side of basic food and non-food needs, which is measured from the expenditure side, one of which is health expenditure. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of health subsidies to the community on the level of poverty in 2020 in Indonesia. The main source used is the National Socio-Economic Survey of Consumption Expenditure and Cor, March 2020. From the result of the analysis, it was found that the percentage of poor people increased from the previous 9.78 percent to 9,92 percent, or there were 391,000 people who were previously not poor people who became poor when the health subsidies were revoked. There is a pattern of distribution of provinces in Indonesia between the average cost of health subsidies per capita per month if the government does not provide health subsidies and increasing of the percentage of poor people. This indicates that government intervention related to health subsidised is important in terms of poverty alleviation in Indonesia.

Keywords: poverty, health, subsidy, expenditure

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