Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10662

Search results for: policy factors

10662 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed

Abstract:

Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: formulation, Islam, public policy, policy factors, Sharia’h

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10661 Factors Impacting Entrepreneurial Intention: A Literature Review

Authors: Abir S. AL-Harrasi, Eyad B. AL-Zadjali, Zahran S. AL-Salti

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship has captured the attention of policy-makers, educators and researchers in the last few decades. It has been regarded as a main driver for economic growth, development and employment generation in many countries worldwide. However, scholars have not agreed on the key factors that impact entrepreneurial intention. This study attempts, through an extensive literature review, to provide a holistic view and a more comprehensive understanding of the key factors that lead university undergraduate students to become entrepreneurs. A systematic literature review is conducted and several scientific articles and reports have been examined. The results of this study indicate that there are four main sets of factors: the personality-traits factors, contextual factors, motivational factors, and personal background factors. This research will serve as a base for future studies and will have valuable implications for policy makers and educators.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, literature review, economic growth

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10660 Determinants of Smallholder Farmers' Intention to Adopt Jatropha as Raw Material for Biodiesel Production: A Proposed Model for Nigeria

Authors: Abdulsalam Mas’ud

Abstract:

Though Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentive was introduced in 2007, however, little if any is known about the impact of such policy for biodiesel development in Nigeria. It can be argued that lack of raw materials is one of the important factors that hinder the proper implementation of the policy. In line with this argument, this study aims to explore the determinants of smallholder farmers’ intention to adopt Jatropha as raw materials for biodiesel development in northern Nigeria, with Jigawa State as area of study. The determinants proposed for investigation covers personal factors, physical factors, institutional factors, economic factors, risk and uncertainty factors as well as social factors. The validation of the proposed model will have the implication of guiding policymakers towards enhancement of farmers’ participation in the Jatropha project for biodiesel raw materials production. The eventual byproducts of the proposed model validation and implementation will be employment generation, poverty reduction, combating dessert encroachment, economic diversification to renewable energy sources and electricity generation.

Keywords: adoption, biodiesel, factors, jatropha

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10659 Factors Leading to Recividism

Authors: Maria Kralova, Michal Palecek

Abstract:

We have detected factors leading to recidivism (the Czech Republic data). The employment during imprisonment turned out to be the most significant predictor with a positive effect on reduction of a rate of recidivism. Accordingly, we mainly focus on this predictor and its economic consequences. Smart public policy can cut government costs dramatically as more than a half of prisoners in the Czech Republic are recidivists. The operating cost cut of the Czech prison service could be CZK 127,680,000 (USD 5,889,623) in 2013 if a public policy had been set smarter.

Keywords: cost-cut, effective, optimal, public policy, reducing recidivism

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10658 Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government

Authors: Qian Zaijian

Abstract:

E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.

Keywords: China, e-consultation, e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, ICTs, public policy information systems

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10657 Managerial Overconfidence, Payout Policy, and Corporate Governance: Evidence from UK Companies

Authors: Abdullah AlGhazali, Richard Fairchild, Yilmaz Guney

Abstract:

We examine the effect of managerial overconfidence on UK firms’ payout policy for the period 2000 to 2012. The analysis incorporates, in addition to common firm-specific factors, a wide range of corporate governance factors and managerial characteristics that have been documented to affect the relationship between overconfidence and payout policy. Our results are robust to several estimation considerations. The findings show that the influence of overconfident CEOs on the amount of, and the propensity to pay, dividends is significant within the UK context. Specifically, we detect that there is a reduction in dividend payments in firms managed by overconfident managers compared to their non-overconfident counterparts. Moreover, we affirm that cash flows, firm size and profitability are positively correlated, while leverage, firm growth and investment are negatively correlated with the amount of and propensity to pay dividends. Interestingly, we demonstrate that firms with the potential for undervaluation reduce dividend payments. Some of the corporate governance factors are shown to motivate firms to pay more dividends while these factors seem to have no influence on the propensity to pay dividends. The results also show that in general higher overconfidence leads to more share repurchases but the lower total payout. Overall, managerial overconfidence should be considered as an important factor influencing payout policy in addition to other known factors.

Keywords: dividends, repurchases, UK firms, overconfidence, corporate governance, undervaluation

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10656 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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10655 Understanding the Factors behind Graduate Employability in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Mohammed Islam

Abstract:

Graduate employability is a well debated topic by governments, employers, and higher education institutes (HEI) across the world. Much of the focus of these debates have centred around the skills that graduates bring or should bring to the job market, a point echoed by United Arab Emirates (UAE) policy makers and employers. While some research has been carried out on graduates' employability skills, little or no attention has been paid to the forces at play in developing employability policy and its subsequent implementation. The focus of debate has been on a perceived skills gap rather than policy. Recognising a gap in the literature, this paper details a study of UAE employability policy development. Taking a social constructionist approach, this case study views policy as discursive and socially constructed through interactions with key stakeholders. It is within the myriad of interdependent socio-political factors and social practices, particularly power relationships, that this paper explores UAE policy on graduate employability. In doing so, this adds to the debate on graduate employability from the perspective of policy and explores its roots in the interaction between human activity and the ‘system’. Data was collected from two main sources: documentary review and semi-structured interviews. Policies and publicly stated rhetoric on graduate employability were analysed using Critical Discourse Analysis. Semi-structured interviews with representatives from policy makers, HEIs, and employers were reviewed through Thematic Analysis. The theoretical framework for the discussion of findings draws from social practice theories and highlights the factors at play in access to employment for UAE graduates. This case study presents a methodological approach to policy studies that can be applied beyond the context under investigation. Education policy researchers are provided with an opportunity to compare similarities and differences with their own specific contexts.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, employability, methodology, policy, social constructionism

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10654 Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People

Authors: Solomon Tagesse

Abstract:

This study has been conducted on “Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People,” which was aimed at scrutinizing the reason for Hadiya people's migration from Ethiopia to the Republic of South Africa. Basically, a qualitative research approach has been employed to address the justified problem and to achieve the objectives stated accordingly. The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed to identify the study sites and respondents for the study. Field observations, interviews, focus group discussions and recording of data were used as instruments to collect data. It has been observed that lack of jobs and peer pressure, lack of interest to learn and work, scarcity and low wages were push factors; whereas job opportunity and better income; the existence of families, relatives and friends pull factors. Communication, transportation, the existence of brokers, etc., were also found to be intermediary factors. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy suggestions have been made in specific areas of the study.

Keywords: migration, reason, migrant, households

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10653 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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10652 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

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10651 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

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10650 Effect of R&D Human Capital Support for SMEs: An Analysis of Smes Support Program in South Korea

Authors: Misun Kim, Beomsoo Park

Abstract:

Korean government has strongly supported SMEs financially and technically. It has also changed R&D manpower management so that SMEs can benefit from the knowledge of highly qualified experts. This study evaluates the impacts of such policy on SMEs and analyzes the factors affecting the growth of the firms. Then we compare the characteristics of high growth companies to general companies. This factors could be use in the future for identifying firms that would significantly benefit from manpower help.

Keywords: dispatch human Ccapital, high growth, science and technology policy, SMEs

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10649 Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Development Programs in Nepal: Construction of a Stakeholder Informed Framework

Authors: Divya Dawadi, Kerry Bissaker

Abstract:

Inclusion of children with a disability (CwD) in Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) programs in Nepal while viewed as desirable is not widespread. Even though the ECED program is currently providing access to ECED services for one million young children, with the aim to improve children's school readiness by equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to succeed more effectively in their primary schooling, access to early year's education in inclusive settings for CwD is challenging. Using a heuristic qualitative design, this research aims to construct a framework by analyzing the perspectives of parents and professionals through interviews and focus group discussions, with a view to recommending a new policy to address the rights of CwD and their families. Several school-based and/or organizational and contextual factors interact to contribute to CwD becoming victims of multiple layers of exclusion. The school-based factors include policy, attitudes, teacher efficacy, resources, coordination and parental engagement. The contextual factors are spirituality, caste ethnicity, language, economic status, and geographic location. However, there is a varied effect of the interaction between school-based and contextual factors on different groups of CwD. A policy needs to recognize the multiplicity of the interactions between these factors that inhibit the inclusion of varied groups of CwD in ECED programs and address them separately.

Keywords: children with a disability, early childhood education and development, framework, inclusion

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10648 The Role of Official Languages and Language Training Policy in Adult Immigrant Integration in Canada

Authors: Lillie Lum

Abstract:

Focusing on the role of official language in immigrant integration, this paper will first report the results of a literature review and demonstrate that there is no doubt on the necessity of adequate language skills for newcomers to successfully settle, adapt, and integrate socially, culturally and economically in Canada. This paper attempts to synthesize the literature in order to shed light on the language policy terrain which is not easy to navigate. Then, by outlining what is currently available in the language policy environment, it will ask if the current state of language training in Canada is adequate to assist newcomers in their language acquisition process. At a deeper level, it aims to continue to raise questions in this policy area. Are current policy responses likely to improve linguistic capabilities in the future, particularly for immigrant workers with poor language proficiency? This paper is timely given the magnitude of the language issue and the value of immigrants for Canada’s economic, social, and political vitality.

Keywords: official language education, immigrant integration into Canada, economic factors, policy implications

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10647 Exploring Factors Affecting Electricity Production in Malaysia

Authors: Endang Jati Mat Sahid, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Ability to supply reliable and secure electricity has been one of the crucial components of economic development for any country. Forecasting of electricity production is therefore very important for accurate investment planning of generation power plants. In this study, we aim to examine and analyze the factors that affect electricity generation. Multiple regression models were used to find the relationship between various variables and electricity production. The models will simultaneously determine the effects of the variables on electricity generation. Many variables influencing electricity generation, i.e. natural gas (NG), coal (CO), fuel oil (FO), renewable energy (RE), gross domestic product (GDP) and fuel prices (FP), were examined for Malaysia. The results demonstrate that NG, CO, and FO were the main factors influencing electricity generation growth. This study then identified a number of policy implications resulting from the empirical results.

Keywords: energy policy, energy security, electricity production, Malaysia, the regression model

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10646 The Battle Against Corruption in Indonesia’s Municipalities

Authors: Edy Wahyu Susilo

Abstract:

This research discusses a comparative analysis of various anti-corruption responses of three Indonesian City Governments (Jakarta, Surabaya, and Medan) and completes previous findings on the effectiveness of the city anti-corruption program. Some factors (transparency, accountability, leadership, law enforcement, and bureaucratic reform) have been chosen in this study to diagnose the main role in the success and the failure of anti-corruption programs in these cities. These factors diagnose the relationship between factors and their dominancy, which is then utilized to create the city’s strategic anti-corruption programs. Although this study found leadership had a dominant influence both in encouraging and discouraging the performance of city transformation drastically, however, it is not the only factor that determined the performance of the city in the fight against corruption. It needs other factors as an ideal balancing element to achieve an anti-corruption program, namely KPK’s intervention and public engagement. Based on the dominance factors found, this research then develops an appropriate strategy using a policy evaluation approach to create a real practical guide regardless of the existence of good or bad leadership in the city. This research is expected to be a useful reference for stakeholders, especially the government, as a blueprint to prevent corruption by considering several important steps and guidance in efforts to eradicate corruption in the city, especially in Indonesia.

Keywords: intervention, KPK (corruption eradication commission), law enforcements, leadership, policy evaluation

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10645 Effect of Non-Tariff Measures to Indonesian Shrimp Export in International Market: Case of Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade

Authors: Muhammad Khaliqi, Amzul Rifin, Andriyono Kilat Adhi

Abstract:

The non-tariff policy could make Indonesian shrimp exports decrease in the international market. This research was aimed to analyze factors affecting Indonesia's exports of shrimp and the impact of SPS and TBT policy on Indonesian shrimp. Factors affecting the exports of Indonesian shrimp were estimated using gravity model. The results showed the GDP of exporters and exchange rate, have a negative influence against the export of Indonesia’s shrimp exports. The GDP of the importers and trade cost have a positive influence against the export of shrimp Indonesia while the SPS policy and TBT don’t affect Indonesia's exports of shrimp in the international market.

Keywords: gravity model, international trade, non-tariff measure, sanitary and phytosanitary, shrimp, technical barriers to trade

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10644 Public Policy Making Process in Developing Countries: Case Study of Turkish Health System

Authors: Hakan Akin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the policy making process in Turkish Health System. This policy making process will be examined through public policy change theories. Since political actors played in the formulation of public policies also explains the type of policy change, this actors will be inspected in the supranational and national basis. Also the transformation of public policy in the Turkish health care system will be analysed under the concepts of New right ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and governance. And after this analyse, the outputs and outcomes of this transformation will be discussed in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: policy transfer, policy diffusion, policy convergence, new right, governance

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10643 Climate Change: A Critical Analysis on the Relationship between Science and Policy

Authors: Paraskevi Liosatou

Abstract:

Climate change is considered to be of global concern being amplified by the fact that by its nature, cannot be spatially limited. This fact makes necessary the intergovernmental decision-making procedures. In the intergovernmental level, the institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change develop efforts, methods, and practices in order to plan and suggest climate mitigation and adaptation measures. These measures are based on specific scientific findings and methods making clear the strong connection between science and policy. In particular, these scientific recommendations offer a series of practices, methods, and choices mitigating the problem by aiming at the indirect mitigation of the causes and the factors amplifying climate change. Moreover, modern production and economic context do not take into consideration the social, political, environmental and spatial dimensions of the problem. This work studies the decision-making process working in international and European level. In this context, this work considers the policy tools that have been implemented by various intergovernmental organizations. The methodology followed is based mainly on the critical study of standards and process concerning the connections and cooperation between science and policy as well as considering the skeptic debates developed. The finding of this work focuses on the links between science and policy developed by the institutional and scientific mechanisms concerning climate change mitigation. It also analyses the dimensions and the factors of the science-policy framework; in this way, it points out the causes that maintain skepticism in current scientific circles.

Keywords: climate change, climate change mitigation, climate change skepticism, IPCC, skepticism

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10642 Examining Renewable Energy Policy Implementation for Sustainable Development in Kenya

Authors: Eliud Kiprop, Kenichi Matsui, Joseph Karanja, Hesborn Ondiba

Abstract:

To double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 as part of actions for the Paris Agreement, policymakers in each ratifying country must accelerate their efforts within the next few years by implementing their own renewable energy strategies. Kenya has increased its funding for research and development in renewable energy sources largely because it intends to reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions by 30% from business as usual (BAU) levels (143 MtCO₂eq) by 2030. In 2013, the Kenyan government launched an ambitious plan to increase the installed power generation capacity from 1,768MW to more than 5,000MW by the end of 2017. This paper examines the formulation and implementation process of this plan and shows how this plan will affect Kenya’s renewable energy industry and national policy implementation in general. Results demonstrate that, despite having a well- documented policy in place, the Kenyan government cannot meet its target of 5000MW by the end of 2017. Among other factors, we find that the main reason is attributable to the failure in adhering to the main principles of the policy plan. We also find that the government has failed to consider the future energy demand. Had the policy been implemented on time, we argue that there would have been excess power.

Keywords: policy implementation, policy plan, renewable energy, sustainable development

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10641 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

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10640 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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10639 Stimulating Policy for Attracting Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, M. Kobalava, T. Lazariashvili, N. Damenia

Abstract:

Current state of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Georgia is analyzed and evaluated in the paper, the existing legislative background for regulating investments and stimulating policies to attract investments are shown. It is noted that in developing countries encouragement of investment activity, support and implementation are of the most important tasks, implying a consistent investment policy, investor-friendly tax regime and the legal system, reducing administrative barriers and restrictions, fare competitive conditions and business development infrastructure. The work deals with the determining factor of FDIs and the main directions of stimulation, as well as prospective industries where new investments are needed. Contributing and hindering factors and stimulating measures are analyzed. As a result of the research, the direct and indirect factors attracting FDI have been identified. Facilitating factors to FDI inflow are as follows: simplicity of starting business, geopolitical location, low taxes, access to credit, ease of ownership registration, natural resources, low burden of regulations, low level of corruption and low crime rates. Hindering factors to FDI inflow are as follows: small market, lack of policy for attracting investments, low qualification of the workforce (despite the large number of unemployed people it is difficult to find workers with necessary special skills and qualifications), high interest rates, instability of national currency exchange rate, presence of conflict zones within the country and so forth.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, investor, investment attracting marketing policies, reinvestment

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10638 Analysis of Factors Affecting Public Awareness in Paying Zakat

Authors: Roikhan Mochamad Aziz

Abstract:

This study aims to analze the interdependence of several variables simultaneously in order to simplify the form of the relationship between some of the variables studied a number of factors less than the variable studied which means it can also describe the data structure of a research. Based 100 respondents from the public, such as the people of South Tangerang, this study used factor analysis tool. The results of this study indicate that the studied variables being formed into nine factors, namely faith factors, community factors, factors of social care, confidence factor, factor income, educational factors, self-satisfaction factors, factors work, and knowledge factor. Total variance of the 9 factors is 67,30% means that all nine of these factors are factors that can contribute too paying zakat of muzakki consciousness of 67,30% while the remaining 32,70% is supported by other factors outside the 9 factors.

Keywords: zakat, analysis factor, faith, education, knowledge

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10637 A Review of Critical Factors in Budgetary Financing of Public Infrastructure in Nigeria

Authors: Akintayo Opawole, Godwin O. Jagboro

Abstract:

Research efforts on infrastructure development in Nigeria had not provided adequate assessment of issues essential for policy response by the government to address infrastructure deficiency. One major gap existing in previous studies is the assessment of challenges facing the budgetary financing model. Based on a case study of Osun State in Southwestern Nigeria, factors affecting budgetary financing of public infrastructure were identified from literature and brainstorming. Respondents were: 6 architects, 4 quantity surveyors, 6 town planners, 5 estate surveyors, 4 builders, 21 engineers and 26 economists/accountants ranging from principal to director who have been involved in policy making process with respect to infrastructure development in the public service of Osun state. The identified variables were subjected to factor analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests carried out (KMO, 0.785) showed that the data collected were adequate for the analysis and the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (0.000) showed the data upon which the analysis was carried out was reliable. Results showed that factors such as poor collaboration between the state and local government establishments, absence of credible database system and inadequate funding of maintenance were the most significant to infrastructure development in the State. Policy responses to address challenges of infrastructure development in the state were identified to focus on creation of legal framework for liberation policy, enforcement of ‘due process’ in the procurement and establishment of monitoring system for project delivery.

Keywords: development, infrastructure, financing, procurement

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10636 Humanity in Public Policy: The Polemic of Death Penalty Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Alvian R. E. Purnomo, K. Noni Srijati, Hernawan Adi

Abstract:

Government regulation is a result of agreement on the struggle of ideas, interests, and ideologies among elites in state institution. The polemic about death penalty policy in Indonesia is still becoming an interesting discussion and also a complex issue. There are pros/ cons of whether the policy is humane or not. Indonesia becomes the concern of the world’s community because the policy of death penalty applied is considered not reflecting the values of Indonesian culture including tolerance, mutual cooperation, and love. This paper examines them using literature study on how public policy theories respond to humanity issues and how Indonesian government should take steps to the issue of the death penalty that has become polemic until now.

Keywords: government regulation, public policy, death penalty policy, humanity

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10635 The Development Stages of Transformation of Water Policy Management in Victoria

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

The status quo of social-ecological systems is the results of not only natural processes but also the accumulated consequence of policies applied in the past. Often water management objectives are challenging and are only achieved to a limited degree on the ground. In choosing water management approaches, it is important to account for current conditions and important differences due to varied histories. Since the mid-nineteenth century, Victorian water management has evolved through a series of policy regime shifts. The main goal of this research to explore and identify the stages of the evolution of the water policy instruments as practiced in Victoria from 1890-2016. This comparative historical analysis has identified four stages in Victorian policy instrument development. In the first stage, the creation of policy instruments aimed to match the demand and supply of the resource (reserve condition). The second stage begins after natural system alone failed to balance supply and demand. The focus of the policy instrument shifted to an authority perspective in this stage. Later, the increasing number of actors interested in water led to another change in policy instrument. The third stage focused on the significant role of information from different relevant actors. The fourth and current stage is the most advanced, in that it involved the creation of a policy instrument for synergizing the previous three focal factors: reserve, authority, and information. When considering policy in other jurisdiction, these findings suggest that a key priority should be to reflect on the jurisdictions current position among these four evolutionary stages and try to make improve progressively rather than directly adopting approaches from elsewhere without understanding the current position.

Keywords: policy instrument, policy transformation, socio-ecolgical system, water management

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10634 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

Abstract:

The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: banks, Jordan, knowledge, organizational factors, sharing

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10633 Criticality of Socio-Cultural Factors in Public Policy: A Study of Reproductive Health Care in Rural West Bengal

Authors: Arindam Roy

Abstract:

Public policy is an intriguing terrain, which involves complex interplay of administrative, social political and economic components. There is hardly any fit-for all formulation of public policy as Lindbloom has aptly categorized it as a science of muddling through. In fact, policies are both temporally and contextually determined as one the proponents of policy sciences Harold D Lasswell has underscored it in his ‘contextual-configurative analysis’ as early as 1950s. Though, a lot of theoretical efforts have been made to make sense of this intricate dynamics of policy making, at the end of the day the applied area of public policy negates any such uniform, planned and systematic formulation. However, our policy makers seem to have learnt very little of that. Until recently, policy making was deemed as an absolutely specialized exercise to be conducted by a cadre of professionally trained seasoned mandarin. Attributes like homogeneity, impartiality, efficiency, and neutrality were considered as the watchwords of delivering common goods. Citizen or clientele was conceptualized as universal political or economic construct, to be taken care of uniformly. Moreover, policy makers usually have the proclivity to put anything into straightjacket, and to ignore the nuances therein. Hence, least attention has been given to the ground level reality, especially the socio-cultural milieu where the policy is supposed to be applied. Consequently, a substantial amount of public money goes in vain as the intended beneficiaries remain indifferent to the delivery of public policies. The present paper in the light of Reproductive Health Care policy in rural West Bengal has tried to underscore the criticality of socio-cultural factors in public health delivery. Indian health sector has traversed a long way. From a near non-existent at the time of independence, the Indian state has gradually built a country-wide network of health infrastructure. Yet it has to make a major breakthrough in terms of coverage and penetration of the health services in the rural areas. Several factors are held responsible for such state of things. These include lack of proper infrastructure, medicine, communication, ambulatory services, doctors, nursing services and trained birth attendants. Policy makers have underlined the importance of supply side in policy formulation and implementation. The successive policy documents concerning health delivery bear the testimony of it. The present paper seeks to interrogate the supply-side oriented explanations for the failure of the delivery of health services. Instead, it identified demand side to find out the answer. The state-led and bureaucratically engineered public health measures fail to engender demands as these measures mostly ignore socio-cultural nuances of health and well-being. Hence, the hiatus between supply side and demand side leads to huge wastage of revenue as health infrastructure, medicine and instruments remain unutilized in most cases. Therefore, taking proper cognizance of these factors could have streamlined the delivery of public health.

Keywords: context, policy, socio-cultural factor, uniformity

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