Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: taxes

89 The Channels through Which Energy Tax Can Affect Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Hassan, Walid Oueslati, Damien Rousseliere

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This paper explores the channels through which energy taxes may affect economic growth, using a simultaneous equations model for a balanced panel data of 31 OECD countries over the 1994–2013 period. The empirical results reveal a negative impact of energy taxes on physical investment in the short and long term. This impact is negatively sensitive to the existence and level of public debt. Additionally, the results show that energy taxes have an indirect effect on human capital through their impact on polluting emissions. The taxes on energy products are able to reduce both the flux and the stock of polluting emissions that have a negative impact on human capital skills in the short and long term. Finally, we found that energy taxes could encourage eco-innovation in the short and long term.

Keywords: energy taxes, economic growth, public debt, simultaneous equations model, multiple imputation

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88 The Effect of Corruption and Taxes on Entrepreneurship Activity: Across Country Study

Authors: F. Ahmed, Y. Dawood

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One of the vehement debates nowadays is about the effect of taxation and economic growth. From one side, taxes are an essential factor to absorb the unemployment, improve the stander of living and achieve a high level of economic growth. On the other hand, they consider it as the main reason to lose the growth ground. The primary goal of the present study is to provide a cross-country evidence of the relationship between taxes and entrepreneurship. There are several important areas where this study makes an original contribution to Entrepreneurship literature. Our paper will use a combination of macro and micro data to present more accurate evidence of the relation. Our study considers large cross sections of countries for the period from 2008 to 2014 for 59 countries. In addition to that and most importantly, our study examines the effect of corruption on the relation between taxes and Entrepreneurship as the corruption is a very important dimension that can explain international entrepreneurship. The importance of this study can be seen from several perspectives: By investigating the taxes effect on entrepreneurship motivation, it is important for the policy makers as well as scholars. Governments and regulators who consider changing in the entrepreneurship sector as an important determinant of economic growth can benefit also from this research. Also, countries who are considering improving their growth level. Scholars also can get insights from this research to gain insights regarding the validity of the Environmental Determinism the institutional theory in the entrepreneurship contest. In addition, it also highlights the obstacles of corruption in developing countries.

Keywords: taxes, corruption, entrepreneurship, across countries

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87 Pakistan’s Taxation System: A Critical Appraisal

Authors: Khalid Javed, Rashid Mahmood

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The constitution empowers the Federal Government to collect taxes on income other than agricultural income, taxes on capital value, customs, excise duties and sales taxes. The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) and its subordinate departments administer the tax system. Each of the three principal taxes has a different history and different set of issues. For a large number of income tax payers the core of the business process is pre-audit and assessment by a tax official. This process gives considerable discretion to tax officials, with potential for abuse. Moreover, this process is also not tenable as the number of taxpayers increase. The report is focused on a total overhaul of the process and organization of income tax. Sales tax is recent and its process and organization is adjusted to the needs of an expanding tax base. These are based on self-assessment and selective audit. Similarly, in customs the accent is on accelerating and broadening the changes begun in recent years. Before long, central excise will be subsumed in sales tax. During the nineties, despite many changes in the tax regime and introduction of withholding and presumptive taxes, Federal Government tax to GDP ratio has varied narrowly around eleven percent. The tax base has grown but still remains narrow and skewed. The number of income tax filers is around one million.

Keywords: central board of revenue, GDP, sale tax, income tax

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86 The Decision-Making Mechanisms of Tax Regulations

Authors: Nino Pailodze, Malkhaz Sulashvili, Vladimer Kekenadze, Tea Khutsishvili, Irma Makharashvili, Aleksandre Kekenadze

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In the nearest future among the important problems which Georgia has solve the most important is economic stability, that bases on fiscal policy and the proper definition of the its directions. The main source of the Budget revenue is the national income. The State uses taxes, loans and emission in order to create national income, were the principal weapon are taxes. As well as fiscal function of the fulfillment of the budget, tax systems successfully implement economic and social development and the regulatory functions of foreign economic relations. A tax is a mandatory, unconditional monetary payment to the budget made by a taxpayer in accordance with this Code, based on the necessary, nonequivalent and gratuitous character of the payment. Taxes shall be national and local. National taxes shall be the taxes provided for under this Code, the payment of which is mandatory across the whole territory of Georgia. Local taxes shall be the taxes provided for under this Code, introduced by normative acts of local self-government representative authorities (within marginal rates), the payment of which is mandatory within the territory of the relevant self-governing unit. National taxes have the leading role in tax systems, but also the local taxes have an importance role in tax systems. Exactly in the means of local taxes, the most part of the budget is formatted. National taxes shall be: income tax, profit tax, value added tax (VAT), excise tax, import duty, property tax shall be a local tax The property tax is one of the significant taxes in Georgia. The paper deals with the taxation mechanism that has been operated in Georgia. The above mention has the great influence in financial accounting. While comparing foreign legislation towards Georgian legislation we discuss the opportunity of using their experience. Also, we suggested recommendations in order to improve the tax system in financial accounting. In addition to accounting, which is regulated according the International Accounting Standards we have tax accounting, which is regulated by the Tax Code, various legal orders / regulations of the Minister of Finance. The rules are controlled by the tax authority, Revenue Service. The tax burden from the tax values are directly related to expenditures of the state from the emergence of the first day. Fiscal policy of the state is as well as expenditure of the state and decisions of taxation. In order to get the best and the most effective mobilization of funds, Government’s primary task is to decide the kind of taxation rules. Tax function is to reveal the substance of the act. Taxes have the following functions: distribution or the fiscal function; Control and regulatory functions. Foreign tax systems evolved in the different economic, political and social conditions influence. The tax systems differ greatly from each other: taxes, their structure, typing means, rates, the different levels of fiscal authority, the tax base, the tax sphere of action, the tax breaks.

Keywords: international accounting standards, financial accounting, tax systems, financial obligations

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85 Tax System Reform in Nepal: Analysis of Contemporary Issues, Challenges, and Ways Forward

Authors: Dilliram Paudyal

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The history of taxation in Nepal dates back to antiquity. However, the modern tax system gained its momentum after the establishment of democracy in 1951, which initially focused only land tax and tariff on foreign trade. In the due time, several taxes were introduced, such as direct taxes, indirect taxes, and non-taxes. However, the tax structure in Nepal is heavily dominated by indirect taxes that contribute more than 60 % of the total revenue. The government has been mobilizing revenues through a series of tax reforms during the Tenth Five-year Plan (2002 – 2007) and successive Three-year Interim Development Plans by introducing several tax measures. However, these reforms are regressive in nature, which does not lead the overall economy towards short-run stability as well as in the long run development. Based on the literature review and discussion among government officials and few taxpayers individually and groups, this paper aims to major issues and challenges that hinder the tax reform effective in Nepal. Additionally, this paper identifies potential way and process of tax reform in Nepal. The results of the study indicate that transparency in a major problem in Nepalese tax system in Nepal, where serious structural constraints with administrative and procedural complexities envisaged in the Income Tax Act and taxpayers are often unaware of the specific size of tax which is to comply them. Some other issues include high tax rate, limited tax base, leakages in tax collection, rigid and complex Income Tax Act, inefficient and corrupt tax administration, limited potentialities of direct taxes and negative responsiveness of land tax with higher administrative costs. In the context, modality of tax structure and mobilize additional resources is to be rectified on a greater quantum by establishing an effective, dynamic and highly power driven Autonomous Revenue Board.

Keywords: corrupt, development, inefficient, taxation

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84 The Role of the State Budget: An Evaluation of Public Expenditures and Taxes in Turkey

Authors: Erdal Eroğlu, Özhan Çetinkaya

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The purpose of this paper is to show how state plays a regulatory role in the relations of distribution by analyzing tax and expenditure in Turkey. This paper has two main arguments. First, state intervenes in economic and social life via budget policies and steers the relations of distribution within the scope of the reproduction of the capital accumulation and legitimacy. Secondly, a great amount of public expenditure benefits capital owners while state gains its tax income mainly from low and middle income groups.

Keywords: distribution, public expenditure, state budget, taxes

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83 Piaui Solar: State Development Impulsed by Solar Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: Amanda Maria Rodrigues Barroso, Ary Paixao Borges Santana Junior, Caio Araujo Damasceno

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In Piauí, the Brazilian state, solar energy has become one of the renewable sources targeted by internal and external investments, with the intention of leveraging the development of society. However, for a residential or business consumer to be able to deploy this source, there is usually a need for a high initial investment due to its high cost. The countless high taxes on equipment and services are one of the factors that contribute to this cost and ultimately fall on the consumer. Through analysis, a way of reducing taxes is sought in order to encourage consumer adhesion to the use of photovoltaic solar energy. Thus, the objective is to implement the Piauí Solar Program in the state of Piauí in order to stimulate the deployment of photovoltaic solar energy, through benefits granted to users, providing state development by boosting the diversification of the state's energy matrix. The research method adopted was based on the analysis of data provided by the Teresina City Hall, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and by a private company in the capital of Piauí. The account was taken of the total amount paid in Property and Urban Territorial Property Tax (IPTU), in electricity and in the service of installing photovoltaic panels in a residence with 6 people. Through Piauí Solar, a discount of 80% would be applied to the taxes present in the budgets regarding the implementation of these photovoltaic plates in homes and businesses, as well as in the IPTU. In addition, another factor also taken into account is the energy savings generated after the implementation of these boards. In the studied residence, the annual payment of IPTU went from R $ 99.83 reais to R $ 19.96, the reduction of taxes present in the budget for the implantation of solar panels, caused the value to increase from R $ 42,744.22 to R $ 37,241.98. The annual savings in electricity bills were estimated at around R $ 6,000. Therefore, there is a reduction of approximately 24% in the total invested. The trend of the Piauí Solar program, then, is to bring benefits to the state, providing an improvement in the living conditions of the population, through the savings generated by this program. In addition, an increase in the diversification of the Piauí energy matrix can be seen with the advancement of the use of this renewable energy.

Keywords: development, economy, energy, taxes

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82 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

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The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
81 Cost Diminution in Supply Chain of a Dairy Industry

Authors: Naveed Ahmed Khan

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The ever increasing importance of food industry cannot be denied and especially in the wake of escalating population and prices both in developing and developed nations. Thus, this issue demands the attention of researchers especially in the area of supply chain to identify cost diminution waste eliminating supply chain practices in the said industry. For such purpose the 'Dairy Division' of Engro Foods Limited, one of the biggest food companies in Pakistan was taken into consideration in a case study manner. Based on the literature review and interviews following variables were obtained: energy, losses, maintenance, taxes, and logistics. Having studied the said variables, it was concluded that management of relevant industries operating in a comparable environment need to efficiently manage two major areas: energy and taxes. On the other hand, similar kind of other organizations could be benefited by adopting the proficient supply chain practices being observed at dairy division of Engro foods limited.

Keywords: cost diminution, supply chain, dairy industry, Engro Foods Limited

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80 The German Air Passenger Tax: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Outflows

Authors: Paul Gurr, Maik Moser

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In Europe, some countries recently abolished air passenger taxes (APT), while others issued or consider issuing an APT. From a fiscal perspective, APT can benefit the environment, while generating a vast amount of tax revenue with relatively low administration costs. However, they may have significant negative effects on the economy. Focusing on the German air passenger tax issued 2011, this work estimates the elasticity of tourism outflows using data on passenger departures from German airports between 2010 and 2016 aggregated by destination country. The results are obtained by estimating a model of the demand for outbound tourism. In line with theory, the regression results indicate a negative relationship between taxes and departures from Germany. Furthermore, on average, an increase of the air passenger tax rate results in a relatively higher decrease of passenger departures. The elasticity of tourism outflows can be used to estimate tax revenue changes and hence evaluate possible policy actions. Neglecting environmental reasons, the results suggest that tax revenue might be maximized by reducing the air passenger tax rate. Besides Germany, this work is also important for countries which have or consider implementing APT.

Keywords: air passenger tax, Germany, Outbound tourism, panel data

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79 Should Local Governments Expect Benefits from Special Economic Zones: The Case of Poland

Authors: Radosław Pastusiak, Anna Kaźmierska, Magdalena Jasiniak

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The impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) has been analyzed for many years by researchers. There are lot of theoretical studies proving the SEZs importance for regional development, however, there is lack of empirical studies (and they are mainly focused on China market) that are based on available data. The theoretical studies indicate the various impacts of enterprises operating within SEZs on the economy. The article proves that, in case of Poland, locating SEZs in municipalities is an important part of increasing municipalities’ income. Therefore SEZs have a positive impact on regional development. Municipality income is understood as taxes paid by taxpayers who depend on SEZ companies’ performance. The analysis includes the Corporate Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT) and real estate tax. The effects of SEZs on regional development were narrowed to a few variables that are most significant for the financial system. The analysis indicates the significant impact of SEZs on the amount of taxes influencing the municipality budget.

Keywords: special economic zone, local finance, municipal finance, government

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78 Artificial Intelligent Tax Simulator to Minimize Tax Liability for Multinational Corporations

Authors: Sean Goltz, Michael Mayo

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The purpose of this research is to use Global-Regulation.com database of the world laws, focusing on tax treaties between countries, in order to create an AI-driven tax simulator that will run an AI agent through potential tax scenarios across countries. The AI agent goal is to identify the scenario that will result in minimum tax liability based on tax treaties between countries. The results will be visualized by a three dimensional matrix. This will be an online web application. Multinational corporations are running their business through multiple countries. These countries, in turn, have a tax treaty with many other countries to regulate the payment of taxes on income that is transferred between these countries. As a result, planning the best tax scenario across multiple countries and numerous tax treaties is almost impossible. This research propose to use Global-Regulation.com database of word laws in English (machine translated by Google and Microsoft API’s) in order to create a simulator that will include the information in the tax treaties. Once ready, an AI agent will be sent through the simulator to identify the scenario that will result in minimum tax liability. Identifying the best tax scenario across countries may save multinational corporations, like Google, billions of dollars annually. Given the nature of the raw data and the domain of taxes (i.e., numbers), this is a promising ground to employ artificial intelligence towards a practical and beneficial purpose.

Keywords: taxation, law, multinational, corporation

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77 Production Sharing Contracts Transparency Simulation

Authors: Chariton Christou, David Cornwell

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Production Sharing Contract (PSC) is the type of contract that is being used widely in our time. The financial crisis made the governments tightfisted and they do not have the resources to participate in a development of a field. Therefore, more and more countries introduce the PSC. The companies have the power and the money to develop the field with their own way. The main problem is the transparency of oil and gas companies especially in the PSC and how this can be achieved. Many discussions have been made especially in the U.K. What we are suggesting is a dynamic financial simulation with the help of a flow meter. The flow meter will count the production of each field every day (it will be installed in a pipeline). The production will be the basic input of the simulation. It will count the profit, the costs and more according to the information of the flow meter. In addition it will include the terms of the contract and the costs that have been paid. By all these parameters the simulation will be able to present in real time the information of a field (taxes, employees, R-factor). By this simulation the company will share some information with the government but not all of them. The government will know the taxes that should be paid and what is the sharing percentage of it. All of the other information could be confidential for the company. Furthermore, oil company could control the R-factor by changing the production each day to maximize its sharing percentages and as a result of this the profit. This idea aims to change the way that governments 'control' oil companies and bring a transparency evolution in the industry. With the help of a simulation every country could be next to the company and have a better collaboration.

Keywords: production sharing contracts, transparency, simulation

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76 Rotection of Old Grant Communal Properties of Minorities in Cantonment of Pakistan: Issues and Problems

Authors: Nayer Fardows, Zarash Nayer, Sarah Nayer Jaffar, Daud Nayer

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This paper analyses the issues related to communal properties of minorities in the cantonment area of Pakistan allotted in the mid-eighteenth centuries by the British Government to facilitate soldiers. These properties were old grants on which churches, institutes, hospitals, and residences were built. The ownership of these properties remained with British Government, but after the creation of Pakistan, changes by putting Government of Pakistan as the landlord of the property disturbed the inheritors as they remained as, holder of occupancy. The government of Pakistan issued a policy in 1997 to convert the status of old grant properties to regular lease. However, heavy taxes and high court’s decisions made it difficult to solve the issue. The study was conducted on six old grant properties of Edwardes College Peshawar cantonment situated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The paper is descriptive research with a qualitative approach collecting data through government rules, acts, ordinance and decisions of the high courts. The result leads to three aspects; 1) holder of occupancy status of old grant properties in cantonment is similar as allotment of other properties by the government, 2) imposition of heavy taxes on conversion of property from old grant to regular lease restricted inheritors to further construct or transfer, 3) imposition of higher courts ban on conversion of communal properties contradict government policy of conversion. The paper recommends the Government of Pakistan a solution to maintain the status quo for communal properties that fall within the old grant.

Keywords: British Government, communal properties, cantonment, old grant, institutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
75 Economic Policy Promoting Economically Rational Behavior of Start-Up Entrepreneurs in Georgia

Authors: Gulnaz Erkomaishvili

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Introduction: The pandemic and the current economic crisis have created problems for entrepreneurship and, therefore for start-up entrepreneurs. The paper presents the challenges of start-up entrepreneurs in Georgia in the time of pandemic and the analysis of the state economic policy measures. Despite many problems, the study found that in 54.2% of start-ups surveyed under the pandemic, innovation opportunities were growing. It can be stated that the pandemic was a good opportunity to increase the innovative capacity of the enterprise. 52% of the surveyed start-up entrepreneurs managed to adapt to the current situation and increase the sale of their products/services through remote channels. As for the assessment of state support measures by start-up entrepreneurs, a large number of Georgian start-ups do not assess the measures implemented by the state positively. Methodology: The research process uses methods of analysis and synthesis, quantitative and qualitative, interview/survey, grouping, relative and average values, graphing, comparison, data analysis, and others. Main Findings: Studies have shown that for the start-up entrepreneurs, the main problem remains: inaccessible funding, workers' qualifications gap, inflation, taxes, regulation, political instability, inadequate provision of infrastructure, amount of taxes, and other factors. Conclusions: The state should take the following measures to support business start-ups: create an attractive environment for investment, availability of soft loans, creation of an insurance system, infrastructure development, increase the effectiveness of tax policy (simplicity of the tax system, clarity, optimal tax level ); promote export growth (develop strategy for opening up international markets, build up a broad marketing network, etc.).

Keywords: start-up entrepreneurs, startups, start-up entrepreneurs support programs, start-up entrepreneurs support economic policy

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74 Planning Urban Sprawl in Mining Areas in Africa: How to Ensure Coherent Development

Authors: Pascal Rey, Anaïs Weber

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Many mining projects are being developed in Africa the last decades. Due to the economic opportunities they offer, these projects result in a massive and rapid influx of migrants to the surrounding area. In areas where central government representation is low and local administration lack financial resources, urban development is often anarchical, beyond all public control. It leads to socio-spatial segregation, insecurity and the risk of social conflicts rising. Aware that their economic development is very correlated with local situation, mining companies get more and more involved in regional planning in setting up tools and Strategic Directions document. One of the commonly used tools in this regard is the “Influx Management Plan”. It consists in looking at the region’s absorption capacities in order to ensure its coherent development and by developing several urban centers than one macrocephalic city. It includes many other measures such as urban governance support, skills transfer, creation of strategic guidelines, financial support (local taxes, mining taxes, development funds etc.) local development projects. Through various examples of mining projects in Guinea, A country that is host to many large mining projects, we will look at the implications of regional and urban planning of which mining companies are key playor as well as public authorities. While their investment capacity offers advantages and accelerates development, their actions raise questions of the unilaterality of interests and local governance. By interfering in public affairs are mining companies not increasing the risk of central and local government shirking their responsibilities in terms of regional development, or even calling their legitimacy into question? Is such public-private collaboration really sustainable for the region as a whole and for all stakeholders?

Keywords: Africa, guinea, mine, urban planning

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73 Accidental U.S. Taxpayers Residing Abroad: Choosing between U.S. Citizenship or Keeping Their Local Investment Accounts

Authors: Marco Sewald

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Due to the current enforcement of exterritorial U.S. legislation, up to 9 million U.S. (dual) citizens residing abroad are subject to U.S. double and surcharge taxation and at risk of losing access to otherwise basic financial services and investment opportunities abroad. The United States is the only OECD country that taxes non-resident citizens, lawful permanent residents and other non-resident aliens on their worldwide income, based on local U.S. tax laws. To enforce these policies the U.S. has implemented ‘saving clauses’ in all tax treaties and implemented several compliance provisions, including the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), Qualified Intermediaries Agreements (QI) and Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) addressing Foreign Financial Institutions (FFIs) to implement these provisions in foreign jurisdictions. This policy creates systematic cases of double and surcharge taxation. The increased enforcement of compliance rules is creating additional report burdens for U.S. persons abroad and FFIs accepting such U.S. persons as customers. FFIs in Europe react with a growing denial of specific financial services to this population. The numbers of U.S. citizens renouncing has dramatically increased in the last years. A case study is chosen as an appropriate methodology and research method, as being an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. This evaluative approach is testing whether the combination of policies works in practice, or whether they are in accordance with desirable moral, political, economical aims, or may serve other causes. The research critically evaluates the financial and non-financial consequences and develops sufficient strategies. It further discusses these strategies to avoid the undesired consequences of exterritorial U.S. legislation. Three possible strategies are resulting from the use cases: (1) Duck and cover, (2) Pay U.S. double/surcharge taxes, tax preparing fees and accept imposed product limitations and (3) Renounce U.S. citizenship and pay possible exit taxes, tax preparing fees and the requested $2,350 fee to renounce. While the first strategy is unlawful and therefore unsuitable, the second strategy is only suitable if the U.S. citizen residing abroad is planning to move to the U.S. in the future. The last strategy is the only reasonable and lawful way provided by the U.S. to limit the exposure to U.S. double and surcharge taxation and the limitations on financial products. The results are believed to add a perspective to the current academic discourse regarding U.S. citizenship based taxation, currently dominated by U.S. scholars, while providing sufficient strategies for the affected population at the same time.

Keywords: citizenship based taxation, FATCA, FBAR, qualified intermediaries agreements, renounce U.S. citizenship

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72 Decreasing Non-Compliance with the Garbage Collection Fee Payment: A Case Study from the Intervention in a Municipality in the Slovak Republic

Authors: Anetta Caplanova, Eva Sirakovova, Estera Szakadatova

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Non-payment of taxes and fees represents a problem, which occurs at national and local government levels in many countries. An effective tax collection is key for generating government and local government budget revenues to finance public services and infrastructure; thus, there is the need to address this problem. The standard approach considers as a solution raising taxes/fees to boost public revenues, which may be politically challenging and time-consuming to implement. An alternative approach is related to using behavioral interventions. These can be usually implemented relatively quickly, and in most cases, they are associated with low cost. In the paper, we present the results of the behavioral experiment focused on raising the level of compliance with the payment of garbage collection fees in a selected municipality in the Slovak Republic. The experiment was implemented using the leaflets sent to residential households together with the invoice for the garbage collection in the municipality Hlohovec, Western Slovakia, in Spring 2021. The sample of about 10000 households was divided into three random groups, a control group and two intervention groups. Households in intervention group 1 were sent a leaflet using the social norm nudge, while households in intervention group 2 were sent a leaflet using the deterrence nudge. The social norm framing leaflet pointed out that in the municipality, the prevailing majority of people paid the garbage collection fee and encouraged recipients to join this majority. The deterrent leaflet reminded the recipients that if they did not pay the fee on time, enforcement proceedings would follow. This was aimed to increase the subjective perception of citizens of the enforcement proceedings in case of noncompliance. In the paper, we present and discuss the results from the experiment and formulate relevant generalizations for other municipalities.

Keywords: municipal governments, garbage fee collection, behavioural intervention, social norm, deterrence nudge

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71 Institutional Quality and Tax Compliance: A Cross-Country Regression Evidence

Authors: Debi Konukcu Onal, Tarkan Cavusoglu

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In modern societies, the costs of public goods and services are shared through taxes paid by citizens. However, taxation has always been a frictional issue, as tax obligations are perceived to be a financial burden for taxpayers rather than being merit that fulfills the redistribution, regulation and stabilization functions of the welfare state. The tax compliance literature evolves into discussing why people still pay taxes in systems with low costs of legal enforcement. Related empirical and theoretical works show that a wide range of socially oriented behavioral factors can stimulate voluntary compliance and subversive effects as well. These behavioral motivations are argued to be driven by self-enforcing rules of informal institutions, either independently or through interactions with legal orders set by formal institutions. The main focus of this study is to investigate empirically whether institutional particularities have a significant role in explaining the cross-country differences in the tax noncompliance levels. A part of the controversy about the driving forces behind tax noncompliance may be attributed to the lack of empirical evidence. Thus, this study aims to fill this gap through regression estimates, which help to trace the link between institutional quality and noncompliance on a cross-country basis. Tax evasion estimates of Buehn and Schneider is used as the proxy measure for the tax noncompliance levels. Institutional quality is quantified by three different indicators (percentile ranks of Worldwide Governance Indicators, ratings of the International Country Risk Guide, and the country ratings of the Freedom in the World). Robust Least Squares and Threshold Regression estimates based on the sample of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries imply that tax compliance increases with institutional quality. Moreover, a threshold-based asymmetry is detected in the effect of institutional quality on tax noncompliance. That is, the negative effects of tax burdens on compliance are found to be more pronounced in countries with institutional quality below a certain threshold. These findings are robust to all alternative indicators of institutional quality, supporting the significant interaction of societal values with the individual taxpayer decisions.

Keywords: institutional quality, OECD economies, tax compliance, tax evasion

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70 Economic Neoliberalism: Property Right and Redistribution Policy

Authors: Aleksandar Savanović

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In this paper we will analyze the relationship between the neo-liberal concept of property rights and redistribution policy. This issue is back in the focus of interest due to the crisis 2008. The crisis has reaffirmed the influence of the state on the free-market processes. The interference of the state with property relations re-opened a classical question: is it legitimate to redistribute resources of a man in favor of another man with taxes? The dominant view is that the neoliberal philosophy of natural rights is incompatible with redistributive measures. In principle, this view can be accepted. However, when we look into the details of the theory of natural rights proposed by some coryphaei of neoliberal philosophy, such as Hayek, Nozick, Buchanan and Rothbard, we can see that it is not such an unequivocal view.

Keywords: economic neoliberalism, natural law, property, redistribution

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69 An Econometric Analysis of the Flat Tax Revolution

Authors: Wayne Tarrant, Ethan Petersen

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The concept of a flat tax goes back to at least the Biblical tithe. A progressive income tax was first vociferously espoused in a small, but famous, pamphlet in 1848 (although England had an emergency progressive tax for war costs prior to this). Within a few years many countries had adopted the progressive structure. The flat tax was only reinstated in some small countries and British protectorates until Mart Laar was elected Prime Minister of Estonia in 1992. Since Estonia’s adoption of the flat tax in 1993, many other formerly Communist countries have likewise abandoned progressive income taxes. Economists had expectations of what would happen when a flat tax was enacted, but very little work has been done on actually measuring the effect. With a testbed of 21 countries in this region that currently have a flat tax, much comparison is possible. Several countries have retained progressive taxes, giving an opportunity for contrast. There are also the cases of Czech Republic and Slovakia, which have adopted and later abandoned the flat tax. Further, with over 20 years’ worth of economic history in some flat tax countries, we can begin to do some serious longitudinal study. In this paper we consider many economic variables to determine if there are statistically significant differences from before to after the adoption of a flat tax. We consider unemployment rates, tax receipts, GDP growth, Gini coefficients, and market data where the data are available. Comparisons are made through the use of event studies and time series methods. The results are mixed, but we draw statistically significant conclusions about some effects. We also look at the different implementations of the flat tax. In some countries there are equal income and corporate tax rates. In others the income tax has a lower rate, while in others the reverse is true. Each of these sends a clear message to individuals and corporations. The policy makers surely have a desired effect in mind. We group countries with similar policies, try to determine if the intended effect actually occurred, and then report the results. This is a work in progress, and we welcome the suggestion of variables to consider. Further, some of the data from before the fall of the Iron Curtain are suspect. Since there are new ruling regimes in these countries, the methods of computing different statistical measures has changed. Although we first look at the raw data as reported, we also attempt to account for these changes. We show which data seem to be fictional and suggest ways to infer the needed statistics from other data. These results are reported beside those on the reported data. Since there is debate about taxation structure, this paper can help inform policymakers of change the flat tax has caused in other countries. The work shows some strengths and weaknesses of a flat tax structure. Moreover, it provides beginnings of a scientific analysis of the flat tax in practice rather than having discussion based solely upon theory and conjecture.

Keywords: flat tax, financial markets, GDP, unemployment rate, Gini coefficient

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68 The Impacts of Natural Resources-Funded Infrastructure Investment in Africa: Evidence from Guinea-Bissau

Authors: Julio Vicente Cateia

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the economic impacts of infrastructure investment in Africa, focusing on the Guinea-Bissau economy. Through a dynamic CGE model, we find that the natural resource revenues (or aid)-funded infrastructure investments generate externalities that increase factor returns. The private investment improvements propagate externalities effects on GDP and job opportunities outcomes. Household income and consumption were positively impacted, though the poorer benefited the most. The income inequality has reduced. However, funding by the mix of debt and direct taxes produces opposite effects. We suggest a potential pro-poor growth agenda in Africa.

Keywords: infrastructure investment, poverty alleviation, CGE modeling, African economies, applied economics

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67 Zeros Elimination from the National Currency

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of accounting for the implementation of the VAT system in the country. For this purpose, after the evaluation of specifications and important advantages of the VAT and the experience of other countries, important role of accounting in the precise determination of taxes, strategies to prevent escape of tax and realization of tax revenues of government, necessary control to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations discussed. High-dependence of government to borrowing from the banking system and inflation tax and a low general ratio of tax revenues to GDP, indicating the inadequacy of the country's tax system. It can be said that being of a proper accounting system consider as a prerequisite for successful implementation of VAT in the country. So it's crucial for accountants with responsibility announce its full fitness to meet the requirements. For successful implementation of VAT as such a multi-stage sales tax and the tax on the price.

Keywords: accounting, tax reform in Iran, Value Added Tax (VAT), economic

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66 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

Abstract:

Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: energy savings, energy efficiency, energy policy, white certificates

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65 Role of Tourism Cluster in Improvement of Economic Competitiveness of Georgia

Authors: Alexander Sharashenidze

Abstract:

This article discusses the role of tourism in the economics of Georgia, justifies the necessity of several governmental supporting tools for diversification of tourism product and increasing competitiveness. Tourism directions are characterized through discovering Georgian tourism potential, considering cultural and geographical features; tools of formating supplemental products and development opportunities of Tbilisi and, also regions are asserted in the case of conducting appropriate government policy. There are presented tools of suggesting innovative tourism products, improvement of service, decreasing taxes, also providing availability to them. The role of tourism cluster in improvement of national competitiveness is substantiated. Based on the analysis of competitive factors influencing the development of tourism cluster, conclusions are made, and recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: economic competitivness, enhancing competitiveness, Georgian economic, tourism cluster, tourism product

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64 The Characteristics of a Fair and Efficient Tax Auditing Information System as a Tool against Tax Evasion: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Dimitris Balios, Stefanos Tantos

Abstract:

Economic growth and social evolution are connected to trust relationships in a society. The quality of the accounting information, the tax information system and the tax audit mechanism evolve multiple benefits in an economy. Tax evasion, the illegal practice where people and companies do not pay taxes, is a crime because of the negative effect in economy and society. In this paper, we describe a theoretical framework on the characteristics of a fair and efficient tax auditing information system which could be a tool against tax evasion, a tool for an economy to grow, especially in countries that face fluctuations in economic activity. We conclude that a fair and efficient tax auditing information system increases the reliability of tax administration, improves taxpayers’ tax compliance and causes a developmental trajectory for the economy.

Keywords: auditing information system, auditing mechanism, tax evasion, taxation

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63 Two Steady States and Two Movement Patterns under the Balanced Budget Rule: An Economy with Divisible Labor

Authors: Fujio Takata

Abstract:

When governments levy taxes on labor income on the basis of a balanced budget rule, two steady states in an economy exist, of which one can cause two movement patterns, namely, indeterminacy paths and a saddle path. However, in this paper, we assume an economy with divisible labor, in which labor adjustment is made by an intensive margin. We demonstrate that there indeed exist the two paths in the economy and that there exists a critical condition dividing them. This is proved by establishing the relationship between a finite elasticity of labor with regard to real wages and the share of capital in output. Consequently, we deduce the existence of an upper limit in the share of capital in output for indeterminacy to occur. The largest possible value of that share is less than 0.5698.

Keywords: balanced budget rule, divisible labor, labor income taxation, two movement patterns

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62 The Reflection of Greek Reality Concerning Taxation from the Perspective of Both Tax Payers and Taxmen

Authors: Evagelia Makri, Maria Tsourela, Dimitris Paschaloudis, Dafni M. Nerantzaki

Abstract:

One of the biggest financial and social problems, which at the same time constitute one of the greater challenges that Greek society faces today, is the illegal avoidance of tax payments. Tax evasion may negate financial data and community budgets, as well as breed financial chaos. This research seeks to reflect Greek reality concerning tax measures. Also, there will be an effort to record the factors surrounding tax evasion. Greek tax system’s data will be rendered in financial terms. Questionnaires will be handed out to tax payers, and interviews will be conducted to taxmen. The quantitative analysis of the questionnaire answers will define the tax payers’ opinion towards the existence of tax evasion. The qualitative analysis of the interviews will reveal the main reason that boosts tax evasion. At the end, there will be some realistic proposals about how to better collect taxes, through the creation of a strong regulatory mechanism.

Keywords: tax evasion, tax collection measures, insurance recovery measures, Greek tax system

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61 Evaluating Bus System as a Transportation Mode in Gaza Strip–Palestine Using GIS

Authors: Mohammed Alokshiya, Alaeddinne D. Eljamassi

Abstract:

This study discusses the condition of bus service in Gaza Strip through testing certain hypotheses assuming that public is not satisfied with bus system in Gaza. This testing is proceeded using questionnaire. The study also includes the evaluation of ten bus stops in Gaza city as a case study using GIS, and suggests a design case study for the bus system in the university zone in Gaza city. The research indicates that there is a general dissatisfaction with bus system in Gaza Strip, with respect to buses in service, drivers and bus stops. The study also gives a design for a bus stop and its frequency in university zone in Gaza city. Finally, the researcher recommends that more interest should be given to bus system, through actual procedures such as insuring the suitability of bus for transferring passengers before updating bus license, decreasing taxes of importing new buses, and holding awareness raising sessions for bus drivers.

Keywords: public transport, bus system, public satisfaction, bus stop locating

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60 Key Factors Influencing the Purchasing Decisions of Low Emission Cars: A Comparative Study between Egypt and Slovenia

Authors: O. Alaa, D. Ahmed, R. Baher, K. Matjaz

Abstract:

This paper provides a study of the factors influencing the purchasing of low emission vehicles. In order to achieve the objectives of the paper, and in the light of the pool of literature and availability of data, the authors relied on qualitative methods to offers a comparison between Egypt as a developing country and Slovenia as a developed country, through analysing a survey that involves an Egyptian sample and Slovenian samples, it also studies the effect of different push and pull methods on different buyers in order to help the governments as well as the manufacturers to understand the most significant factors that affect the purchasing behaviour of LEV in the future. The results of this paper show the important vehicle performance factors, financial considerations, and environmental considerations along with the gender and age of the consumer show that consumers are more interested in the total price of the car than in different taxes.

Keywords: low emission vehicles, purchasing behavior, developed countries, developing countries

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