Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3353

Search results for: government spending

3353 Estimating the Government Consumption and Investment Multipliers Using Local Projection Method on the US Data from 1966 to 2020

Authors: Mustofa Mahmud Al Mamun

Abstract:

Government spending, one of the major components of gross domestic product (GDP), is composed of government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. A change in government spending during recessionary periods can generate an increase in GDP greater than the increase in spending. This is called the "multiplier effect". Accurate estimation of government spending multiplier is important because fiscal policy has been used to stimulate a flagging economy. Many recent studies have focused on identifying parts of the economy that responds more to a stimulus under a variety of circumstances. This paper used the US dataset from 1966 to 2020 and local projection method assuming standard identification strategy to estimate the multipliers. The model includes important macroaggregates and controls for forecasted government spending, interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), export, import, and level of public debt. Investment multipliers are found to be positive and larger than the consumption multipliers. Consumption multipliers are either negative or not significantly different than zero. Results do not vary across the business cycle. However, the consumption multiplier estimated from pre-1980 data is positive.

Keywords: business cycle, consumption multipliers, forecasted government spending, investment multipliers, local projection method, zero lower bound

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3352 Environmental Policy Instruments and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: VAR Analysis

Authors: Veronika Solilová, Danuše Nerudová

Abstract:

The paper examines the interaction between the environmental taxation, size of government spending on environmental protection and greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption. The aim is to analyze the effects of environmental taxation and government spending on environmental protection as an environmental policy instruments on greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption in the EU15. The empirical study is performed using a VAR approach with the application of aggregated data of EU15 over the period 1995 to 2012. The results provide the evidence that the reactions of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption to the shocks of environmental policy instruments are strong, mainly in the short term and decay to zero after about 8 years. Further, the reactions of the environmental policy instruments to the shocks of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption are also strong in the short term, however with the deferred effects. In addition, the results show that government spending on environmental protection together with gross inland energy consumption has stronger effect on greenhouse gas emissions than environmental taxes in EU15 over the examined period.

Keywords: VAR analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, environmental taxation, government spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
3351 Government Size and Economic Growth: Testing the Non-Linear Hypothesis for Nigeria

Authors: R. Santos Alimi

Abstract:

Using time-series techniques, this study empirically tested the validity of existing theory which stipulates there is a nonlinear relationship between government size and economic growth; such that government spending is growth-enhancing at low levels but growth-retarding at high levels, with the optimal size occurring somewhere in between. This study employed three estimation equations. First, for the size of government, two measures are considered as follows: (i) share of total expenditures to gross domestic product, (ii) share of recurrent expenditures to gross domestic product. Second, the study adopted real GDP (without government expenditure component), as a variant measure of economic growth other than the real total GDP, in estimating the optimal level of government expenditure. The study is based on annual Nigeria country-level data for the period 1970 to 2012. Estimation results show that the inverted U-shaped curve exists for the two measures of government size and the estimated optimum shares are 19.81% and 10.98%, respectively. Finally, with the adoption of real GDP (without government expenditure component), the optimum government size was found to be 12.58% of GDP. Our analysis shows that the actual share of government spending on average (2000 - 2012) is about 13.4%.This study adds to the literature confirming that the optimal government size exists not only for developed economies but also for developing economy like Nigeria. Thus, a public intervention threshold level that fosters economic growth is a reality; beyond this point economic growth should be left in the hands of the private sector. This finding has a significant implication for the appraisal of government spending and budgetary policy design.

Keywords: public expenditure, economic growth, optimum level, fully modified OLS

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
3350 The Idea of Making of Corporate Social Responsibility Compulsory in India

Authors: Jagannath Mohanty, Shiv Nath Sinha

Abstract:

India is the first country in the world, where spending on Corporate Social Responsibily (CSR) has been made mandatory. Predominantly Indian enterprises have been philanthrophic for hundreds of years, where giving back to the society is the religious duty of the rich. Therefore Indian businesses have been voluntarily spending on CSR activities, while several businesses kept spending on non business activities a significant number of entrepreneurs abstained from social spending, leading Government of India to take the lesgislative route by mandating 2% spend of net profit on CSR activities failing which companeis will be dealt legally. While the legislation on suface appers progressive and pro social, yet the consequences of making a rather volutary action a legally binding act is yet to be seen. This paper examines the possible social impact of the legislation and potential response of the corporate to a legislation of this kind.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), companies act 2013, corporate citizenship, social spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
3349 Effect of Fiscal Policy on Growth in India

Authors: Parma Chakravartti

Abstract:

The impact of government spending and taxation on economic growth has remained a central issue of fiscal policy analysis. There is a wide range of opinions over the strength of fiscal policy’s effect on macroeconomic variables. It can be argued that the impact of fiscal policy depends on the structure and economic condition of the economy. This study makes an attempt to examine the effect of fiscal policy shocks on growth in India using the structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR), considering data from 1950 to 2019. The study finds that government spending is an important instrument of growth in India, where the share of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure plays a key role. The optimum composition of total expenditure is important for growth and it is not necessarily true that capital expenditure multiplier is more than revenue expenditure multiplier. The study also finds that the impact of public economic activities on private economic activities for both consumption expenditure and gross capital formation of government crowds in private consumption expenditure and private gross capital formation, respectively, thus indicating that government expenditure complements private expenditure in India.

Keywords: government spending, fiscal policy, multiplier, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3348 Public Spending and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis of Developed Countries

Authors: Bernur Acikgoz

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of public spending on economic growth and examine the sources of economic growth in developed countries since the 1990s. This paper analyses whether public spending effect on economic growth based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function with the two econometric models with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Fixed Effect (DFE) for 21 developed countries (high-income OECD countries), over the period 1990-2013. Our models results are parallel to each other and the models support that public spending has an important role for economic growth. This result is accurate with theories and previous empirical studies.

Keywords: public spending, economic growth, panel data, ARDL models

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
3347 An Exposition of Principles of Islamic Fiscal Policy

Authors: Muhammad A. Ishaq, S. U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper on an exposition of Islamic fiscal policy attempts to discuss the basic principles of Islamic fiscal policy in an Islamic economy. The paper presents a number of definitions of the subject matter, its nature and its tools of application. Government spending, taxation and public borrowings were identified as the tools of the policy. The paper identifies zakat both as a veritable source of revenue and a major instrument of economic stabilization. Furthermore, the paper presents an algebraic 2-sector and 3-sector models from the basic Keynesian model. The paper posits that in view of uniqueness of its instruments, absence of interest rate in the economy and the policy’s derive towards socioeconomic justice and redistribution, Islamic fiscal policy is capable of stabilizing Islamic economy and ushering it into the path of long term economic growth and prosperity.

Keywords: automatic built-in-stabilizers, government spending, Islamic fiscal policy, taxation, zakat

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3346 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3345 Health Expenditure and Household Age Composition in India: Consequences for Health System Development

Authors: Milind Bharambe, Chander Shekhar

Abstract:

India is a vast country with its 1.21 billion population at the dawn of new decade, which accounts for one sixth of the global human capital in the world today. It is well known that health expenditure in India is dominated by private spending. This is an unfortunate consequence of India’s development because of large positive externality associated with health spending, which make health a merit good. This paper has used data from NSSO and Indian Government’s spending on health as reported by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Understanding of the dynamism of age-structure of the population would greatly optimize the expenditure on health care services. A country with good public health indicators is bound to possess good human capital which is an asset to the economic growth and indicator of development status of country. The paper tries to present the linkages between the health expenditure incurred by different states at various levels of demographic transition levels and the efficiency in utilization of health expenditure. It also looks into the way in which allocative efficiency health services can be improved. Paper tries to explore the per capita spending on health and how the demographic transition taking place in different states of India affect the required quantity and quality of health services.

Keywords: age structure, demographic transition, health expenditure, morbidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3344 A Quantitative Study on the Structure of Corporate Social Responsibility in India

Authors: Raj C. Aparna

Abstract:

In India, the mandatory clause on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Companies Act, 2013 has led to varying responses from the companies. From excessive spending to resistance, the private and the public stakeholders have been considering the law from different perspectives. This paper tends to study the characteristics of CSR spending in India with emphasis on the locations to which the funds are routed. This study examines the effects of CSR fund flow on regional development by considering the growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), agriculture, education and healthcare using panel data for the 29 States in the country. The results confirm that the CSR funds have been instrumental in improving the quality of teaching and healthcare in the areas around the industrial hubs. However, the study shows that the corporates mostly invest in regions which are easily accessible to them, by their physical presence, irrespective of whether the area is developed or not. Such a skewness is visible in the extensive spending in and around the metropolitan cities, the established centers, in the country to which large chunks of CSR funds are channeled. The results show that there is a variation from what the government had proposed while initiating the CSR law to promote social inclusion and equality in the rural and isolated areas in the country. The implication is that even though societal improvement is the aim of CSR, ease of access to the needy is an essential factor in corporate choices. As poverty and lack of facilities are found in the innermost parts, it is vital to have government policies for their aid as corporate help.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, geographic spread, panel data analysis, strategic implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3343 Factors Influencing Disclosure and CSR Spending in Indian Companies: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Shekar Babu, Amalendu Jyothishi

Abstract:

The New Companies Bill-2013 in India has mandated all the companies with a certain profit to spend on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Despite the Corporate Governance (CG) compliances at the strategic level the firms have to engage in social good. For both the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) and the private companies in India the need for strategic CSR focus through operational efficiency measures are mandated. In this paper the focus is to find out if the Indian companies understand their responsibility towards the society despite government making CSR mandatory. Analyzing both the CPSEs and Private companies the researchers find out which set of companies behave responsibly towards the society. Does any particular industry group(s) impact the society by disclosing their CSR spending activities. The key financial and non-financial parameters that influence CSR spending were identified and through econometric analysis methodologies (logistic regression and OLS models) the results were analyzed. The innovative methods were developed to identify if the firms operate efficiently and at the same time complying with the new CSR laws. An innovative matrix was developed to explain how companies could operate efficiently and be compliant in parallel how some of the companies can strategically realign their spending by operating efficiently.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility(CSR), corporate governance(CG), India, logit function, ordinary least squares (OLS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
3342 Local Gambling Attitudes, Corporate R&D Investment and Long-Term Financial Performance

Authors: Hong Fan, Lifang Gao, Feng Zhan

Abstract:

This paper examines the influence of local gambling attitudes on a firm's long-term financial performance. Firms located in gambling-prone regions may be more willing to take risks, thus spending more on innovative projects. However, firms in such regions may also be likely to choose projects impulsively and allocate resources inefficiently. By studying Chinese publicly listed firms from 2010 to 2017, we find that firms in more gambling-prone regions invest more in R&D. Both local gambling attitudes and firms’ R&D spending are positively associated with firms’ long-term financial performance. More importantly, our study reveals that the positive impact of R&D spending on firms’ long-term financial performance is weakened by gambling-friendly attitudes, probably because firms in gambling-prone regions are more likely to overinvest in risky projects. This effect is stronger for larger firms, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), firms with more government subsidies, and firms with weaker internal control.

Keywords: regional gambling attitudes, long-term financial performance, R&D, risk, local bias

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
3341 Developing Human Resources through Inclusive Education: A Study of Effectiveness of Government Policies in India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Rajesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Human resource is the key point of success of any economy. From the past few decades, policies started to move in the route of expanding inclusive education with effective involvement of government.Governments of developing nations are generating policies for educational upliftment. Applying educational policies, the motive of the government is to maintain and develop the effective human resource within a society. The attention of the government includes primary education to higher education. It also involves professional training programmes related to every discipline. The aim of this paper is to find out the government policies in terms of expenditure and achievements for inclusive education to develop human resources in developing countries. A case of Indian experience has been taken into consideration. This approach generates a picture as to how India is enriching its educational system for human resource development and this research study will be useful for the policy makers to determine the appropriate level of overall spending of government and achievements in the education system for human resource development. Analytical research methodology has been adopted.

Keywords: government policies, inclusive education, National Educational Policy, NCERT

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3340 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram

Abstract:

Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3339 Assessing the Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy Changes in Egypt: A Bayesian Structural Vector Autoregression Approach

Authors: Walaa Diab, Baher Atlam, Nadia El Nimer

Abstract:

Egypt faces many obvious economic challenges, and it is so clear that a real economic transformation is needed to address those problems, especially after the recent decisions of floating the Egyptian pound and the gradual subsidy cuts that are trying to meet the needed conditions to get the IMF support of (a £12bn loan) for its economic reform program. Following the post-2008 revival of the interest in the fiscal policy and its vital role in speeding up or slowing down the economic growth. Here comes the value of this paper as it seeks to analyze the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in Egypt by applying A Bayesian SVAR Approach. The study uses the Bayesian method because it includes the prior information and no relevant information is omitted and so it is well suited for rational, evidence-based decision-making. Since the study aims to define the effects of fiscal policy shocks in Egypt to help the decision-makers in determining the proper means to correct the structural problems in the Egyptian economy, it has to study the period of 1990s economic reform, but unfortunately; the available data is on an annual frequency. Thus, it uses annual time series to study the period 1991: 2005 And quarterly data over the period 2006–2016. It uses a set of six main variables includes government expenditure and net tax revenues as fiscal policy arms affecting real GDP, unemployment, inflation and the interest rate. The study also tries to assess the 'crowding out' effects by considering the effects of government spending and government revenue shocks on the composition of GDP, namely, on private consumption and private investment. Last but not least the study provides its policy implications regarding the needed role of fiscal policy in Egypt in the upcoming economic reform building on the results it concludes from the previous reform program.

Keywords: fiscal policy, government spending, structural vector autoregression, taxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3338 The Potential of M-Government towards Successful Implementation of E-Government in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Ahmed Alfayad

Abstract:

Technology is now present in almost all areas and practices globally, and this has led governments around the world to adopt technology in the public sector. Therefore, electronic government has been introduced as a means of the automation of government services. New technologies and trends appear every single day, and governments need to meet the citizen’s requirements and expectations in order to succeed in the E-Government program. This research investigates the potential of mobile government as an enhancement force for the E-Government project in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the usage of mobile technology is coming to be favoured by citizens. Qualitative methodology has been adopted in this study for the data collection and analysis, and in particular the grounded theory approach.

Keywords: e-government, e-participation, m-government, mobile technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3337 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sinevičienė

Abstract:

Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: economic development, economic growth, government expenditure, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3336 Proposed Model to Assess E-Government Readiness in Jordan

Authors: Hadeel Abdulatif, Maha Alkhaffaf

Abstract:

E-government is the use of Information and Communication Technology to enrich the access to and delivery of government services to citizens, business partners and employees, Policy makers and regulatory bodies have to be cognizant of the degree of readiness of a populace in order to design and implement efficient e-government programs. This paper aims to provide a transparent situation analyses for the case of e-government official website in Jordan, it focuses on assessing e-government in Jordan; web site assessment by using international criteria for assessing e-government websites, However, the study analyses the environmental factor consisting of cultural and business environment factors. By reviewing the literature the researchers found that government's efforts towards e-government may vary according to the country's readiness and other key implementation factors which will lead to diverse e-government experience; thus, there is a need to study the impact of key factors to implement e-government in Jordan.

Keywords: e-government, environmental factors, website assessment, readiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
3335 Public Debt Shocks and Public Goods Provisioning in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

Authors: Amenawo I. Offiong, Hodo B. Riman

Abstract:

Public debt profile of Nigeria has continuously been on the increase over the years. The drop in international crude oil prices has further worsened revenue position of the country, thus, necessitating further acquisition of public debt to bridge the gap in revenue deficit. Yet, when we look back at the increasing public sector spending, there are concerns that the government spending do not amount to increase in public goods provided for the country. Using data from 1980 to 2014 the study therefore seeks to investigate the factors responsible for the poor provision of public goods in the face of increasing public debt profile. Using the unrestricted VAR model Governance and Tax revenue were introduced into the model as structural variables. The result suggested that governance and tax revenue were structural determinants of the effectiveness of public goods provisioning in Nigeria. The study therefore identified weak governance as the major reason for the non-provision of public goods in Nigeria. While tax revenue exerted positive influence on the provisions of public goods, weak/poor governance was observed to crowd the benefits from increase tax revenue. The study therefore recommends reappraisal of the governance system in Nigeria. Elected officers in governance should be more transparent and accountable to the electorates they represent. Furthermore, the study advocates for an annual auditing of all government MDAs accounts by external auditors to ensure (a) accountability of public debts utilization, (b) transparent in implementation of program support funds, (c) integrity of agencies responsible for program management, and (d) measuring program effectiveness with amount of funds expended.

Keywords: impulse response function, public debt shocks, governance, public goods, tax revenue, vector auto-regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
3334 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie

Abstract:

In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: e-government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3333 Determinants of E-Government Services Adoption from the African Students’ Perspective

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Jianing Mi, Cheng Feng

Abstract:

The patronage of e-government services (demand side of e-government) is vital to the successful implementation of e-government initiatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors determining the willingness of African students in China to adopt and use e-government services. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this research. Research instrument will be developed and administered to 500 African students in China. Factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and culture will be investigated to determine its significant impact on the willingness to use e-government services. This study is a research in progress. The outcome of this study will provide valuable recommendations to improve the provision of public services through e-government.

Keywords: e-government, e-government services, predictors, UTAUT

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
3332 Tapping into Debt: The Effect of Contactless Payment Methods on Overdraft Fee Occurrence

Authors: Merle Van Den Akker, Neil Stewart, Andrea Isoni

Abstract:

Contactless methods of payment referred to as tap&go, have become increasingly popular globally. However, little is known about the consequences of this payment method on spending, spending habits, personal finance management, and debt accumulation. The literature on other payment methods such as credit cards suggests that, through increased ease and reduced friction, the pain of paying in these methods is reduced, leading to higher and more frequent spending, resulting in higher debt accumulation. Within this research, we use a dataset of 300 million transactions of 165.000 individuals to see whether the onset of using contactless methods of payment increases the occurrence of overdraft fees. Using the R package MatchIt, we find, when matching people on initial overdraft occurrence and salary, that people who do start using contactless incur a significantly higher number of overdraft fees, as compared to those who do not start using contactless in the same year. Having accounted for income, opting-in, and time-of-year effects, these results show that contactless methods of payment fall within the scope of earlier theories on credit cards, such as the pain of paying, meaning that this payment method leads to increasing difficulties managing personal finance.

Keywords: contactless, debt accumulation, overdraft fees, payment methods, spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3331 Towards a Doughnut Economy: The Role of Institutional Failure

Authors: Ghada El-Husseiny, Dina Yousri, Christian Richter

Abstract:

Social services are often characterized by market failures, which justifies government intervention in the provision of these services. It is widely acknowledged that government intervention breeds corruption since resources are being transferred from one party to another. However, what is still being extensively studied is the magnitude of the negative impact of corruption on publicly provided services and development outcomes. Corruption has the power to hinder development and cripple our march towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Corruption diminishes the efficiency and effectiveness of public health and education spending and directly impacts the outcomes of these sectors. This paper empirically examines the impact of Institutional Failure on public sector services provision, with the sole purpose of studying the impact of corruption on SDG3 and 4; Good health and wellbeing and Quality education, respectively. The paper explores the effect of corruption on these goals from various perspectives and extends the analysis by examining if the impact of corruption on these goals differed when it accounted for the current corruption state. Using Pooled OLS(Ordinary Least Square) and Fixed effects panel estimation on 22 corrupt and 22 clean countries between 2000 and 2017. Results show that corruption in both corrupt and clean countries has a more severe impact on Health than the Education sector. In almost all specifications, corruption has an insignificant effect on School Enrollment rates but a significant effect on Infant Mortality rates. Results further indicate that, on average, a 1 point increase in the CPI(Consumer Price Index) can increase health expenditures by 0.116% in corrupt and clean countries. However, the fixed effects model indicates that the way Health and Education expenditures are determined in clean and corrupt countries are completely country-specific, in which corruption plays a minimal role. Moreover, the findings show that School Enrollment rates and Infant Mortality rates depend, to a large extent, on public spending. The most astounding results-driven is that corrupt countries, on average, have more effective and efficient healthcare expenditures. While some insights are provided as to why these results prevail, they should be further researched. All in all, corruption impedes development outcomes, and any Anti-corrupt policies taken will bring forth immense improvements and speed up the march towards sustainability.

Keywords: corruption, education, health, public spending, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
3330 Contribution Spending on Intellectual Capital in the Performance of Industrial Enterprise Case study: Sonatrach

Authors: Dahmani Aziz, Mekdad Yousra

Abstract:

The intellectual capital is an important source of profitability and the main supporter of the competitive where this study examines the contribution of expenditure on intellectual capital in the performance of industrial enterprises Algerian, and through a case study Sonatrach as the most important industrial enterprises in Algeria and the driving force of the Algerian economy. It has been the use of value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) in measuring the contribution of intellectual capital and analyzing data Sonatrach during the period from the year 2001 until the year 2012, and test the validity of hypotheses using Stepwise Regression model through the SPSS statistical software, and the study has proved the existence of a positive relationship between spending on human capital and financial performance and a stronger degree relationship between the structural capital and economic performance.

Keywords: industrial enterprise, intellectual capital, performance, economy of Algeria, spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
3329 A Comparative Analysis of E-Government Quality Models

Authors: Abdoullah Fath-Allah, Laila Cheikhi, Rafa E. Al-Qutaish, Ali Idri

Abstract:

Many quality models have been used to measure e-government portals quality. However, the absence of an international consensus for e-government portals quality models results in many differences in terms of quality attributes and measures. The aim of this paper is to compare and analyze the existing e-government quality models proposed in literature (those that are based on ISO standards and those that are not) in order to propose guidelines to build a good and useful e-government portals quality model. Our findings show that, there is no e-government portal quality model based on the new international standard ISO 25010. Besides that, the quality models are not based on a best practice model to allow agencies to both; measure e-government portals quality and identify missing best practices for those portals.

Keywords: e-government, portal, best practices, quality model, ISO, standard, ISO 25010, ISO 9126

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
3328 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3327 Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparative Study of Two Largest Banks in India

Authors: Navdeep Kaur

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility is the process through which the organizations execute their philanthropic visions for social welfare. This paper considers the data of one Public Sector Bank–State Bank of India (SBI) and one Private Sector Bank-Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) from the year 2008 to 2016. The study is based on descriptive research design, and secondary data collected from the annual report of respective bank from website and different literature are reviewed. Least Square Method is used for estimating CSR spending for the financial year 2017-18. The analysis shows that these banks are making efforts for the implementation of CSR, but are not spending their 2% share of profits on CSR. There is a need for better CSR activities by the banks, which is possible by concentrating more on the prevailing social issues. The finding reveals that the percentage of profit after tax spends for CSR by SBI is more compare to ICICI. The estimated Spending for CSR for 2017-18 is also more in SBI as compared to ICICI.

Keywords: banking sector, corporate social responsibility in India, financial institution, public sector banks, SBI, ICICI

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
3326 State of Play of Mobile Government Apps on Google Play Store

Authors: Abdelbaset Rabaiah

Abstract:

e-Government mobile applications provide an extension for effective e-government services in today’s omniconnected world. They constitute part of m-government platforms. This study explores the usefulness, availability, discoverability and maturity of such applications. While this study impacts theory by addressing a relatively lacking area, it impacts practice more. The outcomes of this study suggest valuable recommendations for practitioners-developers of e-government applications. The methodology followed is to examine a large number of e-government smartphone applications. The focus is on applications available at the Google Play Store. Moreover, the study investigates applications published on government portals of a number of countries. A sample of 15 countries is researched. The results show a diversity in the level of discoverability, development, maturity, and usage of smartphone apps dedicated for use of e-government services. It was found that there are major issues in discovering e-government applications on both the Google Play Store and as-well-as on local government portals. The study found that only a fraction of mobile government applications was published on the Play Store. Only 19% of apps were multilingual, and 43% were developed by third parties including private individuals. Further analysis was made, and important recommendations are suggested in this paper for a better utilization of e-government smartphone applications. These recommendations will result in better discoverability, maturity, and usefulness of e-government applications.

Keywords: mobile applications, e-government, m-government, Google Play Store

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3325 An Investigation of E-Government by Using GIS and Establishing E-Government in Developing Countries Case Study: Iraq

Authors: Ahmed M. Jamel

Abstract:

Electronic government initiatives and public participation to them are among the indicators of today's development criteria of the countries. After consequent two wars, Iraq's current position in, for example, UN's e-government ranking is quite concerning and did not improve in recent years, either. In the preparation of this work, we are motivated with the fact that handling geographic data of the public facilities and resources are needed in most of the e-government projects. Geographical information systems (GIS) provide most common tools not only to manage spatial data but also to integrate such type of data with nonspatial attributes of the features. With this background, this paper proposes that establishing a working GIS in the health sector of Iraq would improve e-government applications. As the case study, investigating hospital locations in Erbil is chosen.

Keywords: e-government, GIS, Iraq, Erbil

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3324 Sub-Municipal Government as a Tool for Decentralization

Authors: Mirko Klaric

Abstract:

In different countries, sub-municipal units have different organizational and political positions. In some countries, the role of sub-municipal units is important; in others, it is marginal. That depends on the organization of the local government system in different countries, and the political role of local self-government units, their size, public authorities, and the possibility for managing various local public tasks. This paper attempts to analyze the sub-municipal government as an organizational form of local governance participation of citizens in the local community with a comparative perspective. Secondly, it presents elements that generally format sub-municipal government as a tool for strengthening of democratization processes in local government units. Those elements are crucial for the understanding of the dynamic in relation to local government vs. sub-municipal government. Special focus is put on the sub-municipal government in South-Eastern European countries, which have a common history and institutional framework, with this main question: how can sub-municipal government contribute to strengthening democratic processes in these countries. In centralized countries, the sub-municipal government usually has a reduced role, which relates to managing public tasks connected with local community needs. The purpose of this comparative research methodology is used for analyzing the present organization and role of sub-municipal government in local government systems in Croatia and other significant countries in Europe, with a special focus on the states in South-Eastern Europe and Croatia. Comparative analyses attempt to show that local government systems with bigger local government units have more significant sub-municipal government. On the other hand, local government systems with small local government units don’t have a strong sub-municipal government. Finally, this paper aims to present ideas on how the sub-municipal government can improve decentralization and contribute to better development of the local community and the whole of society.

Keywords: public administration, local government, sub-municipal government, decentralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 72