Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4570

Search results for: public spending

4570 Public Spending and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis of Developed Countries

Authors: Bernur Acikgoz

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of public spending on economic growth and examine the sources of economic growth in developed countries since the 1990s. This paper analyses whether public spending effect on economic growth based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function with the two econometric models with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Fixed Effect (DFE) for 21 developed countries (high-income OECD countries), over the period 1990-2013. Our models results are parallel to each other and the models support that public spending has an important role for economic growth. This result is accurate with theories and previous empirical studies.

Keywords: public spending, economic growth, panel data, ARDL models

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4569 Estimating the Government Consumption and Investment Multipliers Using Local Projection Method on the US Data from 1966 to 2020

Authors: Mustofa Mahmud Al Mamun

Abstract:

Government spending, one of the major components of gross domestic product (GDP), is composed of government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. A change in government spending during recessionary periods can generate an increase in GDP greater than the increase in spending. This is called the "multiplier effect". Accurate estimation of government spending multiplier is important because fiscal policy has been used to stimulate a flagging economy. Many recent studies have focused on identifying parts of the economy that responds more to a stimulus under a variety of circumstances. This paper used the US dataset from 1966 to 2020 and local projection method assuming standard identification strategy to estimate the multipliers. The model includes important macroaggregates and controls for forecasted government spending, interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), export, import, and level of public debt. Investment multipliers are found to be positive and larger than the consumption multipliers. Consumption multipliers are either negative or not significantly different than zero. Results do not vary across the business cycle. However, the consumption multiplier estimated from pre-1980 data is positive.

Keywords: business cycle, consumption multipliers, forecasted government spending, investment multipliers, local projection method, zero lower bound

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4568 Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparative Study of Two Largest Banks in India

Authors: Navdeep Kaur

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Corporate Social Responsibility is the process through which the organizations execute their philanthropic visions for social welfare. This paper considers the data of one Public Sector Bank–State Bank of India (SBI) and one Private Sector Bank-Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) from the year 2008 to 2016. The study is based on descriptive research design, and secondary data collected from the annual report of respective bank from website and different literature are reviewed. Least Square Method is used for estimating CSR spending for the financial year 2017-18. The analysis shows that these banks are making efforts for the implementation of CSR, but are not spending their 2% share of profits on CSR. There is a need for better CSR activities by the banks, which is possible by concentrating more on the prevailing social issues. The finding reveals that the percentage of profit after tax spends for CSR by SBI is more compare to ICICI. The estimated Spending for CSR for 2017-18 is also more in SBI as compared to ICICI.

Keywords: banking sector, corporate social responsibility in India, financial institution, public sector banks, SBI, ICICI

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4567 Public Debt Shocks and Public Goods Provisioning in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

Authors: Amenawo I. Offiong, Hodo B. Riman

Abstract:

Public debt profile of Nigeria has continuously been on the increase over the years. The drop in international crude oil prices has further worsened revenue position of the country, thus, necessitating further acquisition of public debt to bridge the gap in revenue deficit. Yet, when we look back at the increasing public sector spending, there are concerns that the government spending do not amount to increase in public goods provided for the country. Using data from 1980 to 2014 the study therefore seeks to investigate the factors responsible for the poor provision of public goods in the face of increasing public debt profile. Using the unrestricted VAR model Governance and Tax revenue were introduced into the model as structural variables. The result suggested that governance and tax revenue were structural determinants of the effectiveness of public goods provisioning in Nigeria. The study therefore identified weak governance as the major reason for the non-provision of public goods in Nigeria. While tax revenue exerted positive influence on the provisions of public goods, weak/poor governance was observed to crowd the benefits from increase tax revenue. The study therefore recommends reappraisal of the governance system in Nigeria. Elected officers in governance should be more transparent and accountable to the electorates they represent. Furthermore, the study advocates for an annual auditing of all government MDAs accounts by external auditors to ensure (a) accountability of public debts utilization, (b) transparent in implementation of program support funds, (c) integrity of agencies responsible for program management, and (d) measuring program effectiveness with amount of funds expended.

Keywords: impulse response function, public debt shocks, governance, public goods, tax revenue, vector auto-regression

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4566 State, Public Policies, and Rights: Public Expenditure and Social and Welfare Policies in America, as Opposed to Argentina

Authors: Mauro Cristeche

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This paper approaches the intervention of the American State in the social arena and the modeling of the rights system from the Argentinian experience, by observing the characteristics of its federal budgetary system, the evolution of social public spending and welfare programs in recent years, labor and poverty statistics, and the changes on the labor market structure. The analysis seeks to combine different methodologies and sources: in-depth interviews with specialists, analysis of theoretical and mass-media material, and statistical sources. Among the results, it could be mentioned that the tendency to state interventionism (what has been called ‘nationalization of social life’) is quite evident in the United States, and manifests itself in multiple forms. The bibliography consulted, and the experts interviewed pointed out this increase of the state presence in historical terms (beyond short-term setbacks) in terms of increase of public spending, fiscal pressure, public employment, protective and control mechanisms, the extension of welfare policies to the poor sectors, etc. In fact, despite the significant differences between both countries, the United States and Argentina have common patterns of behavior in terms of the aforementioned phenomena. On the other hand, dissimilarities are also important. Some of them are determined by each country's own political history. The influence of political parties on the economic model seems more decisive in the United States than in Argentina, where the tendency to state interventionism is more stable. The centrality of health spending is evident in America, while in Argentina that discussion is more concentrated in the social security system and public education. The biggest problem of the labor market in the United States is the disqualification as a consequence of the technological development while in Argentina it is a result of its weakness. Another big difference is the huge American public spending on Defense. Then, the more federal character of the American State is also a factor of differential analysis against a centralized Argentine state. American public employment (around 10%) is comparatively quite lower than the Argentinian (around 18%). The social statistics show differences, but inequality and poverty have been growing as a trend in the last decades in both countries. According to public rates, poverty represents 14% in The United States and 33% in Argentina. American public spending is important (welfare spending and total public spending represent around 12% and 34% of GDP, respectively), but a bit lower than Latin-American or European average). In both cases, the tendency to underemployment and disqualification unemployment does not assume a serious gravity. Probably one of the most important aspects of the analysis is that private initiative and public intervention are much more intertwined in the United States, which makes state intervention more ‘fuzzy’, while in Argentina the difference is clearer. Finally, the power of its accumulation of capital and, more specifically, of the industrial and services sectors in the United States, which continues to be the engine of the economy, express great differences with Argentina, supported by its agro-industrial power and its public sector.

Keywords: state intervention, welfare policies, labor market, system of rights, United States of America

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4565 Co-Creating Value between Public Financial Management Institutions: An Integrated Approach towards Financial Sustainability

Authors: Pascal Horni, Sandro Fuchs

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In presence of increasing deficits and public debt among OECD countries, the debate on fiscal disciple and mechanisms to constrain public spending policy heated up and gave rise to the institutionalization of fiscal rules. Considering the notions from political economy literature and the therein advocated axiom of maximization of votes, introduction of institutional mechanisms and rules to govern public spending is likely to be coined by electoral motives. While there exists a series of research concerned with the rise of creative accounting in the presence fiscal rules, implementation of accrual government accounting and its impact on the biting of fiscal rules has to authors’ best knowledge never been explored. This paper serves the illumination of the connection between debt break mechanisms and the adoption of accrual public sector accounting standards such as the IPSAS in the interface of political economy in the Swiss context. By explicitly considering the technical accounting dimension, this paper develops an integrated conceptual view on well-established Public Financial Management (PFM) institutions and elaborates how their interdependencies can co-create value with regard to the contemporary challenge of fiscal sustainability. Derivation of this integrated view follows an explorative approach, taking into account expert interviews with director level staff from cantonal finance administrations and policy documents, as well as literature from both research areas – public sector accounting and political economy.

Keywords: accounting, fiscal rules, International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), public financial management

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4564 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

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This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

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4563 The Idea of Making of Corporate Social Responsibility Compulsory in India

Authors: Jagannath Mohanty, Shiv Nath Sinha

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India is the first country in the world, where spending on Corporate Social Responsibily (CSR) has been made mandatory. Predominantly Indian enterprises have been philanthrophic for hundreds of years, where giving back to the society is the religious duty of the rich. Therefore Indian businesses have been voluntarily spending on CSR activities, while several businesses kept spending on non business activities a significant number of entrepreneurs abstained from social spending, leading Government of India to take the lesgislative route by mandating 2% spend of net profit on CSR activities failing which companeis will be dealt legally. While the legislation on suface appers progressive and pro social, yet the consequences of making a rather volutary action a legally binding act is yet to be seen. This paper examines the possible social impact of the legislation and potential response of the corporate to a legislation of this kind.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), companies act 2013, corporate citizenship, social spending

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4562 Health Expenditure and Household Age Composition in India: Consequences for Health System Development

Authors: Milind Bharambe, Chander Shekhar

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India is a vast country with its 1.21 billion population at the dawn of new decade, which accounts for one sixth of the global human capital in the world today. It is well known that health expenditure in India is dominated by private spending. This is an unfortunate consequence of India’s development because of large positive externality associated with health spending, which make health a merit good. This paper has used data from NSSO and Indian Government’s spending on health as reported by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Understanding of the dynamism of age-structure of the population would greatly optimize the expenditure on health care services. A country with good public health indicators is bound to possess good human capital which is an asset to the economic growth and indicator of development status of country. The paper tries to present the linkages between the health expenditure incurred by different states at various levels of demographic transition levels and the efficiency in utilization of health expenditure. It also looks into the way in which allocative efficiency health services can be improved. Paper tries to explore the per capita spending on health and how the demographic transition taking place in different states of India affect the required quantity and quality of health services.

Keywords: age structure, demographic transition, health expenditure, morbidity

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4561 Factors Influencing Disclosure and CSR Spending in Indian Companies: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Shekar Babu, Amalendu Jyothishi

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The New Companies Bill-2013 in India has mandated all the companies with a certain profit to spend on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Despite the Corporate Governance (CG) compliances at the strategic level the firms have to engage in social good. For both the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) and the private companies in India the need for strategic CSR focus through operational efficiency measures are mandated. In this paper the focus is to find out if the Indian companies understand their responsibility towards the society despite government making CSR mandatory. Analyzing both the CPSEs and Private companies the researchers find out which set of companies behave responsibly towards the society. Does any particular industry group(s) impact the society by disclosing their CSR spending activities. The key financial and non-financial parameters that influence CSR spending were identified and through econometric analysis methodologies (logistic regression and OLS models) the results were analyzed. The innovative methods were developed to identify if the firms operate efficiently and at the same time complying with the new CSR laws. An innovative matrix was developed to explain how companies could operate efficiently and be compliant in parallel how some of the companies can strategically realign their spending by operating efficiently.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility(CSR), corporate governance(CG), India, logit function, ordinary least squares (OLS)

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4560 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram

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Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

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4559 Public Procurement Development Stages in Georgia

Authors: Giorgi Gaprindashvili

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One of the best examples, in evolution of the public procurement, from post-soviet countries are reforms carried out in Georgia, which brought them close to international standards of procurement. In Georgia, public procurement legislation started functioning in 1998. The reform has passed several stages and came in the form as it is today. It should also be noted, that countries with economy in transition, including Georgia, implemented all the reforms in public procurement based on recommendations and support of World Bank, the United Nations and other international organizations. The first law on public procurement in Georgia was adopted on December 9, 1998 which aimed regulation of the procurement process of budget-organizations, transparent and competitive environment for private companies to access state funds legally. The priorities were identified quite clearly in the wording of the law, but operation/function of this law could not be reached on its level, because of some objective and subjective reasons. The high level of corruption in all levels of governance, can be considered as a main obstacle reason and of course, it is natural, that it had direct impact on the procurement process, as well as on transparency and rational use of state funds. This circumstances were the reasons that reforms in this sphere continued, to improve procurement process, in particular, the first wave of reforms began in 2001. Public procurement agency carried out reform with World Bank with main purpose of smartening the procurement legislation and its harmonization with international treaties and agreements. Also with the support of World Bank various activities were carried out to raise awareness of participants involved in procurement system. Further major changes in the legislation were filed in May 2005, which was also directed towards the improvement and smarten of the procurement process. The third wave of the reform began in 2010, which more or less guaranteed the transparency of the procurement process, which later became the basis for the rational spending of state funds. The reform of the procurement system completely changed the procedures. Carried out reform in Georgia resulted in introducing new electronic tendering system, which benefit the transparency of the process, after this became the basis for the further development of a competitive environment, which become a prerequisite for the state rational spending. Increased number of supplier organizations participating in the procurement process resulted in reduction of the estimated cost and the actual cost from 20% up to 40%, it is quite large saving for the procuring organizations and allows them to use the freed-up funds for their other needs. Assessment of the reforms in Georgia in the field of public procurement can be concluded, that proper regulation of the sector and relevant policy may proceed to rational and transparent spending of the budget from country’s state institutions. Also, the business sector has the opportunity to work in competitive market conditions and to make a preliminary analysis, which is a prerequisite for future strategy and development.

Keywords: public administration, public procurement, reforms, transparency

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4558 Government Size and Economic Growth: Testing the Non-Linear Hypothesis for Nigeria

Authors: R. Santos Alimi

Abstract:

Using time-series techniques, this study empirically tested the validity of existing theory which stipulates there is a nonlinear relationship between government size and economic growth; such that government spending is growth-enhancing at low levels but growth-retarding at high levels, with the optimal size occurring somewhere in between. This study employed three estimation equations. First, for the size of government, two measures are considered as follows: (i) share of total expenditures to gross domestic product, (ii) share of recurrent expenditures to gross domestic product. Second, the study adopted real GDP (without government expenditure component), as a variant measure of economic growth other than the real total GDP, in estimating the optimal level of government expenditure. The study is based on annual Nigeria country-level data for the period 1970 to 2012. Estimation results show that the inverted U-shaped curve exists for the two measures of government size and the estimated optimum shares are 19.81% and 10.98%, respectively. Finally, with the adoption of real GDP (without government expenditure component), the optimum government size was found to be 12.58% of GDP. Our analysis shows that the actual share of government spending on average (2000 - 2012) is about 13.4%.This study adds to the literature confirming that the optimal government size exists not only for developed economies but also for developing economy like Nigeria. Thus, a public intervention threshold level that fosters economic growth is a reality; beyond this point economic growth should be left in the hands of the private sector. This finding has a significant implication for the appraisal of government spending and budgetary policy design.

Keywords: public expenditure, economic growth, optimum level, fully modified OLS

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4557 Effect of Fiscal Policy on Growth in India

Authors: Parma Chakravartti

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The impact of government spending and taxation on economic growth has remained a central issue of fiscal policy analysis. There is a wide range of opinions over the strength of fiscal policy’s effect on macroeconomic variables. It can be argued that the impact of fiscal policy depends on the structure and economic condition of the economy. This study makes an attempt to examine the effect of fiscal policy shocks on growth in India using the structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR), considering data from 1950 to 2019. The study finds that government spending is an important instrument of growth in India, where the share of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure plays a key role. The optimum composition of total expenditure is important for growth and it is not necessarily true that capital expenditure multiplier is more than revenue expenditure multiplier. The study also finds that the impact of public economic activities on private economic activities for both consumption expenditure and gross capital formation of government crowds in private consumption expenditure and private gross capital formation, respectively, thus indicating that government expenditure complements private expenditure in India.

Keywords: government spending, fiscal policy, multiplier, growth

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4556 The Religious Economic Behavior of People in Dusit Province

Authors: Sivilai Jayankura

Abstract:

This research aims to study the religious economic behavior that effect the lifestyle of the people in Dusit area. The result shows that religious identity salience makes people increase contributions to public goods. Most of the Buddhism decrease contributions to public goods, expect others to contribute less to public goods, and become less risk averse. We find no evidence of religious identity salience effects on disutility of work effort, discount rates or generosity in life spending. Mostly the people like to make merit in the temple during special day of religion. The atmosphere in the temple leads the people like to travel and merit at the temple near their home.

Keywords: Dusit province, identity, lifestyle, religious economic behavior

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4555 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sinevičienė

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Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: economic development, economic growth, government expenditure, sustainable development

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4554 Towards a Doughnut Economy: The Role of Institutional Failure

Authors: Ghada El-Husseiny, Dina Yousri, Christian Richter

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Social services are often characterized by market failures, which justifies government intervention in the provision of these services. It is widely acknowledged that government intervention breeds corruption since resources are being transferred from one party to another. However, what is still being extensively studied is the magnitude of the negative impact of corruption on publicly provided services and development outcomes. Corruption has the power to hinder development and cripple our march towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Corruption diminishes the efficiency and effectiveness of public health and education spending and directly impacts the outcomes of these sectors. This paper empirically examines the impact of Institutional Failure on public sector services provision, with the sole purpose of studying the impact of corruption on SDG3 and 4; Good health and wellbeing and Quality education, respectively. The paper explores the effect of corruption on these goals from various perspectives and extends the analysis by examining if the impact of corruption on these goals differed when it accounted for the current corruption state. Using Pooled OLS(Ordinary Least Square) and Fixed effects panel estimation on 22 corrupt and 22 clean countries between 2000 and 2017. Results show that corruption in both corrupt and clean countries has a more severe impact on Health than the Education sector. In almost all specifications, corruption has an insignificant effect on School Enrollment rates but a significant effect on Infant Mortality rates. Results further indicate that, on average, a 1 point increase in the CPI(Consumer Price Index) can increase health expenditures by 0.116% in corrupt and clean countries. However, the fixed effects model indicates that the way Health and Education expenditures are determined in clean and corrupt countries are completely country-specific, in which corruption plays a minimal role. Moreover, the findings show that School Enrollment rates and Infant Mortality rates depend, to a large extent, on public spending. The most astounding results-driven is that corrupt countries, on average, have more effective and efficient healthcare expenditures. While some insights are provided as to why these results prevail, they should be further researched. All in all, corruption impedes development outcomes, and any Anti-corrupt policies taken will bring forth immense improvements and speed up the march towards sustainability.

Keywords: corruption, education, health, public spending, sustainable development

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4553 Optimal Allocation of Oil Rents and Public Investment In Low-Income Developing Countries: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

Authors: Paule Olivia Akotto

Abstract:

The recent literature suggests spending between 50%-85% of oil rents. However, there are not yet clear guidelines for allocating this windfall in the public investment system, while most of the resource-rich countries fail to improve their intergenerational mobility. We study a design of the optimal spending system in Senegal, a low-income developing country featuring newly discovered oil fields and low intergenerational mobility. We build a dynamic general equilibrium model in which rural and urban (Dakar and other urban centers henceforth OUC) households face different health, education, and employment opportunities based on their location, affecting their intergenerational mobility. The model captures the relationship between oil rents, public investment, and multidimensional inequality of opportunity. The government invests oil rents in three broad sectors: health and education, road and industries, and agriculture. Through endogenous productivity externality and human capital accumulation, our model generates the predominant position of Dakar and OUC households in terms of access to health, education, and employment in line with Senegal data. Rural households are worse off in all dimensions. We compute the optimal spending policy under two sets of simulation scenarios. Under the current Senegal public investment strategy, which weighs more health and education investments, we find that the reform maximizing the decline in inequality of opportunity between households, frontloads investment during the first eight years of the oil exploitation and spends the perpetual value of oil wealth thereafter. We will then identify the marginal winners and losers associated with this policy and its redistributive implications. Under our second set of scenarios, we will test whether the Senegalese economy can reach better equality of opportunity outcomes under this frontloading reform, by allowing the sectoral shares of investment to vary. The trade-off will be between cutting human capital investment in favor of agricultural and productive infrastructure or increasing the former. We will characterize the optimal policy by specifying where the higher weight should be. We expect that the optimal policy of the second set strictly dominates in terms of equality of opportunity, the optimal policy computed under the current investment strategy. Finally, we will quantify this optimal policy's aggregate and distributional effects on poverty, well-being, and gender earning gaps.

Keywords: developing countries, general equilibrium, inequality of opportunity, oil rents

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4552 A Quantitative Study on the Structure of Corporate Social Responsibility in India

Authors: Raj C. Aparna

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In India, the mandatory clause on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Companies Act, 2013 has led to varying responses from the companies. From excessive spending to resistance, the private and the public stakeholders have been considering the law from different perspectives. This paper tends to study the characteristics of CSR spending in India with emphasis on the locations to which the funds are routed. This study examines the effects of CSR fund flow on regional development by considering the growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), agriculture, education and healthcare using panel data for the 29 States in the country. The results confirm that the CSR funds have been instrumental in improving the quality of teaching and healthcare in the areas around the industrial hubs. However, the study shows that the corporates mostly invest in regions which are easily accessible to them, by their physical presence, irrespective of whether the area is developed or not. Such a skewness is visible in the extensive spending in and around the metropolitan cities, the established centers, in the country to which large chunks of CSR funds are channeled. The results show that there is a variation from what the government had proposed while initiating the CSR law to promote social inclusion and equality in the rural and isolated areas in the country. The implication is that even though societal improvement is the aim of CSR, ease of access to the needy is an essential factor in corporate choices. As poverty and lack of facilities are found in the innermost parts, it is vital to have government policies for their aid as corporate help.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, geographic spread, panel data analysis, strategic implementation

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4551 An Exposition of Principles of Islamic Fiscal Policy

Authors: Muhammad A. Ishaq, S. U. R. Aliyu

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This paper on an exposition of Islamic fiscal policy attempts to discuss the basic principles of Islamic fiscal policy in an Islamic economy. The paper presents a number of definitions of the subject matter, its nature and its tools of application. Government spending, taxation and public borrowings were identified as the tools of the policy. The paper identifies zakat both as a veritable source of revenue and a major instrument of economic stabilization. Furthermore, the paper presents an algebraic 2-sector and 3-sector models from the basic Keynesian model. The paper posits that in view of uniqueness of its instruments, absence of interest rate in the economy and the policy’s derive towards socioeconomic justice and redistribution, Islamic fiscal policy is capable of stabilizing Islamic economy and ushering it into the path of long term economic growth and prosperity.

Keywords: automatic built-in-stabilizers, government spending, Islamic fiscal policy, taxation, zakat

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4550 Catastrophic Spending on Health: A Determinant of Access to Health Care by Migrant Slum Population

Authors: Saira Mehnaz, Ali Jafar Abedi, Shazia Farooq Fazli, Sakeena Mushfiq, Zulfia Khan, M. Athar Ansari

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Introduction: Public health spending is a necessity in an underdeveloped country like India. The people are already suffering from poverty and that clubbed with out of pocket expenditure leads them to a very catastrophic situation, reducing the overall access to healthcare. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the usual source of medical care opted, the illness pattern, the expenditure incurred on illness and its source of procurement by the study population. It also intended to assess this expenditure as a determinant of access to health care. Methodology: Cities like Aligarh, which are classified as B grade cities in India are thought to be ripe sites for getting livelihood and hence are almost half filled with migrants living in urban slums. A cross sectional study was done to study the newer slum pockets. 3409 households with a population of 16,978 were studied with the help of pretested questionnaire; SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusions: In our study, we found that almost all the households suffered from catastrophic health expenditure. The study population, which was already vulnerable owing to their low socio-economic and migrant status was further being forced with into poverty and indebtedness on account of expenditure on illness. This lead to a significant decrease in access to health. National health financing systems should be designed to protect households from financial catastrophe, by reducing out-of-pocket spending.

Keywords: access to healthcare, catastrophic health expenditure, new urban slums, out of pocket expenditure

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4549 The Flypaper Effect and the Municipal Participation Fund in the Brazilian Public Sector

Authors: Lucas Oliveira Gomes Ferreira, André Luiz Marques Serrano

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The fiscal decentralization driven by the 1988 Constitution was responsible for granting greater autonomy to Brazilian subnational entities, as states and municipalities were entrusted with greater responsibilities to provide local public goods and services. However, the revenues necessary to implement the new attributions are largely received through intergovernmental transfers and not by local tax collection. The literature points out that public spending increases more by receiving unconditional and nonmatching (lump sum) intergovernmental grants than by an increase in taxpayers' income. This effect, called the flypaper effect, happens because the funds received could be used to reduce local taxes, meaning an increase in the citizen's private income. However, they are applied in the public sector in the form of expenses. The present work investigates the existence of the flypaper effect in Brazilian municipalities during the first two decades of the 21st century. The research uses the Municipal Participation Fund (FPM) as a grant proxy from 2000 to 2019 through econometrics of cross-section and panel data for all 5,568 municipalities. The results indicate the flypaper effect in Brazilian municipalities, as well as the proportional relationship between the receipt of constitutional transfers and the increase in public expenditure.

Keywords: flypaper effect, intergovernmental transfers, municipal participation fund, fiscal federalism

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4548 Tapping into Debt: The Effect of Contactless Payment Methods on Overdraft Fee Occurrence

Authors: Merle Van Den Akker, Neil Stewart, Andrea Isoni

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Contactless methods of payment referred to as tap&go, have become increasingly popular globally. However, little is known about the consequences of this payment method on spending, spending habits, personal finance management, and debt accumulation. The literature on other payment methods such as credit cards suggests that, through increased ease and reduced friction, the pain of paying in these methods is reduced, leading to higher and more frequent spending, resulting in higher debt accumulation. Within this research, we use a dataset of 300 million transactions of 165.000 individuals to see whether the onset of using contactless methods of payment increases the occurrence of overdraft fees. Using the R package MatchIt, we find, when matching people on initial overdraft occurrence and salary, that people who do start using contactless incur a significantly higher number of overdraft fees, as compared to those who do not start using contactless in the same year. Having accounted for income, opting-in, and time-of-year effects, these results show that contactless methods of payment fall within the scope of earlier theories on credit cards, such as the pain of paying, meaning that this payment method leads to increasing difficulties managing personal finance.

Keywords: contactless, debt accumulation, overdraft fees, payment methods, spending

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4547 Emotional Impact and Moral Panic in Swedish Social Media during the COVID-19 Crisis

Authors: Sophia Yakhlef

Abstract:

In spring 2020, the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reached the epidemiological criteria to be declared a global pandemic. Global action was taken in order to stop the spread of the virus, such as, for example, restrictions regarding spending time outside of your home and, in several countries, periods of mandatory quarantine. Sweden's method of handling the pandemic has stood out among other European nations, and the tactic of relying on citizens' sense of civic solidarity, rather than enforcing legal restrictions preventing people from spending time outside, has been highly criticised in international news media. This situation has entailed a moral dilemma concerning the proper conduct of behaviour in everyday situations in Sweden, which is also reflected in public news media and social media. This media study focuses on Swedish social media debates and attitudes concerning moral dilemmas of handling this sense of civic solidarity. Comments on social media forums expressing outrage and anger regarding, amongst others, the actions of public media figures (such as celebrities, journalists, and bloggers) are analyzed. Drawing on a social psychological perspective on emotions, the study identifies ambiguities of moral disagreements and moral panics as ways of expressing that a moral norm has been violated. The findings suggest that social media is used in order to handle such ambiguities and make sense of the loosely defined norms of civic solidarity.

Keywords: COVID-19 crisis, moral disagreements, moral panic, social media, social norms, social psychology, Sweden

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4546 Environmental Policy Instruments and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: VAR Analysis

Authors: Veronika Solilová, Danuše Nerudová

Abstract:

The paper examines the interaction between the environmental taxation, size of government spending on environmental protection and greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption. The aim is to analyze the effects of environmental taxation and government spending on environmental protection as an environmental policy instruments on greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption in the EU15. The empirical study is performed using a VAR approach with the application of aggregated data of EU15 over the period 1995 to 2012. The results provide the evidence that the reactions of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption to the shocks of environmental policy instruments are strong, mainly in the short term and decay to zero after about 8 years. Further, the reactions of the environmental policy instruments to the shocks of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption are also strong in the short term, however with the deferred effects. In addition, the results show that government spending on environmental protection together with gross inland energy consumption has stronger effect on greenhouse gas emissions than environmental taxes in EU15 over the examined period.

Keywords: VAR analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, environmental taxation, government spending

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4545 Contribution Spending on Intellectual Capital in the Performance of Industrial Enterprise Case study: Sonatrach

Authors: Dahmani Aziz, Mekdad Yousra

Abstract:

The intellectual capital is an important source of profitability and the main supporter of the competitive where this study examines the contribution of expenditure on intellectual capital in the performance of industrial enterprises Algerian, and through a case study Sonatrach as the most important industrial enterprises in Algeria and the driving force of the Algerian economy. It has been the use of value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) in measuring the contribution of intellectual capital and analyzing data Sonatrach during the period from the year 2001 until the year 2012, and test the validity of hypotheses using Stepwise Regression model through the SPSS statistical software, and the study has proved the existence of a positive relationship between spending on human capital and financial performance and a stronger degree relationship between the structural capital and economic performance.

Keywords: industrial enterprise, intellectual capital, performance, economy of Algeria, spending

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4544 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

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4543 Local Gambling Attitudes, Corporate R&D Investment and Long-Term Financial Performance

Authors: Hong Fan, Lifang Gao, Feng Zhan

Abstract:

This paper examines the influence of local gambling attitudes on a firm's long-term financial performance. Firms located in gambling-prone regions may be more willing to take risks, thus spending more on innovative projects. However, firms in such regions may also be likely to choose projects impulsively and allocate resources inefficiently. By studying Chinese publicly listed firms from 2010 to 2017, we find that firms in more gambling-prone regions invest more in R&D. Both local gambling attitudes and firms’ R&D spending are positively associated with firms’ long-term financial performance. More importantly, our study reveals that the positive impact of R&D spending on firms’ long-term financial performance is weakened by gambling-friendly attitudes, probably because firms in gambling-prone regions are more likely to overinvest in risky projects. This effect is stronger for larger firms, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), firms with more government subsidies, and firms with weaker internal control.

Keywords: regional gambling attitudes, long-term financial performance, R&D, risk, local bias

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4542 Assessing In-Country Public Health Training Needs: Workforce Development to Meet Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Leena Inamdar, David Allen, Sushma Acquilla, James Gore

Abstract:

Health systems globally are facing increasingly complex challenges. Emerging health threats, changing population demographics and increasing health inequalities, globalisation, economic constraints on government spending are some of the most critical ones. These challenges demand not only innovative funding and cross-sectoral approaches, but also require a multidisciplinary public health workforce equipped with skills and expertise to meet the future challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aim to outline an approach to assessing the feasibility of establishing a competency-based public health training at a country level. Although the SDGs provide an enabling impetus for change and promote positive developments, public health training and education still lag behind. Large gaps are apparent in both the numbers of trained professionals and the options for high quality training. Public health training in most Low-Middle Income Countries is still largely characterized by a traditional and limited public health focus. There is a pressing need to review and develop core and emerging competences for a well-equipped workforce fit for the future. This includes the important role of national Health and Human Resource Ministries in determining these competences. Public health has long been recognised as a multidisciplinary field, with need for professionals from a wider range of disciplines such as management, health promotion, health economics, law. Leadership and communication skills are also critical to achieve the successes in meeting public health outcomes. Such skills and competences need to be translated into competency-based training and education, to prepare current public health professionals with the skills required in today’s competitive job market. Integration of academic and service based public-health training, flexible accredited programmes to support existing mid-career professionals, continuous professional development need to be explored. In the current global climate of austerity and increasing demands on health systems, the need for stepping up public health training and education is more important than ever. By using a case study, we demonstrate the process of assessing the in-county capacity to establish a competency based public health training programme that will help to develop a stronger, more versatile and much needed public health workforce to meet the SDGs.

Keywords: public health training, competency-based, assessment, SDGs

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4541 Measuring the Effect of Intercollegiate Athletic Success on Private Giving and Enrollment

Authors: Jamie L. Stangel

Abstract:

Increased popularity and visibility of college athletics has contributed to an environment in which institutions—most of which lack self-sufficient athletics department budgets—reallocate monies from the university general fund and seek additional funding sources to keep up with increasing levels of spending on athletics. Given the prevalence of debates on student debt levels, coach salaries, and athlete pay, empirical evidence on whether this spending yields expected return on investment is necessary. This study considered the relationship between the independent variable of winning percentage of the men’s basketball team at a mid-major university, moderated by NCAA tournament appearance, and number of applicants, number of enrollments, average SAT score of students, and donor giving to the university general and athletic funds. The results indicate that, other than a small correlation between athletic success and number of applicants, only when NCAA tournament appearance is used as a moderating variable, these purported benefits are not supported, suggesting the need for a reevaluation of athletic department spending and perceptions on tangible and intangible benefits for universities.

Keywords: NCAA, private giving, mid-major, admissions, athletic success

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