Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2325

Search results for: dual fuel diesel engine

2145 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng


This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

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2144 Investigation of Soot Regeneration Behavior in the DPF Cleaning Device

Authors: Won Jun Jo, Man Young Kim


To meet stringent diesel particulate matter regulations, DPF system is essential after treatment technology providing exceptional reliability and filtration performance. At low load driving conditions, the passive type of DPF system is ineffective for regeneration method due to the inadequate of engine exhaust heat in removing accumulated soot from the filter. Therefore, DPF cleaning device is necessary to remove the soot particles. In this work, the numerical analysis on the active regeneration of DPF in DPF cleaning device is performed to find the optimum operating conditions. In order to find the DPF regeneration characteristics during active regeneration, 5 different initial soot loading condition are investigated. As the initial soot mass increases, the maximum temperature of DPF and regeneration rate also increase.

Keywords: active regeneration, DPF cleaning device, pressure drop, Diesel Particulate Filter, particulate matters, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2143 Investigations on Pyrolysis Model for Radiatively Dominant Diesel Pool Fire Using Fire Dynamic Simulator

Authors: Siva K. Bathina, Sudheer Siddapureddy


Pool fires are formed when the flammable liquid accidentally spills on the ground or water and ignites. Pool fire is a kind of buoyancy-driven and diffusion flame. There have been many pool fire accidents caused during processing, handling and storing of liquid fuels in chemical and oil industries. Such kind of accidents causes enormous damage to property as well as the loss of lives. Pool fires are complex in nature due to the strong interaction among the combustion, heat and mass transfers and pyrolysis at the fuel surface. Moreover, the experimental study of such large complex fires involves fire safety issues and difficulties in performing experiments. In the present work, large eddy simulations are performed to study such complex fire scenarios using fire dynamic simulator. A 1 m diesel pool fire is considered for the studied cases, and diesel is chosen as it is most commonly involved fuel in fire accidents. Fire simulations are performed by specifying two different boundary conditions: one the fuel is in liquid state and pyrolysis model is invoked, and the other by assuming the fuel is initially in a vapor state and thereby prescribing the mass loss rate. A domain of size 11.2 m × 11.2 m × 7.28 m with uniform structured grid is chosen for the numerical simulations. Grid sensitivity analysis is performed, and a non-dimensional grid size of 12 corresponding to 8 cm grid size is considered. Flame properties like mass burning rate, irradiance, and time-averaged axial flame temperature profile are predicted. The predicted steady-state mass burning rate is 40 g/s and is within the uncertainty limits of the previously reported experimental data (39.4 g/s). Though the profile of the irradiance at a distance from the fire along the height is somewhat in line with the experimental data and the location of the maximum value of irradiance is shifted to a higher location. This may be due to the lack of sophisticated models for the species transportation along with combustion and radiation in the continuous zone. Furthermore, the axial temperatures are not predicted well (for any of the boundary conditions) in any of the zones. The present study shows that the existing models are not sufficient enough for modeling blended fuels like diesel. The predictions are strongly dependent on the experimental values of the soot yield. Future experiments are necessary for generalizing the soot yield for different fires.

Keywords: burning rate, fire accidents, fire dynamic simulator, pyrolysis

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2142 Using Low-Calorie Gas to Generate Heat and Electricity

Authors: Аndrey Marchenko, Oleg Linkov, Alexander Osetrov, Sergiy Kravchenko


The low-calorie of gases include biogas, coal gas, coke oven gas, associated petroleum gas, gases sewage, etc. These gases are usually released into the atmosphere or burned on flares, causing substantial damage to the environment. However, with the right approach, low-calorie gas fuel can become a valuable source of energy. Specified determines the relevance of areas related to the development of low-calorific gas utilization technologies. As an example, in the work considered one of way of utilization of coalmine gas, because Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of coal mine gas emission (4.7% of total global emissions, or 1.2 billion m³ per year). Experts estimate that coal mine gas is actively released in the 70-80 percent of existing mines in Ukraine. The main component of coal mine gas is methane (25-60%) Methane in 21 times has a greater impact on the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide disposal problem has become increasingly important in the context of the increasing need to address the problems of climate, ecology and environmental protection. So marked causes negative effect of both local and global nature. The efforts of the United Nations and the World Bank led to the adoption of the program 'Zero Routine Flaring by 2030' dedicated to the cessation of these gases burn in flares and disposing them with the ability to generate heat and electricity. This study proposes to use coal gas as a fuel for gas engines to generate heat and electricity. Analyzed the physical-chemical properties of low-calorie gas fuels were allowed to choose a suitable engine, as well as estimate the influence of the composition of the fuel at its techno-economic indicators. Most suitable for low-calorie gas is engine with pre-combustion chamber jet ignition. In Ukraine is accumulated extensive experience in exploitation and production of gas engines with capacity of 1100 kW type GD100 (10GDN 207/2 * 254) fueled by natural gas. By using system pre- combustion chamber jet ignition and quality control in the engines type GD100 introduces the concept of burning depleted burn fuel mixtures, which in turn leads to decrease in the concentration of harmful substances of exhaust gases. The main problems of coal mine gas as a fuel for ICE is low calorific value, the presence of components that adversely affect combustion processes and terms of operation of the ICE, the instability of the composition, weak ignition. In some cases, these problems can be solved by adaptation engine design using coal mine gas as fuel (changing compression ratio, fuel injection quantity increases, change ignition time, increase energy plugs, etc.). It is shown that the use of coal mine gas engines with prechamber has not led to significant changes in the indicator parameters (ηi = 0.43 - 0.45). However, this significantly increases the volumetric fuel consumption, which requires increased fuel injection quantity to ensure constant nominal engine power. Thus, the utilization of low-calorie gas fuels in stationary gas engine type-based GD100 will significantly reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere when the generate cheap electricity and heat.

Keywords: gas engine, low-calorie gas, methane, pre-combustion chamber, utilization

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2141 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Marcin Szlachetka, Tytus Tulwin


The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: aircraft, piston engine, heat, emission

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2140 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia


Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: policy assessment, fuel quality, urban air quality, air quality management

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2139 Variation of Stagnation Properties at Various Altitudes of an Klimov RD-33 Engine

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das


The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan jet engine for a lightweight fighter jet that is the primary engine for the Mikoyan MiG-29. Its production started in 1981. The RD-33 was the first afterburning turbofan engine produced by the Klimov Company of Russia in the 8,000 to 9,000 kilograms-force (78,000 to 88,000 N; 18,000 to 20,000 lbf) thrust class. It features a modular twin-shaft design with individual parts that can be replaced separately and has a good tolerance to the environment. The RD-33 is simple to maintain and retains good performance in challenging environments. In this paper the stagnation properties(pressure and temperature) at the intake diffuser, compressor and turbine sections of the RD-33 engine are calculated using the standard atmosphere conditions at different altitudes( take-off, 5000m, 10000m, 15000m, 20000m and 22500m). The results are plotted against altitude values using MS-Excel.

Keywords: Klimov RD-33 engine, stagnation properties, various altitudes, ms-excel

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2138 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim


To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

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2137 Tuning for a Small Engine with a Supercharger

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara, Tadamasa Fukuoka


The formula project of Kinki University has been involved in the student Formula SAE of Japan (JSAE) since the second year the competition was held. The vehicle developed in the project uses a ZX-6R engine, which has been manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the JSAE competition for the eighth time. The limited performance of the concept vehicle was improved through the development of a power train. The supercharger loading, engine dry sump, and engine cooling management of the vehicle were also enhanced. The supercharger loading enabled the vehicle to achieve a maximum output of 59.6 kW (80.6 PS)/9000 rpm and a maximum torque of 70.6 Nm (7.2 kgf m)/8000 rpm. We successfully achieved 90% of the engine’s torque band (4000–10000 rpm) with 50% of the revolutions in regular engine use (2000–12000 rpm). Using a dry sump system, we periodically managed hydraulic pressure during engine operation. A system that controls engine stoppage when hydraulic pressure falls was also constructed. Using the dry sump system at 80 mm reduced the required engine load and the vehicle’s center of gravity. Even when engine motion was suspended by the electromotive force exerted by the water pump, the circulation of cooling water was still possible. These findings enabled us to create a cooling system in accordance with the requirements of the competition.

Keywords: engine, combustion, cooling system, numerical simulation, power, torque, mechanical super charger

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2136 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov


A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel

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2135 Investigating the Algorithm to Maintain a Constant Speed in the Wankel Engine

Authors: Adam Majczak, Michał Bialy, Zbigniew Czyż, Zdzislaw Kaminski


Increasingly stringent emission standards for passenger cars require us to find alternative drives. The share of electric vehicles in the sale of new cars increases every year. However, their performance and, above all, range cannot be today successfully compared to those of cars with a traditional internal combustion engine. Battery recharging lasts hours, which can be hardly accepted due to the time needed to refill a fuel tank. Therefore, the ways to reduce the adverse features of cars equipped with electric motors only are searched for. One of the methods is a combination of an electric engine as a main source of power and a small internal combustion engine as an electricity generator. This type of drive enables an electric vehicle to achieve a radically increased range and low emissions of toxic substances. For several years, the leading automotive manufacturers like the Mazda and the Audi together with the best companies in the automotive industry, e.g., AVL have developed some electric drive systems capable of recharging themselves while driving, known as a range extender. An electricity generator is powered by a Wankel engine that has seemed to pass into history. This low weight and small engine with a rotating piston and a very low vibration level turned out to be an excellent source in such applications. Its operation as an energy source for a generator almost entirely eliminates its disadvantages like high fuel consumption, high emission of toxic substances, or short lifetime typical of its traditional application. The operation of the engine at a constant rotational speed enables a significant increase in its lifetime, and its small external dimensions enable us to make compact modules to drive even small urban cars like the Audi A1 or the Mazda 2. The algorithm to maintain a constant speed was investigated on the engine dynamometer with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring apparatus. The research object was the Aixro XR50 rotary engine with the electronic power supply developed at the Lublin University of Technology. The load torque of the engine was altered during the research by means of the eddy current brake capable of giving any number of load cycles. The parameters recorded included speed and torque as well as a position of a throttle in an inlet system. Increasing and decreasing load did not significantly change engine speed, which means that control algorithm parameters are correctly selected. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: electric vehicle, power generator, range extender, Wankel engine

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2134 Cost Analysis of Hybrid Wind Energy Generating System Considering CO2 Emissions

Authors: M. A. Badr, M. N. El Kordy, A. N. Mohib, M. M. Ibrahim


The basic objective of the research is to study the effect of hybrid wind energy on the cost of generated electricity considering the cost of reduction CO2 emissions. The system consists of small wind turbine(s), storage battery bank and a diesel generator (W/D/B). Using an optimization software package, different system configurations are investigated to reach optimum configuration based on the net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) as economic optimization criteria. The cost of avoided CO2 is taken into consideration. The system is intended to supply the electrical load of a small community (gathering six families) in a remote Egyptian area. The investigated system is not connected to the electricity grid and may replace an existing conventional diesel powered electric supply system to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The simulation results showed that W/D energy system is more economic than diesel alone. The estimated COE is 0.308$/kWh and extracting the cost of avoided CO2, the COE reached 0.226 $/kWh which is an external benefit of wind turbine, as there are no pollutant emissions through operational phase.

Keywords: hybrid wind turbine systems, remote areas electrification, simulation of hybrid energy systems, techno-economic study

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2133 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez


Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

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2132 Automatic Approach for Estimating the Protection Elements of Electric Power Plants

Authors: Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-Suod, Ushkarenko O. Alexander, Dorogan I. Olga


New algorithms using microprocessor systems have been proposed for protection the diesel-generator unit in autonomous power systems. The software structure is designed to enhance the control automata of the system, in which every protection module of diesel-generator encapsulates the finite state machine.

Keywords: diesel-generator unit, protection, state diagram, control system, algorithm, software components

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2131 Design and Development of Engine Valve Train Wear Test Rig for the Assessment of Valve Train Tribochemistry

Authors: V. Manjunath, C. V. Chandrashekara


Ecosystem authority calls for the use of lubricants with less effect on the nature in terms of exhaust emission, while engine user demands more mileage per liter of fuel without any compromise on engine durability. From this viewpoint, engine manufacturers require the optimum combination of materials and lubricant additive package to minimize friction and wear in the engine components like piston, crankshaft and valve train etc. The demands are placed for requirements to operate at higher speeds, loads, temperature and for extended replacement intervals of engine oil. Besides, it is necessary to accurately predict the lubricant life or the replacement interval to prevent lubrication and valve-train components failure. Experimental tribology evaluation of new engine oils requires large amount of time and energy. Hence low cost bench test is necessary for industries and original equipment manufacturing companies (OEM) to study the performance of lubricants. The present work outlines the procedure for the design and development of a valve train wear rig (MCR) to simulate the ASTMD-6891 and to develop new engine test for Indian automobile sector to evaluate lubricants for Indian automobile market. In order to improve the lubrication between cam and follower of internal combustion engine, the influence of materials or oils viscosity and additives on the friction and wear characteristics are examined with test rig by increasing the contact load at two different revolution speed. From the experimentation following results are made obvious. Temperature, Torque, speed and wear plots are used to validate the data obtained from the newly developed multi-cam cam rig (MCR) with follower against a cast iron camshaft. Camshaft lobe wear is measured at seven different locations on cam profile. Tribofilm formed using 5W-30 oil is evaluated and correlated with the standard test results.

Keywords: ASTMD-6891, multi-cam rig (MCR), 5W-30, cam-profile

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2130 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan


The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

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2129 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly


Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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2128 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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2127 A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Ksenia Siadkowska, Rafał Sochaczewski


A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

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2126 Nonuniformity of the Piston Motion in a Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, M. Bialy, M. Duk


One of the main disadvantages of radial engines is non-uniformity of operating cycles of each cylinder. This paper discusses the results of the kinematic analysis of pistons motion of the ASz-62IR radial engine. The ASz-62IR engine is produced in Poland and mounted in the M-18 Dromader and the An-2. The results are shown as the courses of the motion of the pistons. The discrepancies in the courses for individual pistons can result in different masses of the charge to fill the cylinders. Besides, pistons acceleration of individual cylinders is different, which triggers an additional vibration in the engine.

Keywords: nonuniformity, kinematic analysis, piston motion, radial engine

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2125 Simulation Research of Innovative Ignition System of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Mariusz Duk, Pawel Karpinski


The research in the field of aircraft internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while fulfilling the level of safety. Currently, reciprocating aircraft engines are found in sports, emergency, agricultural and recreation aviation. Technically, they are most at a pre-war knowledge of the theory of operation, design and manufacturing technology, especially if compared to that high level of development of automotive engines. Typically, these engines are driven by carburetors of a quite primitive construction. At present, due to environmental requirements and dealing with a climate change, it is beneficial to develop aircraft piston engines and adopt the achievements of automotive engineering such as computer-controlled low-pressure injection, electronic ignition control and biofuels. The paper describes simulation research of the innovative power and control systems for the aircraft radial engine of high power. Installing an electronic ignition system in the radial aircraft engine is a fundamental innovative idea of this solution. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the electronically controlled ignition system. This attempt can reduce emissions of toxic compounds as a result of lowered fuel consumption, optimized combustion and engine capability of efficient combustion of ecological fuels. New, redundant elements of the control system can improve the safety of aircraft. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. The simulation research aimed to determine the vulnerability of the values measured (they were planned as the quantities measured by the measurement systems) to determining the optimal ignition angle (the angle of maximum torque at a given operating point). The described results covered: a) research in steady states; b) velocity ranging from 1500 to 2200 rpm (every 100 rpm); c) loading ranging from propeller power to maximum power; d) altitude ranging according to the International Standard Atmosphere from 0 to 8000 m (every 1000 m); e) fuel: automotive gasoline ES95. The three models of different types of ignition coil (different energy discharge) were studied. The analysis aimed at the optimization of the design of the innovative ignition system for an aircraft engine. The optimization involved: a) the optimization of the measurement systems; b) the optimization of actuator systems. The studies enabled the research on the vulnerability of the signals to the control of the ignition timing. Accordingly, the number and type of sensors were determined for the ignition system to achieve its optimal performance. The results confirmed the limited benefits, in terms of fuel consumption. Thus, including spark management in the optimization is mandatory to significantly decrease the fuel consumption. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: piston engine, radial engine, ignition system, CFD model, engine optimization

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2124 Production, Characterisation and Assessment of Biomixture Fuels for Compression Ignition Engine Application

Authors: K. Masera, A. K. Hossain


Hardly any neat biodiesel satisfies the European EN14214 standard for compression ignition engine application. To satisfy the EN14214 standard, various additives are doped into biodiesel; however, biodiesel additives might cause other problems such as increase in the particular emission and increased specific fuel consumption. In addition, the additives could be expensive. Considering the increasing level of greenhouse gas GHG emissions and fossil fuel depletion, it is forecasted that the use of biodiesel will be higher in the near future. Hence, the negative aspects of the biodiesel additives will likely to gain much more importance and need to be replaced with better solutions. This study aims to satisfy the European standard EN14214 by blending the biodiesels derived from sustainable feedstocks. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Animal Fat Oil (AFO) are two sustainable feedstocks in the EU (including the UK) for producing biodiesels. In the first stage of the study, these oils were transesterified separately and neat biodiesels (W100 & A100) were produced. Secondly, the biodiesels were blended together in various ratios: 80% WCO biodiesel and 20% AFO biodiesel (W80A20), 60% WCO biodiesel and 40% AFO biodiesel (W60A40), 50% WCO biodiesel and 50% AFO biodiesel (W50A50), 30% WCO biodiesel and 70% AFO biodiesel (W30A70), 10% WCO biodiesel and 90% AFO biodiesel (W10A90). The prepared samples were analysed using Thermo Scientific Trace 1300 Gas Chromatograph and ISQ LT Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GS-MS analysis gave Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) breakdowns of the fuel samples. It was found that total saturation degree of the samples was linearly increasing (from 15% for W100 to 54% for A100) as the percentage of the AFO biodiesel was increased. Furthermore, it was found that WCO biodiesel was mainly (82%) composed of polyunsaturated FAMEs. Cetane numbers, iodine numbers, calorific values, lower heating values and the densities (at 15 oC) of the samples were estimated by using the mass percentages data of the FAMEs. Besides, kinematic viscosities (at 40 °C and 20 °C), densities (at 15 °C), heating values and flash point temperatures of the biomixture samples were measured in the lab. It was found that estimated and measured characterisation results were comparable. The current study concluded that biomixture fuel samples W60A40 and W50A50 were perfectly satisfying the European EN 14214 norms without any need of additives. Investigation on engine performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics will be conducted to assess the full feasibility of the proposed biomixture fuels.

Keywords: biodiesel, blending, characterisation, CI engine

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2123 Biodiesel Production from Yellow Oleander Seed Oil

Authors: S. Rashmi, Devashish Das, N. Spoorthi, H. V. Manasa


Energy is essential and plays an important role for overall development of a nation. The global economy literally runs on energy. The use of fossil fuels as energy is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and also due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment, renewable and carbon neutral biodiesel are necessary for environment and economic sustainability. Unfortunately biodiesel produced from oil crop, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace fossil fuel. Fossil fuels remain the dominant source of primary energy, accounting for 84% of the overall increase in demand. Today biodiesel has come to mean a very specific chemical modification of natural oils. Objectives: To produce biodiesel from yellow oleander seed oil, to test the yield of biodiesel using different types of catalyst (KOH & NaOH). Methodology: Oil is extracted from dried yellow oleander seeds using Soxhlet extractor and oil expeller (bulk). The FFA content of the oil is checked and depending on the FFA value either two steps or single step process is followed to produce biodiesel. Two step processes includes esterfication and transesterification, single step includes only transesterification. The properties of biodiesel are checked. Engine test is done for biodiesel produced. Result: It is concluded that biodiesel quality parameters such as yield(85% & 90%), flash point(1710C & 1760C),fire point(1950C & 1980C), viscosity(4.9991 and 5.21 mm2/s) for the biodiesel from seed oil of Thevetiaperuviana produced by using KOH & NaOH respectively. Thus the seed oil of Thevetiaperuviana is a viable feedstock for good quality fuel.The outcomes of our project are a substitute for conventional fuel, to reduce petro diesel requirement,improved performance in terms of emissions. Future prospects: Optimization of biodiesel production using response surface method.

Keywords: yellow oleander seeds, biodiesel, quality parameters, renewable sources

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2122 Numerical Analysis of Charge Exchange in an Opposed-Piston Engine

Authors: Zbigniew Czyż, Adam Majczak, Lukasz Grabowski


The paper presents a description of geometric models, computational algorithms, and results of numerical analyses of charge exchange in a two-stroke opposed-piston engine. The research engine was a newly designed internal Diesel engine. The unit is characterized by three cylinders in which three pairs of opposed-pistons operate. The engine will generate a power output equal to 100 kW at a crankshaft rotation speed of 3800-4000 rpm. The numerical investigations were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT solver. Numerical research, in contrast to experimental research, allows us to validate project assumptions and avoid costly prototype preparation for experimental tests. This makes it possible to optimize the geometrical model in countless variants with no production costs. The geometrical model includes an intake manifold, a cylinder, and an outlet manifold. The study was conducted for a series of modifications of manifolds and intake and exhaust ports to optimize the charge exchange process in the engine. The calculations specified a swirl coefficient obtained under stationary conditions for a full opening of intake and exhaust ports as well as a CA value of 280° for all cylinders. In addition, mass flow rates were identified separately in all of the intake and exhaust ports to achieve the best possible uniformity of flow in the individual cylinders. For the models under consideration, velocity, pressure and streamline contours were generated in important cross sections. The developed models are designed primarily to minimize the flow drag through the intake and exhaust ports while the mass flow rate increases. Firstly, in order to calculate the swirl ratio [-], tangential velocity v [m/s] and then angular velocity ω [rad / s] with respect to the charge as the mean of each element were calculated. The paper contains comparative analyses of all the intake and exhaust manifolds of the designed engine. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, engine swirl, fluid mechanics, mass flow rates, numerical analysis, opposed-piston engine

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2121 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira


With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.

Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumption

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2120 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li


The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

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2119 Decarboxylation of Waste Coconut Oil and Comparison of Acid Values

Authors: Pabasara H. Gamage, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sameera R. Gunatilake, Hondamuni I. C De Silva, Parakrama Karunaratne


Green diesel is an upcoming category of biofuels, which has more practical advantages than biodiesel. Production of green diesel involves production of hydrocarbons from various fatty acid sources. Though green diesel is chemically similar to fossil fuel hydrocarbons, it is more environmentally friendly. Decarboxylation of fatty acid sources is one of green diesel production methods and is less expensive and more energy efficient compared to hydrodeoxygenation. Free fatty acids (FFA), undergo decarboxylation readily than triglycerides. Waste coconut oil, which is a rich source of FFA, can be easily decarboxylated than other oils which have lower FFA contents. These free fatty acids can be converted to hydrocarbons by decarboxylation. Experiments were conducted to carry out decarboxylation of waste coconut oil in a high pressure hastealloy reactor (Toption Goup LTD), in the presence of soda lime and mixtures of soda lime and alumina. Acid value (AV) correlates to the amount of FFA available in a sample of oil. It can be shown that with the decreasing of AV, FFAs have converted to hydrocarbons. First, waste coconut oil was reacted with soda lime alone, at 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure for 2 hours. AVs of products at different temperatures were compared. AV of products decreased with increasing temperature. Thereafter, different mixtures of soda lime and alumina (100% Soda lime, 1:1 soda lime and alumina and 100% alumina) were employed at temperatures 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure. The lowest AV of 2.99±0.03 was obtained when 1:1 soda lime and alumina were employed at 250 °C. It can be concluded with respect to the AV that the amount of FFA decreased when decarboxylation temperature was increased. Soda lime:alumina 1:1 mixture showed the lowest AV among the compositions studied. These findings lead to formulate a method to successfully synthesize hydrocarbons by decarboxylating waste coconut oil in the presence of soda lime and alumina (1:1) at elevated tempertaures such as 250 °C.

Keywords: acid value, free fatty acids, green diesel, high pressure reactor, waste coconut oil

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2118 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao


In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: dual-cubes, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks, hypercubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property

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2117 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage


Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

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2116 Ultra-Low NOx Combustion Technology of Liquid Fuel Burner

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A new concept of in-furnace partial oxidation combustion is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that liquid fuel is prevaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, injection distance and fuel distribution ratio on the NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed burner showed very low NOx emission level, about 15 ppm when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation

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