Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4206

Search results for: flow uniformity

4206 3D Modelling of Fluid Flow in Tunnel Kilns

Authors: Jaber H. Almutairi, Hosny Z. Abou-Ziyan, Issa F. Almesri, Mosab A. Alrahmani

Abstract:

The present work investigates the behavior of fluid flow inside tunnel kilns using 3D-CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. The CFD simulations are carried out with the FLUENT software and validated against experimental results on fluid flow and heat transfer in tunnel kilns. A grid dependency study is conducted in the current work to improve the accuracy of the results. Three turbulence models k–ω, standard k–ε, and RNG k–ε are tested where k–ω model gives the best results in comparison with the experiment. The numerical results reveal an intriguing phenomenon where a long flow separation zone behind the setting is observed under different geometric and operation conditions. It was found that the uniformity of flow distribution can be substantially improved by rearranging the geometrical parameters of brick setting relative to kiln/setting. This improvement of flow distribution plays a critical role to enhance the quality and quantity of the production. It can be concluded that a better design and operation of tunnel kilns in terms of productivity and energy consumption can be obtained by taking into consideration the flow uniformity inside the tunnel kilns using CFD modelling.

Keywords: tunnel kilns, flow separation, flow uniformity, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
4205 Hydrological Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of the river ecosystem. Then, it is severe to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, Flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude was determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 days. According to the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. To maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m^3.s^-1.

Keywords: Gharasou River, water flow management, non-uniformity distribution, ecosystem flow requirement, hydraulic alteration

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4204 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: catalytic muffler, perforated inlet cone, catalysts, perforated pipe, flow uniformity, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
4203 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
4202 Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Characteristic of the Air Distribution in the Wind-Box of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

Authors: Xiaozhou Liu, Guangyu Zhu, Yu Zhang, Hongwei Wu

Abstract:

The wind-box is one of the important components of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. The uniformity of air flow in the wind-box of is very important for highly efficient operation of the CFB boiler. Non-uniform air flow distribution within the wind-box can reduce the boiler's thermal efficiency, leading to higher energy consumptions. An effective measure to solve this problem is to install an air flow distributing device in the wind-box. In order to validate the effectiveness of the air flow distributing device, visual and velocity distribution uniformity experiments have been carried out under five different test conditions by using a 1:64 scale model of a 220t/hr CFB boiler. It has been shown that the z component of flow velocity remains almost the same at control cross-sections of the wind-box, with a maximum variation of less than 10%. Moreover, the same methodology has been carried out to a full-scale 220t/hr CFB boiler. The hot test results depict that the thermal efficiency of the boiler has increased from 85.71% to 88.34% when tested with an air flow distributing device in place, which is equivalent to a saving of 5,000 tons of coal per year. The economic benefits of this energy-saving technology have been shown to be very significant, which clearly demonstrates that the technology is worth applying and popularizing.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, CFB, wind-box, air flow distributing device, visual experiment, velocity distribution uniformity experiment, hot test

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
4201 A Numerical Investigation of Flow Maldistribution in Inlet Header Configuration of Plate Fin Heat Exchanger

Authors: Appasaheb Raul

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of a plate fin heat exchanger accounting for the effect of fluid flow maldistribution on the inlet header configuration of the heat exchanger is investigated. It is found that the flow maldistribution is very significant in normal to the flow direction. Various inlet configuration has been studied for various Reynolds Number. By the study, a modified header configuration is proposed and simulated. The two-dimensional parameters are used to evaluate the flow non-uniformity in the header, global flow maldistribution parameter (Sg), and Velocity Ratio (θ). A series of velocity vectors and streamline graphs at different cross-section are achieved and studied qualitatively with experimental results in the literature. The numerical result indicates that the flow maldistribution is serious in the conventional header while in the improved configuration less maldistribution occurs. The flow maldistribution parameter (Sg) and velocity ratio (θ) is reduced in improved configuration. The vortex decreases compared to that of the conventional configuration so the energy and pressure loss is reduced. The improved header can effectively enhance the efficiency of plate fin heat exchanger and uniformity of flow distribution.

Keywords: global flow maldistribution parameter, Sg, velocity ratio, plate fin heat exchanger, fluent 14.5

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
4200 Aerodynamic Design of Axisymmetric Supersonic Nozzle Used by an Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

In this paper, it has been studied the method of optimal design of the supersonic nozzle. It could make viscous axisymmetric nozzles that the quality of their outlet flow is quite desired. In this method, it is optimized the divergent nozzle, at first. The initial divergent nozzle contour is designed through the method of characteristics and adding a suitable boundary layer to the inviscid contour. After that, it is made a proper grid and then simulated flow by the numerical solution and AUSM+ method by using the operation boundary condition. At the end, solution outputs are investigated and optimized. The numerical method has been validated with experimental results. Also, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the present method, the nozzles compared with the previous studies. The comparisons show that the nozzles obtained through this method are sufficiently better in some conditions, such as the flow uniformity, size of the boundary layer, and obtained an axial length of the nozzle. Designing the convergent nozzle part affects by flow uniformity through changing its axial length and input diameter. The results show that increasing the length of the convergent part improves the output flow uniformity.

Keywords: nozzle, supersonic, optimization, characteristic method, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4199 Numerical Simulations for Nitrogen Flow in Piezoelectric Valve

Authors: Pawel Flaszynski, Piotr Doerffer, Jan Holnicki-Szulc, Grzegorz Mikulowski

Abstract:

Results of numerical simulations for transonic flow in a piezoelectric valve are presented. The valve is the main part of an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. Flow structure in the valve domain and the influence of the flow non-uniformity in the valve on a mass flow rate is investigated. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: pneumatic valve, transonic flow, numerical simulations, piezoelectric valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
4198 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman

Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
4197 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
4196 Effect of Swirling Mixer on the Exhaust Flow in a Diesel SCR Aftertreatment System

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim, In Jae Song

Abstract:

The widespread utilization of mixer in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system marks a remarkable advantage in diesel engines. In the automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, the de-NOX efficiency can be improved by highly uniform flow with effective turbulent mixing. In this paper, the exhaust pipe is complemented with the swirling mixers of three different vane angles installed at the upstream of the SCR reactor. The attributes of the mixer are established by the variation in flow behavior followed by the drawback owing to the absence of mixer. In particular, the information pertaining to the selection of proper static mixer is provided based on the correlation between the uniformity index (UI) and the pressure drop. The uniform distribution of the flow at the entrance of the SCR reactor aids to determine the configuration which gives high mixing performance and comprehend the function of the mixer.

Keywords: pressure drop, selective catalytic reduction, static mixer, turbulent mixing, uniformity index

Procedia PDF Downloads 587
4195 The Effect of Inlet Baffle Position in Improving the Efficiency of Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Issa Saket, Md. Azlin

Abstract:

The gravitational effect has been extensively applied to separate oil from water in water and wastewater treatment systems. The maximum oil globules removal efficiency is improved by obtaining the best flow uniformity in separator tanks. This study used 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of different inlet baffle positions inside the separator tank. Laboratory experiment has been conducted, and the measured velocity fields which were by Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) are used to verify the CFD model. Computational investigation results indicated that the construction of an inlet baffle in a suitable location provides the minimum recirculation zone volume, creates the best flow uniformity, and dissipates kinetic energy in the oil and water separator tank. Useful formulas were predicted to design the oil and water separator tanks geometry based on an experimental model.

Keywords: oil/water separator tanks, inlet baffles, CFD, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4194 Field Synergy Analysis of Combustion Characteristics in the Afterburner of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

Authors: Shing-Cheng Chang, Cheng-Hao Yang, Wen-Sheng Chang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li

Abstract:

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising green technology which can achieve a high electrical efficiency. Due to the high operating temperature of SOFC stack, the off-gases at high temperature from anode and cathode outlets are introduced into an afterburner to convert the chemical energy into thermal energy by combustion. The heat is recovered to preheat the fresh air and fuel gases before they pass through the stack during the SOFC power generation system operation. For an afterburner of the SOFC system, the temperature control with a good thermal uniformity is important. A burner with a well-designed geometry usually can achieve a satisfactory performance. To design an afterburner for an SOFC system, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is adoptable. In this paper, the hydrogen combustion characteristics in an afterburner with simple geometry are studied by using CFD. The burner is constructed by a cylinder chamber with the configuration of a fuel gas inlet, an air inlet, and an exhaust outlet. The flow field and temperature distributions inside the afterburner under different fuel and air flow rates are analyzed. To improve the temperature uniformity of the afterburner during the SOFC system operation, the flow paths of anode/cathode off-gases are varied by changing the positions of fuels and air inlet channel to improve the heat and flow field synergy in the burner furnace. Because the air flow rate is much larger than the fuel gas, the flow structure and heat transfer in the afterburner is dominated by the air flow path. The present work studied the effects of fluid flow structures on the combustion characteristics of an SOFC afterburner by three simulation models with a cylindrical combustion chamber and a tapered outlet. All walls in the afterburner are assumed to be no-slip and adiabatic. In each case, two set of parameters are simulated to study the transport phenomena of hydrogen combustion. The equivalence ratios are in the range of 0.08 to 0.1. Finally, the pattern factor for the simulation cases is calculated to investigate the effect of gas inlet locations on the temperature uniformity of the SOFC afterburner. The results show that the temperature uniformity of the exhaust gas can be improved by simply adjusting the position of the gas inlet. The field synergy analysis indicates the design of the fluid flow paths should be in the way that can significantly contribute to the heat transfer, i.e. the field synergy angle should be as small as possible. In the study cases, the averaged synergy angle of the burner is about 85̊, 84̊, and 81̊ respectively.

Keywords: afterburner, combustion, field synergy, solid oxide fuel cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
4193 Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicates a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
4192 Optimization of Urea Water Solution Injector for NH3 Uniformity Improvement in Urea-SCR System

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Gil Dong Kim, Seong Joon Moon, Ho Kil Lee

Abstract:

The Urea-SCR is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. In the present work, the computational prediction of internal flow and spray characteristics in the Urea-SCR system was carried out by using 3D-CFD simulation to evaluate NH3 uniformity index (NH3 UI) and its activation time according to the official New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The number of nozzle and its diameter, two types of injection directions, and penetration length were chosen as the design variables. The optimal solutions were obtained by coupling the CFD analysis with Taguchi method. The L16 orthogonal array and small-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method were used, and the optimal values were confirmed to be valid with 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the optimal solutions for the NH3 UI and activation time (NH3 UI 0.22) are obtained by 0.41 and 0,125 second, respectively, and their values are improved by 85.0% and 10.7%, respectively, compared with those of the base model.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, NH3 uniformity index, optimization, Taguchi method, Urea-SCR system, UWS injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
4191 A Simple Method for Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation, and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicate a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
4190 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam

Abstract:

Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
4189 Exploiting Non-Uniform Utility of Computing: A Case Study

Authors: Arnab Sarkar, Michael Huang, Chuang Ren, Jun Li

Abstract:

The increasing importance of computing in modern society has brought substantial growth in the demand for more computational power. In some problem domains such as scientific simulations, available computational power still sets a limit on what can be practically explored in computation. For many types of code, there is non-uniformity in the utility of computation. That is not every piece of computation contributes equally to the quality of the result. If this non-uniformity is understood well and exploited effectively, we can much more effectively utilize available computing power. In this paper, we discuss a case study of exploring such non-uniformity in a particle-in-cell simulation platform. We find both the existence of significant non-uniformity and that it is generally straightforward to exploit it. We show the potential of order-of-magnitude effective performance gain while keeping the comparable quality of output. We also discuss some challenges in both the practical application of the idea and evaluation of its impact.

Keywords: approximate computing, landau damping, non uniform utility computing, particle-in-cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
4188 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4187 Experimental and Computational Investigations of Baffle Position Effects on ‎the Performance of Oil and Water Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah‏‎, Md Azlin Md Said ‎

Abstract:

Gravity separator tanks are used to separate oil from water in treatment units. Achieving the best flow ‎uniformity in a separator tank will improve the maximum removal efficiency of oil globules from water. ‎In this study, the effect on hydraulic performance of different baffle structure positions inside a tank ‎was investigated. Experimental data and 2D computation fluid dynamics were used for analysis. In the ‎numerical model, two-phase flow (drift flux model) was used to validate one-phase flow. For ‎laboratory measurements, the velocity fields were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The ‎measurements were compared with the result of the computational model. The results of the ‎experimental and computational simulations indicate that the best location of a baffle structure is ‎achieved when the standard deviation of the velocity profile and the volume of the circulation zone ‎inside the tank are minimized.‎

Keywords: gravity separator tanks, CFD, baffle position, two phase flow, ADV, oil droplet

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4186 The Impact of Financial Reporting on Sustainability

Authors: Lynn Ruggieri

Abstract:

The worldwide pandemic has only increased sustainability awareness. The public is demanding that businesses be held accountable for their impact on the environment. While financial data enjoys uniformity in reporting requirements, there are no uniform reporting requirements for non-financial data. Europe is leading the way with some standards being implemented for reporting non-financial sustainability data; however, there is no uniformity globally. And without uniformity, there is not a clear understanding of what information to include and how to disclose it. Sustainability reporting will provide important information to stakeholders and will enable businesses to understand their impact on the environment. Therefore, there is a crucial need for this data. This paper looks at the history of sustainability reporting in the countries of the European Union and throughout the world and makes a case for worldwide reporting requirements for sustainability.

Keywords: financial reporting, non-financial data, sustainability, global financial reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
4185 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert

Abstract:

Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4184 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz

Abstract:

Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
4183 Determining Water Quantity from Sprayer Nozzle Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Image Processing Techniques

Authors: M. Nadeem, Y. K. Chang, C. Diallo, U. Venkatadri, P. Havard, T. Nguyen-Quang

Abstract:

Uniform distribution of agro-chemicals is highly important because there is a significant loss of agro-chemicals, for example from pesticide, during spraying due to non-uniformity of droplet and off-target drift. Improving the efficiency of spray pattern for different cropping systems would reduce energy, costs and to minimize environmental pollution. In this paper, we examine the water jet patterns in order to study the performance and uniformity of water distribution during the spraying process. We present a method to quantify the water amount from a sprayer jet by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The results of the study will be used to optimize sprayer or nozzles design for chemical application. For this study, ten sets of images were acquired by using the following PIV system settings: double frame mode, trigger rate is 4 Hz, and time between pulsed signals is 500 µs. Each set of images contained different numbers of double-framed images: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 at eight different pressures 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kPa. The PIV images obtained were analysed using custom-made image processing software for droplets and volume calculations. The results showed good agreement of both manual and PIV measurements and suggested that the PIV technique coupled with image processing can be used for a precise quantification of flow through nozzles. The results also revealed that the method of measuring fluid flow through PIV is reliable and accurate for sprayer patterns.

Keywords: image processing, PIV, quantifying the water volume from nozzle, spraying pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
4182 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn

Abstract:

Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4181 Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Chang-Hsien Tai, Kai-Wun Jin

Abstract:

When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.

Keywords: porous media, sinter, cooling index (CI), uniformity index (UI), CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
4180 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod

Abstract:

To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.  

Keywords: inertial confinement fusion, mach-zehnder interferometer, digital holographic microscopy, image reconstruction, holovision

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4179 Improving the Uniformity of Electrostatic Meter’s Spatial Sensitivity

Authors: Mohamed Abdalla, Ruixue Cheng, Jianyong Zhang

Abstract:

In pneumatic conveying, the solids are mixed with air or gas. In industries such as coal fired power stations, blast furnaces for iron making, cement and flour processing, the mass flow rate of solids needs to be monitored or controlled. However the current gas-solids two-phase flow measurement techniques are not as accurate as the flow meters available for the single phase flow. One of the problems that the multi-phase flow meters to face is that the flow profiles vary with measurement locations and conditions of pipe routing, bends, elbows and other restriction devices in conveying system as well as conveying velocity and concentration. To measure solids flow rate or concentration with non-even distribution of solids in gas, a uniform spatial sensitivity is required for a multi-phase flow meter. However, there are not many meters inherently have such property. The circular electrostatic meter is a popular choice for gas-solids flow measurement with its high sensitivity to flow, robust construction, low cost for installation and non-intrusive nature. However such meters have the inherent non-uniform spatial sensitivity. This paper first analyses the spatial sensitivity of circular electrostatic meter in general and then by combining the effect of the sensitivity to a single particle and the sensing volume for a given electrode geometry, the paper reveals first time how a circular electrostatic meter responds to a roping flow stream, which is much more complex than what is believed at present. The paper will provide the recent research findings on spatial sensitivity investigation at the University of Tees side based on Finite element analysis using Ansys Fluent software, including time and frequency domain characteristics and the effect of electrode geometry. The simulation results will be compared tothe experimental results obtained on a large scale (14” diameter) rig. The purpose of this research is paving a way to achieve a uniform spatial sensitivity for the circular electrostatic sensor by mean of compensation so as to improve overall accuracy of gas-solids flow measurement.

Keywords: spatial sensitivity, electrostatic sensor, pneumatic conveying, Ansys Fluent software

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
4178 Aerodynamic Design of Three-Dimensional Bellmouth for Low-Speed Open-Circuit Wind Tunnel

Authors: Harshavardhan Reddy, Balaji Subramanian

Abstract:

A systematic parametric study to find the optimum bellmouth profile by relating geometric and performance parameters to satisfy a set of specifications is reported. A careful aerodynamic design of bellmouth intake is critical to properly direct the flow with minimal losses and maximal flow uniformity into the honeycomb located inside the settling chamber of an indraft wind tunnel, thus improving the efficiency of the entire unit. Design charts for elliptically profiled bellmouths with two different contraction ratios (9 and 18) and three different test section speeds (25 m/s, 50 m/s, and 75 m/s) were presented. A significant performance improvement - especially in the Coefficient of discharge and in the flow angularity and boundary layer thickness at the honeycomb inlet - was observed when an entry corner radius (r/D = 0.08) was added to the bellmouth profile. The nonuniformity at the honeycomb inlet drops by about three times (~1% to 0.3%) when moving from square to regular octagonal cross-section. An octagonal cross-sectioned bellmouth intake with L/d = 0.55, D/d = 1.625, and r/D = 0.08 met all the four target performance specifications and is proposed as the best choice for a low-speed wind tunnel.

Keywords: bellmouth intake, low-speed wind tunnel, coefficient of discharge, nonuniformity, flow angularity, boundary layer thickness, CFD, aerodynamics

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4177 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 366