Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3344

Search results for: hydrological modeling

3344 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Blue Nile Basin, climate change, hydrological modeling, watershed

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3343 Hydrological Modeling of Watersheds Using the Only Corresponding Competitor Method: The Case of M’Zab Basin, South East Algeria

Authors: Oulad Naoui Noureddine, Cherif ELAmine, Djehiche Abdelkader

Abstract:

Water resources management includes several disciplines; the modeling of rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important discipline to prevent natural risks. There are several models to study rainfall-runoff relationship in watersheds. However, the majority of these models are not applicable in all basins of the world.  In this study, a new stochastic method called The Only Corresponding Competitor method (OCC) was used for the hydrological modeling of M’ZAB   Watershed (South East of Algeria) to adapt a few empirical models for any hydrological regime.  The results obtained allow to authorize a certain number of visions, in which it would be interesting to experiment with hydrological models that improve collectively or separately the data of a catchment by the OCC method.

Keywords: modelling, optimization, rainfall-runoff relationship, empirical model, OCC

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3342 Hydrological Modeling and Climate Change Impact Assessment Using HBV Model, A Case Study of Karnali River Basin of Nepal

Authors: Sagar Shiwakoti, Narendra Man Shakya

Abstract:

The lumped conceptual hydrological model HBV is applied to the Karnali River Basin to estimate runoff at several gauging stations and to analyze the changes in catchment hydrology and future flood magnitude due to climate change. The performance of the model is analyzed to assess its suitability to simulate streamflow in snow fed mountainous catchments. Due to the structural complexity, the model shows difficulties in modeling low and high flows accurately at the same time. It is observed that the low flows were generally underestimated and the peaks were correctly estimated except for some sharp peaks due to isolated precipitation events. In this study, attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of snow melt discharge in the runoff regime of the basin. Quantification of contribution of snowmelt to annual, summer and winter runoff has been done. The contribution is highest at the beginning of the hot months as the accumulated snow begins to melt. Examination of this contribution under conditions of increased temperatures indicate that global warming leading to increase in average basin temperature will significantly lead to higher contributions to runoff from snowmelt. Forcing the model with the output of HadCM3 GCM and the A1B scenario downscaled to the station level show significant changes to catchment hydrology in the 2040s. It is observed that the increase in runoff is most extreme in June - July. A shift in the hydrological regime is also observed.

Keywords: hydrological modeling, HBV light, rainfall runoff modeling, snow melt, climate change

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3341 Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and Its Impacts on the Mountainous Watershed Hydrology in Northwest China

Authors: Chansheng He, Zhongfu Wang, Xiao Bai, Jie Tian, Xin Jin

Abstract:

Heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties directly affects hydrological processes at different scales. Understanding heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties such as soil moisture is therefore essential for modeling watershed ecohydrological processes, particularly in hard to access, topographically complex mountainous watersheds. This study maps spatial variations of soil moisture by in situ observation network that consists of sampling points, zones, and tributaries, and monitors corresponding hydrological variables of air and soil temperatures, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and runoff in the Upper Reach of the Heihe River Watershed, a second largest inland river (terminal lake) with a drainage area of over 128,000 km² in Northwest China. Subsequently, the study uses a hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate the effects of heterogeneity of soil moisture on watershed hydrological processes. The spatial clustering method, Full-Order-CLK was employed to derive five soil heterogeneous zones (Configuration 97, 80, 65, 40, and 20) for soil input to SWAT. Results show the simulations by the SWAT model with the spatially clustered soil hydraulic information from the field sampling data had much better representation of the soil heterogeneity and more accurate performance than the model using the average soil property values for each soil type derived from the coarse soil datasets. Thus, incorporating detailed field sampling soil heterogeneity data greatly improves performance in hydrologic modeling.

Keywords: heterogeneity, soil moisture, SWAT, up-scaling

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3340 Drying and Transport Processes in Distributed Hydrological Modelling Based on Finite Volume Schemes (Iber Model)

Authors: Carlos Caro, Ernest Bladé, Pedro Acosta, Camilo Lesmes

Abstract:

The drying-wet process is one of the topics to be more careful in distributed hydrological modeling using finite volume schemes as a means of solving the equations of Saint Venant. In a hydrologic and hydraulic computer model, surface flow phenomena depend mainly on the different flow accumulation and subsequent runoff generation. These accumulations are generated by routing, cell by cell, from the heights of water, which begin to appear due to the rain at each instant of time. Determine when it is considered a dry cell and when considered wet to include in the full calculation is an issue that directly affects the quantification of direct runoff or generation of flow at the end of a zone of contribution by accumulations flow generated from cells or finite volume.

Keywords: hydrology, transport processes, hydrological modelling, finite volume schemes

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3339 The Visualization of Hydrological and Hydraulic Models Based on the Platform of Autodesk Civil 3D

Authors: Xiyue Wang, Shaoning Yan

Abstract:

Cities in China today is faced with an increasingly serious river ecological crisis accompanying with the development of urbanization: waterlogging on account of the fragmented urban natural hydrological system; the limited ecological function of the hydrological system caused by a destruction of water system and waterfront ecological environment. Additionally, the eco-hydrological processes of rivers are affected by various environmental factors, which are more complex in the context of urban environment. Therefore, efficient hydrological monitoring and analysis tools, accurate and visual hydrological and hydraulic models are becoming more important basis for decision-makers and an important way for landscape architects to solve urban hydrological problems, formulating sustainable and forward-looking schemes. The study mainly introduces the river and flood analysis model based on the platform of Autodesk Civil 3D. Taking the Luanhe River in Qian'an City of Hebei Province as an example, the 3D models of the landform, river, embankment, shoal, pond, underground stream and other land features were initially built, with which the water transfer simulation analysis, river floodplain analysis, and river ecology analysis were carried out, ultimately the real-time visualized simulation and analysis of rivers in various hypothetical scenarios were realized. Through the establishment of digital hydrological and hydraulic model, the hydraulic data can be accurately and intuitively simulated, which provides basis for rational water system and benign urban ecological system design. Though, the hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D own its boundedness: the interaction between the model and other data and software is unfavorable; the huge amount of 3D data and the lack of basic data restrict the accuracy and application range. The hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D platform provides more possibility to access convenient and intelligent tool for urban planning and monitoring, a solid basis for further urban research and design.

Keywords: visualization, hydrological and hydraulic model, Autodesk Civil 3D, urban river

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3338 Geospatial Analysis of Hydrological Response to Forest Fires in Small Mediterranean Catchments

Authors: Bojana Horvat, Barbara Karleusa, Goran Volf, Nevenka Ozanic, Ivica Kisic

Abstract:

Forest fire is a major threat in many regions in Croatia, especially in coastal areas. Although they are often caused by natural processes, the most common cause is the human factor, intentional or unintentional. Forest fires drastically transform landscapes and influence natural processes. The main goal of the presented research is to analyse and quantify the impact of the forest fire on hydrological processes and propose the model that best describes changes in hydrological patterns in the analysed catchments. Keeping in mind the spatial component of the processes, geospatial analysis is performed to gain better insight into the spatial variability of the hydrological response to disastrous events. In that respect, two catchments that experienced severe forest fire were delineated, and various hydrological and meteorological data were collected both attribute and spatial. The major drawback is certainly the lack of hydrological data, common in small torrential karstic streams; hence modelling results should be validated with the data collected in the catchment that has similar characteristics and established hydrological monitoring. The event chosen for the modelling is the forest fire that occurred in July 2019 and burned nearly 10% of the analysed area. Surface (land use/land cover) conditions before and after the event were derived from the two Sentinel-2 images. The mapping of the burnt area is based on a comparison of the Normalized Burn Index (NBR) computed from both images. To estimate and compare hydrological behaviour before and after the event, curve number (CN) values are assigned to the land use/land cover classes derived from the satellite images. Hydrological modelling resulted in surface runoff generation and hence prediction of hydrological responses in the catchments to a forest fire event. The research was supported by the Croatian Science Foundation through the project 'Influence of Open Fires on Water and Soil Quality' (IP-2018-01-1645).

Keywords: Croatia, forest fire, geospatial analysis, hydrological response

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3337 Hydrologic Balance and Surface Water Resources of the Cheliff-Zahrez Basin

Authors: Mehaiguene Madjid, Touhari Fadhila, Meddi Mohamed

Abstract:

The Cheliff basin offers a good hydrological example for the possibility of studying the problem which elucidated in the future, because of the unclearity in several aspects and hydraulic installation. Thus, our study of the Cheliff basin is divided into two principal parts: The spatial evaluation of the precipitation: also, the understanding of the modes of the reconstitution of the resource in water supposes a good knowledge of the structuring of the precipitation fields in the studied space. In the goal of a good knowledge of revitalizes them in water and their management integrated one judged necessary to establish a precipitation card of the Cheliff basin for a good understanding of the evolution of the resource in water in the basin and that goes will serve as basis for all study of hydraulic planning in the Cheliff basin. Then, the establishment of the precipitation card of the Cheliff basin answered a direct need of setting to the disposition of the researchers for the region and a document of reference that will be completed therefore and actualized. The hydrological study, based on the statistical hydrometric data processing will lead us to specify the hydrological terms of the assessment hydrological and to clarify the fundamental aspects of the annual flow, seasonal, extreme and thus of their variability and resources surface water.

Keywords: hydrological assessment, surface water resources, Cheliff, Algeria

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3336 An Extension of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Abdous Saboor

Abstract:

A q-analogue of the generalized extreme value distribution which includes the Gumbel distribution is introduced. The additional parameter q allows for increased modeling flexibility. The resulting distribution can have a finite, semi-infinite or infinite support. It can also produce several types of hazard rate functions. The model parameters are determined by making use of the method of maximum likelihood. It will be shown that it compares favourably to three related distributions in connection with the modeling of a certain hydrological data set.

Keywords: extreme value theory, generalized extreme value distribution, goodness-of-fit statistics, Gumbel distribution

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3335 Geographic Information Systems and Remotely Sensed Data for the Hydrological Modelling of Mazowe Dam

Authors: Ellen Nhedzi Gozo

Abstract:

Unavailability of adequate hydro-meteorological data has always limited the analysis and understanding of hydrological behaviour of several dam catchments including Mazowe Dam in Zimbabwe. The problem of insufficient data for Mazowe Dam catchment analysis was solved by extracting catchment characteristics and aerial hydro-meteorological data from ASTER, LANDSAT, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission SRTM remote sensing (RS) images using ILWIS, ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine geographic information systems (GIS) software. Available observed hydrological as well as meteorological data complemented the use of the remotely sensed information. Ground truth land cover was mapped using a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) system. This information was then used to validate land cover classification detail that was obtained from remote sensing images. A bathymetry survey was conducted using a SONAR system connected to GPS. Hydrological modelling using the HBV model was then performed to simulate the hydrological process of the catchment in an effort to verify the reliability of the derived parameters. The model output shows a high Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient that is close to 1 indicating that the parameters derived from remote sensing and GIS can be applied with confidence in the analysis of Mazowe Dam catchment.

Keywords: geographic information systems, hydrological modelling, remote sensing, water resources management

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3334 Estimation of the Parameters of Muskingum Methods for the Prediction of the Flood Depth in the Moudjar River Catchment

Authors: Fares Laouacheria, Said Kechida, Moncef Chabi

Abstract:

The objective of the study was based on the hydrological routing modelling for the continuous monitoring of the hydrological situation in the Moudjar river catchment, especially during floods with Hydrologic Engineering Center–Hydrologic Modelling Systems (HEC-HMS). The HEC-GeoHMS was used to transform data from geographic information system (GIS) to HEC-HMS for delineating and modelling the catchment river in order to estimate the runoff volume, which is used as inputs to the hydrological routing model. Two hydrological routing models were used, namely Muskingum and Muskingum routing models, for conducting this study. In this study, a comparison between the parameters of the Muskingum and Muskingum-Cunge routing models in HEC-HMS was used for modelling flood routing in the Moudjar river catchment and determining the relationship between these parameters and the physical characteristics of the river. The results indicate that the effects of input parameters such as the weighting factor "X" and travel time "K" on the output results are more significant, where the Muskingum routing model was more sensitive to input parameters than the Muskingum-Cunge routing model. This study can contribute to understand and improve the knowledge of the mechanisms of river floods, especially in ungauged river catchments.

Keywords: HEC-HMS, hydrological modelling, Muskingum routing model, Muskingum-Cunge routing model

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3333 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo

Abstract:

Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling

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3332 Modeling and Monitoring of Agricultural Influences on Harmful Algal Blooms in Western Lake Erie

Authors: Xiaofang Wei

Abstract:

Harmful Algal Blooms are a recurrent disturbing occurrence in Lake Erie that has caused significant negative impacts on water quality and aquatic ecosystem around Great Lakes areas in the United States. Targeting the recent HAB events in western Lake Erie, this paper utilizes satellite imagery and hydrological modeling to monitor HAB cyanobacteria blooms and analyze the impacts of agricultural activities from Maumee watershed, the biggest watershed of Lake Erie and agriculture dominant.SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) Model for Maumee watershed was established with DEM, land use data, crop data layer, soil data, and weather data, and calibrated with Maumee River gauge stations data for streamflow and nutrients. Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Hypercubes (FLAASH) was applied to remove atmospheric attenuation and cyanobacteria Indices were calculated from Landsat OLI imagery to study the intensity of HAB events in the years 2015, 2017, and 2019. The agricultural practice and nutrients management within the Maumee watershed was studied and correlated with HAB cyanobacteria indices to study the relationship between HAB intensity and nutrient loadings. This study demonstrates that hydrological models and satellite imagery are effective tools in HAB monitoring and modeling in rivers and lakes.

Keywords: harmful algal bloom, landsat OLI imagery, SWAT, HAB cyanobacteria

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3331 Application of Public Access Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Distributed Hydrological Models for Flood Forecasting in Ungauged Basins

Authors: Ahmad Shayeq Azizi, Yuji Toda

Abstract:

In Afghanistan, floods are the most frequent and recurrent events among other natural disasters. On the other hand, lack of monitoring data is a severe problem, which increases the difficulty of making the appropriate flood countermeasures of flood forecasting. This study is carried out to simulate the flood inundation in Harirud River Basin by application of distributed hydrological model, Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) and 2D hydrodynamic model, International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC) based on satellite rainfall combined with historical peak discharge and global accessed data. The results of the simulation can predict the inundation area, depth and velocity, and the hardware countermeasures such as the impact of levee installation can be discussed by using the present method. The methodology proposed in this study is suitable for the area where hydrological and geographical data including river survey data are poorly observed.

Keywords: distributed hydrological model, flood inundation, hydrodynamic model, ungauged basins

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3330 Review of Downscaling Methods in Climate Change and Their Role in Hydrological Studies

Authors: Nishi Bhuvandas, P. V. Timbadiya, P. L. Patel, P. D. Porey

Abstract:

Recent perceived climate variability raises concerns with unprecedented hydrological phenomena and extremes. Distribution and circulation of the waters of the Earth become increasingly difficult to determine because of additional uncertainty related to anthropogenic emissions. According to the sixth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Technical Paper on Climate Change and water, changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle have been related to an increase in the observed temperature over several decades. Although many previous research carried on effect of change in climate on hydrology provides a general picture of possible hydrological global change, new tools and frameworks for modelling hydrological series with nonstationary characteristics at finer scales, are required for assessing climate change impacts. Of the downscaling techniques, dynamic downscaling is usually based on the use of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), which generate finer resolution output based on atmospheric physics over a region using General Circulation Model (GCM) fields as boundary conditions. However, RCMs are not expected to capture the observed spatial precipitation extremes at a fine cell scale or at a basin scale. Statistical downscaling derives a statistical or empirical relationship between the variables simulated by the GCMs, called predictors, and station-scale hydrologic variables, called predictands. The main focus of the paper is on the need for using statistical downscaling techniques for projection of local hydrometeorological variables under climate change scenarios. The projections can be then served as a means of input source to various hydrologic models to obtain streamflow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and other hydrological variables of interest.

Keywords: climate change, downscaling, GCM, RCM

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3329 Estimation of the Curve Number and Runoff Height Using the Arc CN-Runoff Tool in Sartang Ramon Watershed in Iran

Authors: L.Jowkar. M.Samiee

Abstract:

Models or systems based on rainfall and runoff are numerous and have been formulated and applied depending on the precipitation regime, temperature, and climate. In this study, the ArcCN-Runoff rain-runoff modeling tool was used to estimate the spatial variability of the rainfall-runoff relationship in Sartang Ramon in Jiroft watershed. In this study, the runoff was estimated from 6-hour rainfall. The results showed that based on hydrological soil group map, soils with hydrological groups A, B, C, and D covered 1, 2, 55, and 41% of the basin, respectively. Given that the majority of the area has a slope above 60 percent and results of soil hydrologic groups, one can conclude that Sartang Ramon Basin has a relatively high potential for producing runoff. The average runoff height for a 6-hour rainfall with a 2-year return period is 26.6 mm. The volume of runoff from the 2-year return period was calculated as the runoff height of each polygon multiplied by the area of the polygon, which is 137913486 m³ for the whole basin.

Keywords: Arc CN-Run off, rain-runoff, return period, watershed

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3328 Evaluation of Reliability Flood Control System Based on Uncertainty of Flood Discharge, Case Study Wulan River, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Anik Sarminingsih, Krishna V. Pradana

Abstract:

The failure of flood control system can be caused by various factors, such as not considering the uncertainty of designed flood causing the capacity of the flood control system is exceeded. The presence of the uncertainty factor is recognized as a serious issue in hydrological studies. Uncertainty in hydrological analysis is influenced by many factors, starting from reading water elevation data, rainfall data, selection of method of analysis, etc. In hydrological modeling selection of models and parameters corresponding to the watershed conditions should be evaluated by the hydraulic model in the river as a drainage channel. River cross-section capacity is the first defense in knowing the reliability of the flood control system. Reliability of river capacity describes the potential magnitude of flood risk. Case study in this research is Wulan River in Central Java. This river occurring flood almost every year despite some efforts to control floods such as levee, floodway and diversion. The flood-affected areas include several sub-districts, mainly in Kabupaten Kudus and Kabupaten Demak. First step is analyze the frequency of discharge observation from Klambu weir which have time series data from 1951-2013. Frequency analysis is performed using several distribution frequency models such as Gumbel distribution, Normal, Normal Log, Pearson Type III and Log Pearson. The result of the model based on standard deviation overlaps, so the maximum flood discharge from the lower return periods may be worth more than the average discharge for larger return periods. The next step is to perform a hydraulic analysis to evaluate the reliability of river capacity based on the flood discharge resulted from several methods. The selection of the design flood discharge of flood control system is the result of the method closest to bankfull capacity of the river.

Keywords: design flood, hydrological model, reliability, uncertainty, Wulan river

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3327 Streamflow Modeling Using the PyTOPKAPI Model with Remotely Sensed Rainfall Data: A Case Study of Gilgel Ghibe Catchment, Ethiopia

Authors: Zeinu Ahmed Rabba, Derek D Stretch

Abstract:

Remote sensing contributes valuable information to streamflow estimates. Usually, stream flow is directly measured through ground-based hydrological monitoring station. However, in many developing countries like Ethiopia, ground-based hydrological monitoring networks are either sparse or nonexistent, which limits the manage water resources and hampers early flood-warning systems. In such cases, satellite remote sensing is an alternative means to acquire such information. This paper discusses the application of remotely sensed rainfall data for streamflow modeling in Gilgel Ghibe basin in Ethiopia. Ten years (2001-2010) of two satellite-based precipitation products (SBPP), TRMM and WaterBase, were used. These products were combined with the PyTOPKAPI hydrological model to generate daily stream flows. The results were compared with streamflow observations at Gilgel Ghibe Nr, Assendabo gauging station using four statistical tools (Bias, R², NS and RMSE). The statistical analysis indicates that the bias-adjusted SBPPs agree well with gauged rainfall compared to bias-unadjusted ones. The SBPPs with no bias-adjustment tend to overestimate (high Bias and high RMSE) the extreme precipitation events and the corresponding simulated streamflow outputs, particularly during wet months (June-September) and underestimate the streamflow prediction over few dry months (January and February). This shows that bias-adjustment can be important for improving the performance of the SBPPs in streamflow forecasting. We further conclude that the general streamflow patterns were well captured at daily time scales when using SBPPs after bias adjustment. However, the overall results demonstrate that the simulated streamflow using the gauged rainfall is superior to those obtained from remotely sensed rainfall products including bias-adjusted ones.

Keywords: Ethiopia, PyTOPKAPI model, remote sensing, streamflow, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), waterBase

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3326 Stochastic Richelieu River Flood Modeling and Comparison of Flood Propagation Models: WMS (1D) and SRH (2D)

Authors: Maryam Safrai, Tewfik Mahdi

Abstract:

This article presents the stochastic modeling of the Richelieu River flood in Quebec, Canada, occurred in the spring of 2011. With the aid of the one-dimensional Watershed Modeling System (WMS (v.10.1) and HEC-RAS (v.4.1) as a flood simulator, the delineation of the probabilistic flooded areas was considered. Based on the Monte Carlo method, WMS (v.10.1) delineated the probabilistic flooded areas with corresponding occurrence percentages. Furthermore, results of this one-dimensional model were compared with the results of two-dimensional model (SRH-2D) for the evaluation of efficiency and precision of each applied model. Based on this comparison, computational process in two-dimensional model is longer and more complicated versus brief one-dimensional one. Although, two-dimensional models are more accurate than one-dimensional method, but according to existing modellers, delineation of probabilistic flooded areas based on Monte Carlo method is achievable via one-dimensional modeler. The applied software in this case study greatly responded to verify the research objectives. As a result, flood risk maps of the Richelieu River with the two applied models (1d, 2d) could elucidate the flood risk factors in hydrological, hydraulic, and managerial terms.

Keywords: flood modeling, HEC-RAS, model comparison, Monte Carlo simulation, probabilistic flooded area, SRH-2D, WMS

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3325 Hydrological Characterization of a Watershed for Streamflow Prediction

Authors: Oseni Taiwo Amoo, Bloodless Dzwairo

Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the versatility and usefulness of GIS as a methodology for any river basin hydrologic characteristics analysis (HCA). The Gurara River basin located in North-Central Nigeria is presented in this study. It is an on-going research using spatial Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Arc-Hydro tools to take inventory of the basin characteristics in order to predict water abstraction quantification on streamflow regime. One of the main concerns of hydrological modelling is the quantification of runoff from rainstorm events. In practice, the soil conservation service curve (SCS) method and the Conventional procedure called rational technique are still generally used these traditional hydrological lumped models convert statistical properties of rainfall in river basin to observed runoff and hydrograph. However, the models give little or no information about spatially dispersed information on rainfall and basin physical characteristics. Therefore, this paper synthesizes morphometric parameters in generating runoff. The expected results of the basin characteristics such as size, area, shape, slope of the watershed and stream distribution network analysis could be useful in estimating streamflow discharge. Water resources managers and irrigation farmers could utilize the tool for determining net return from available scarce water resources, where past data records are sparse for the aspect of land and climate.

Keywords: hydrological characteristic, stream flow, runoff discharge, land and climate

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3324 Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products Using IHACRES Rainfall-Runoff Model over a Basin in Iran

Authors: Mahmoud Zakeri Niri, Saber Moazami, Arman Abdollahipour, Hossein Ghalkhani

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to hydrological evaluation of four widely-used satellite precipitation products named PERSIANN, TMPA-3B42V7, TMPA-3B42RT, and CMORPH over Zarinehrood basin in Iran. For this aim, at first, daily streamflow of Sarough-cahy river of Zarinehrood basin was simulated using IHACRES rainfall-runoff model with daily rain gauge and temperature as input data from 1988 to 2008. Then, the model was calibrated in two different periods through comparison the simulated discharge with the observed one at hydrometric stations. Moreover, in order to evaluate the performance of satellite precipitation products in streamflow simulation, the calibrated model was validated using daily satellite rainfall estimates from the period of 2003 to 2008. The obtained results indicated that TMPA-3B42V7 with CC of 0.69, RMSE of 5.93 mm/day, MAE of 4.76 mm/day, and RBias of -5.39% performs better simulation of streamflow than those PERSIANN and CMORPH over the study area. It is noteworthy that in Iran, the availability of ground measuring station data is very limited because of the sparse density of hydro-meteorological networks. On the other hand, large spatial and temporal variability of precipitations and lack of a reliable and extensive observing system are the most important challenges to rainfall analysis, flood prediction, and other hydrological applications in this country.

Keywords: hydrological evaluation, IHACRES, satellite precipitation product, streamflow simulation

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3323 Comparative Study on Daily Discharge Estimation of Soolegan River

Authors: Redvan Ghasemlounia, Elham Ansari, Hikmet Kerem Cigizoglu

Abstract:

Hydrological modeling in arid and semi-arid regions is very important. Iran has many regions with these climate conditions such as Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province that needs lots of attention with an appropriate management. Forecasting of hydrological parameters and estimation of hydrological events of catchments, provide important information that used for design, management and operation of water resources such as river systems, and dams, widely. Discharge in rivers is one of these parameters. This study presents the application and comparison of some estimation methods such as Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) to predict the daily flow discharge of the Soolegan River, located at Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in Iran. In this study, Soolegan, station was considered. This Station is located in Soolegan River at 51° 14՜ Latitude 31° 38՜ longitude at North Karoon basin. The Soolegan station is 2086 meters higher than sea level. The data used in this study are daily discharge and daily precipitation of Soolegan station. Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network(FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) models were developed using the same input parameters for Soolegan's daily discharge estimation. The results of estimation models were compared with observed discharge values to evaluate performance of the developed models. Results of all methods were compared and shown in tables and charts.

Keywords: ANN, multi linear regression, Bayesian network, forecasting, discharge, gene expression programming

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3322 Determining the Extent and Direction of Relief Transformations Caused by Ski Run Construction Using LIDAR Data

Authors: Joanna Fidelus-Orzechowska, Dominika Wronska-Walach, Jaroslaw Cebulski

Abstract:

Mountain areas are very often exposed to numerous transformations connected with the development of tourist infrastructure. In mountain areas in Poland ski tourism is very popular, so agricultural areas are often transformed into tourist areas. The construction of new ski runs can change the direction and rate of slope development. The main aim of this research was to determine geomorphological and hydrological changes within slopes caused by ski run constructions. The study was conducted in the Remiaszów catchment in the Inner Polish Carpathians (southern Poland). The mean elevation of the catchment is 859 m a.s.l. and the maximum is 946 m a.s.l. The surface area of the catchment is 1.16 km2, of which 16.8% is the area of the two studied ski runs. The studied ski runs were constructed in 2014 and 2015. In order to determine the relief transformations connected with new ski run construction high resolution LIDAR data was analyzed. The general relief changes in the studied catchment were determined on the basis of ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning ) data obtained before (2013) and after (2016) ski run construction. Based on the two sets of ALS data a digital elevation models of differences (DoDs) was created, which made it possible to determine the quantitative relief changes in the entire studied catchment. Additionally, cross and longitudinal profiles were calculated within slopes where new ski runs were built. Detailed data on relief changes within selected test surfaces was obtained based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). Hydrological changes within the analyzed catchment were determined based on the convergence and divergence index. The study shows that the construction of the new ski runs caused significant geomorphological and hydrological changes in the entire studied catchment. However, the most important changes were identified within the ski slopes. After the construction of ski runs the entire catchment area lowered about 0.02 m. Hydrological changes in the studied catchment mainly led to the interruption of surface runoff pathways and changes in runoff direction and geometry.

Keywords: hydrological changes, mountain areas, relief transformations, ski run construction

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3321 Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Flood Risk: A Case Study

Authors: Talha Ahmed, Ishtiaq Hassan

Abstract:

Urban areas or metropolitan is portrayed by the very high density of population due to the result of these economic activities. Some critical elements, such as urban expansion and climate change, are driving changes in cities with exposure to the incidence and impacts of pluvial floods. Urban communities are recurrently developed by huge spaces by which water cannot enter impermeable surfaces, such as man-made permanent surfaces and structures, which do not cause the phenomena of infiltration and percolation. Urban sprawl can result in increased run-off volumes, flood stage and flood extents during heavy rainy seasons. The flood risks require a thorough examination of all aspects affecting to severe an event in order to accurately estimate their impacts and other risk factors associated with them. For risk evaluation and its impact due to urbanization, an integrated hydrological modeling approach is used on the study area in Islamabad (Pakistan), focusing on a natural water body that has been adopted in this research. The vulnerability of the physical elements at risk in the research region is analyzed using GIS and SOBEK. The supervised classification of land use containing the images from 1980 to 2020 is used. The modeling of DEM with selected return period is used for modeling a hydrodynamic model for flood event inundation. The selected return periods are 50,75 and 100 years which are used in flood modeling. The findings of this study provided useful information on high-risk places and at-risk properties.

Keywords: urbanization, flood, flood risk, GIS

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3320 Role of Numerical Simulation as a Tool to Enhance Climate Change Adaptation and Resilient Societies: A Case Study from the Philippines

Authors: Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Rapid global changes resulted in unfavorable hydrological, ecological, and environmental changes and cumulatively affected natural resources. As a result, the local communities become vulnerable to water stress, poor hygiene, the spread of diseases, food security, etc.. However, the central point for this vulnerability revolves around water resources and the way people interrelate with the hydrological system. Also, most of the efforts to minimize the adverse effect of global changes are centered on the mitigation side. Hence, countries with poor adaptive capacities and poor governance suffer most in case of disasters. However, several transdisciplinary numerical tools are well designed and are capable of answering “what-if questions” through scenario analysis using a system approach. This study has predicted the future water environment in Marikina River in the National Capital Region, Metro Manila of Philippines, using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP), an integrated water resource management tool. Obtained results can answer possible adaptation measures along with their associated uncertainties. It also highlighted various challenges for the policy planners to design adaptation countermeasures as well as to track the progress of achieving SDG 6.0.

Keywords: water quality, Philippines, climate change adaptation, hydrological simulation, wastewater management, weap

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3319 Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Watershed Runoff Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Emeka Anarah, Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Obasi Arinze

Abstract:

Quantifying the hydrological response due to changes in climate change is imperative for proper management of water resources within a watershed. The impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Ebony River (UER) watershed, South East Nigeria, was studied using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A climatological time series analysis from 1985 - 2014 using non-parametric test showed significant negative trends in precipitation and relative humidity trend while minimum and maximum temperature, solar radiation and wind speed showed significant positive trends. Future hypothetical land-use change scenarios (Scenarios 1, 2, 3 and 4) representing urbanization and conversion of forest to agricultural land were combined with future downscaled climate model (CSIRO-Mk3-6-0) and simulated in SWAT model. Relative to the Baseline scenario (2005 - 2014), the results showed a decrease in streamflow by 10.29%, 26.20%, 11.80% and 26.72% for Scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Model results suggest development of adaptation strategies to cope with the predicted hydrological conditions under future climate change in the watershed.

Keywords: climate change, hydrology, runoff, SWAT model

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3318 A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: Chil-Chyuan Kuo, Chen-Hsuan Tsai

Abstract:

This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20 pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding. The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: vacuum casting, fused deposition modeling, modeling platform, sandblasting, surface roughness

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3317 Assimilating Multi-Mission Satellites Data into a Hydrological Model

Authors: Mehdi Khaki, Ehsan Forootan, Joseph Awange, Michael Kuhn

Abstract:

Terrestrial water storage, as a source of freshwater, plays an important role in human lives. Hydrological models offer important tools for simulating and predicting water storages at global and regional scales. However, their comparisons with 'reality' are imperfect mainly due to a high level of uncertainty in input data and limitations in accounting for all complex water cycle processes, uncertainties of (unknown) empirical model parameters, as well as the absence of high resolution (both spatially and temporally) data. Data assimilation can mitigate this drawback by incorporating new sets of observations into models. In this effort, we use multi-mission satellite-derived remotely sensed observations to improve the performance of World-Wide Water Resources Assessment system (W3RA) hydrological model for estimating terrestrial water storages. For this purpose, we assimilate total water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) and surface soil moisture data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) into W3RA. This is done to (i) improve model estimations of water stored in ground and soil moisture, and (ii) assess the impacts of each satellite of data (from GRACE and AMSR-E) and their combination on the final terrestrial water storage estimations. These data are assimilated into W3RA using the Ensemble Square-Root Filter (EnSRF) filtering technique over Mississippi Basin (the United States) and Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) between 2002 and 2013. In order to evaluate the results, independent ground-based groundwater and soil moisture measurements within each basin are used.

Keywords: data assimilation, GRACE, AMSR-E, hydrological model, EnSRF

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3316 Standardized Description and Modeling Methods of Semiconductor IP Interfaces

Authors: Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

IP reuse is an effective design methodology for modern SoC design to reduce effort and time. However, description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are different due to different IP designers. In this paper, standardized description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are proposed. It consists of 11 items such as IP information, model provision, data type, description level, interface information, port information, signal information, protocol information, modeling level, modeling information, and source file. The proposed description and modeling methods enables easy understanding, simulation, verification, and modification in IP reuse.

Keywords: interface, standardization, description, modeling, semiconductor IP

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3315 Characterization of Group Dynamics for Fostering Mathematical Modeling Competencies

Authors: Ayse Ozturk

Abstract:

The study extends the prior research on modeling competencies by positioning students’ cognitive and language resources as the fundamentals for pursuing their own inquiry and expression lines through mathematical modeling. This strategy aims to answer the question that guides this study, “How do students’ group approaches to modeling tasks affect their modeling competencies over a unit of instruction?” Six bilingual tenth-grade students worked on open-ended modeling problems along with the content focused on quantities over six weeks. Each group was found to have a unique cognitive approach for solving these problems. Three different problem-solving strategies affected how the groups’ modeling competencies changed. The results provide evidence that the discussion around groups’ solutions, coupled with their reflections, advances group interpreting and validating competencies in the mathematical modeling process

Keywords: cognition, collective learning, mathematical modeling competencies, problem-solving

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