Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3922

Search results for: degree distance

3922 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang


The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

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3921 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji


In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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3920 Normalized Compression Distance Based Scene Alteration Analysis of a Video

Authors: Lakshay Kharbanda, Aabhas Chauhan


In this paper, an application of Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) to detect notable scene alterations occurring in videos is presented. Several research groups have been developing methods to perform image classification using NCD, a computable approximation to Normalized Information Distance (NID) by studying the degree of similarity in images. The timeframes where significant aberrations between the frames of a video have occurred have been identified by obtaining a threshold NCD value, using two compressors: LZMA and BZIP2 and defining scene alterations using Pixel Difference Percentage metrics.

Keywords: image compression, Kolmogorov complexity, normalized compression distance, root mean square error

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3919 Human Connection over Technology: Evidence, Pitfalls, and Promise of Collaboration Technologies in Promoting Full Spectrum Participation of the Virtual Workforce

Authors: Michelle Marquard


The evidence for collaboration technologies (CTs) as a source of business productivity has never been stronger, and grows each day. At the same time, paradoxically, there is an increasingly greater concern about the challenge CTs present to the unity and well-being of the virtual workforce than ever before, but nowhere in the literature has an empirical understanding of these linkages been set out. This study attempted to address by using virtual distance as a measure of the efficacy of CTs to reduce the psychological distance among people. Data from 350 managers and 101 individual contributors across twelve functions in six major industries showed that business value is related to collaboration (r=.84, p < .01), which, in turn, is associated with full spectrum participation (r=.60, p < .01), a summative function of inclusion, integration, and we-intention. Further, virtual distance is negatively related to both collaboration (r=-.54, p < .01) and full spectrum participation (r=-.26, p < .01). Additionally, CIO-CDO relationship is a factor in the degree to which virtual distance is managed in the organization (r=-.26, p < .01). Overall, the results support the positive relationship between business value and collaboration. They also suggest that the extent to which collaboration can be fostered may depend on the degree of full spectrum participation or the level of inclusion, integration, and we-intention among members. Finally, the results indicate that CTs, when managed wisely to lower virtual distance, are a compelling concomitant to collaboration and full spectrum participation. A strategic outcome of this study is an instrumental blueprint of CTs and virtual distance in relation to full spectrum participation that should serve as a shared dashboard for CIOs, CHROs, and CDOs.

Keywords: business value, collaboration, inclusion, integration, we-intention, full spectrum participation, collaboration technologies, virtual distance

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3918 A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: J. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Zhang


The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.

Keywords: degree, initial cluster center, k-means, minimum spanning tree

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3917 Degree Tracking System (DTS) to Improve the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Open Distance Learning System: A Case Study of Islamabad Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)

Authors: Hatib Shabbir


Student support services play an important role in providing technical and motivational support to distance learner. ICT based systems have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of support services. In distance education, students being at distant require quick responses from their institution. In the manual system, it is practically hard to give prompt response to each and every student, so as a result student has to suffer a lot. The best way to minimize inefficiencies is to use automated systems. This project involves the development of centralized automated software that would not only replace the manual degree issuance system of 1.3 million students studying at AIOU but also provide online tracking to all the students applying for Degrees. DTS is also the first step towards the paperless culture which is adopted by the major organizations of the world. DTS would not only save university cost but also save students cost and time too by conveying all the information/objection through email and SMS. Moreover, DTS also monitors the performance of each and every individual working in the exam department AIOU and generates daily, monthly and yearly reports of every individual which helps a lot in continuous performance monitoring of the employees.

Keywords: aiou dts, dts aiou, dts, degree tracking aiou

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3916 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah


In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

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3915 Cultural Effects on the Performance of Non- Profit and For-Profit Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Patrick M. Stanton, William R. McCumber


Using a large dataset of more than 2,400 individual microfinance institutions (MFIs) from 120 countries from 1999 to 2016, this study finds that nearly half of the international MFIs operate as for-profit institutions. Formal institutions (business regulatory environment, property rights, social protection, and a developed financial sector) impact the likelihood of MFIs being for-profit across countries. Cultural differences across countries (power distance, individualism, masculinity, and indulgence) seem to be a factor in the legal status of the MFI (non-profit or for-profit). MFIs in countries with stronger formal institutions, a greater degree of power distance, and a higher degree of collectivism experience better financial and social performance.

Keywords: Hofstede cultural dimensions, international finance, microfinance institutions, non-profite

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3914 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak


This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

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3913 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

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3912 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan


The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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3911 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy


Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

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3910 Preferred Character Size for Oblique Angles

Authors: Photjanat Phimnom, Haruetai Lohasiriwat


In today’s world, the LED display has been used for presenting visual information under various circumstances. Such information is an important intermediary in the human information processing. Researchers have been investigated diverse factors that influence this process effectiveness. The letter size is undoubtedly one major factor that has been tested and recommended by many standards and guidelines. However, viewing information on the display from direct perpendicular position is a typical assumption whereas many actual events are required viewing from the angles. This current research aims to study the effect of oblique viewing angle and viewing distance on ability to recognize alphabet, number, and English word. The total of ten participants was volunteered to our 3 x 4 x 4 within subject study. Independent variables include three distance levels (2, 6, and 12 m), four oblique angle (0, 45, 60, 75 degree), and four target types (alphabet, number, short words, and long words). Following the method of constant stimuli we found that the larger oblique angle, ranging from 0 to 75 degree from the line of sight, results in significant higher legibility threshold or larger font size required (p-value < 0.05). Viewing distance factor also shows to have significant effect on the threshold (p-value < 0.05). However, the effect from distance factor is expected to be confounded by the quality of the screen we used in our experiment. Lastly, our results show that single alphabet as well as single number are recognized at significant lower threshold (smaller font size) as compared to both short and long words (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, it is recommended that when designs information to be presented on LED display, understanding of all possible ranges of oblique angle should be taken into account in order to specify the preferred letter size. Additionally, the recommendation of letter size for 100 % readability in our tested conditions is provided in the paper.

Keywords: letter size, oblique angle, viewing distance, legibility threshold

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3909 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar


This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

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3908 Attitudes toward Cultural Diversity: A Study of Russian Teachers

Authors: Rezeda Khairutdinova, Chulpan Gromova, Dina Birman


The paper presents results of an exploratory study of teachers’ social attitudes toward ethnic and religious diversity, and variables influencing such attitudes. The study was conducted in Russia and is focused on school teachers, given their special role in culturally diverse modern societies. Using the social distance scale (adapted from Bogardus, 1926), we sampled 355 school teachers from two Russian regions known for their high cultural diversity: Moscow and Moscow region, Kazan and Republic of Tatarstan, and measured teacher attitudes toward large religious and ethnic groups (including migrants). The findings showed that teachers hold mostly tolerant attitudes with respect to members belonging to culturally and religiously diverse groups. The social distance between respondents and native residents of their region was minimal. Social distance was larger with respect to such ethnic groups as migrants from the Caucasian and Central Asian countries. The analysis of perception of different religious groups also showed positive attitudes toward these groups and readiness to interact with them. Teacher attitudes were not related to their age or ethnicity. The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation between social distance and the region of residence on the one hand, and between social distance and the degree of social interaction on the other. The results of this study will be used to develop a large-scale study to contribute to a better understanding of teacher attitudes toward immigrant students in public schools.

Keywords: attitudes of teachers, cultural diversity, migrants, social distance

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3907 The Τraits Τhat Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, George Tsokkas


Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits

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3906 A Simulation for Behaviors of Preys to Avoid Pursuit of Predator

Authors: Jae Moon Lee


Generally the predator will continuously aim to attack the prey, while the prey will maintain a safe distance from the predator in order to avoid it . If the predator has enough energy to chase a certain amount of distance, it will begin to attack the prey. The prey needs to approach the predator for various reasons such as getting food. However, it will also try to keep a safe distance because of the threat of predators. The safe distance is dependent on the amount of the energy of predator, and the behaviors of prey is changed according to the size of the safe distance. This paper is to simulate the behaviors of preys to avoid the pursuit of predator based on the safe distance. The simulations will be executed experimentally under single predator and multiple preys. The results of the simulations show that the amount of energy of predator gives a great influence on the behavior of the prey.

Keywords: predator, prey, energy, safe distance, simulation

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3905 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal


Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: missing values, incomplete data, distance, incomplete diabetes data

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3904 Decision Trees Constructing Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Loai Abdallah, Malik Yousef


A domain space for the data should reflect the actual similarity between objects. Since objects belonging to the same cluster usually share some common traits even though their geometric distance might be relatively large. In general, the Euclidean distance of data points that represented by large number of features is not capturing the actual relation between those points. In this study, we propose a new method to construct a different space that is based on clustering to form a new distance metric. The new distance space is based on ensemble clustering (EC). The EC distance space is defined by tracking the membership of the points over multiple runs of clustering algorithm metric. Over this distance, we train the decision trees classifier (DT-EC). The results obtained by applying DT-EC on 10 datasets confirm our hypotheses that embedding the EC space as a distance metric would improve the performance.

Keywords: ensemble clustering, decision trees, classification, K nearest neighbors

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3903 The Effect of Phonetics Factors in Interpretation of Japanese Degree Adverbs

Authors: Yan Lyu


Japanese degree adverbs can be explained in different ways, which is hard for Japanese learners to comprehend. For instance, when ‘tyotto’ is used as a degree word, it can be interpreted literally or not. In the sentence ‘Ano mise, tyotto oishi yo. zehi iku to ii yo.’, ‘tyotto’ can be interpreted as a high degree contextually. Despite pragmatic factors, phonetics factors can also affect the interpretation of such ‘tyotto’. Concentrating on the pattern of ‘tyotto +adjective’, the paper aims to investigate the correlation between the interpretation of ‘tyotto’ and the phonetic factors in some specific contexts based on a listening experiment via PRAAT. It is also investigated that how the phonetic factors affect the interpretation of high degree adverbs, including ‘soutou’ , ‘totemo’ , ‘kanari’ and ‘sugoku’. In the experiment, Japanese speakers listened to sentences which were composed of degree adverbs and adjectives in different intonations and judged which degree the sentences expressed. Two conclusions can be drawn from the experiment results. Firstly, for adverbs expressing a high degree, in the pattern of ‘degree adverb + adjective’, either degree adverb or adjective is pronounced in a higher pitch, or both are highly pronounced, a higher degree can be expressed. Besides, with the insertion of geminate consonant and the extension of the vowel, the longer the duration of the degree adverb becomes, the higher degree can be expressed. Secondly, for ‘tyotto’, which expresses a low degree, the interpretation will be influenced by both phonetic and contextual factors. Phonetically, there are three factors causing ‘tyotto’ to be interpreted as a common degree or a high degree. The three factors are the high pitch of the modified adjective, the extended silence period of the geminate consonant and the change in the intonations of ‘tyotto’. In some contexts just like the comparison sentences, no matter how ‘tyotto + adjective’ is pronounced, ‘tyotto’ tends to be interpreted as a low degree literally.

Keywords: contextual interpretation, Japanese degree adverbs, phonetic interpretation, PRAAT

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3902 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: composite resin hybrid, tip distance, microhardness, light curing LED

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3901 The Net as a Living Experience of Distance Motherhood within Italian Culture

Authors: C. Papapicco


Motherhood is an existential human relationship that lasts for the whole life and is always interwoven with subjectivity and culture. As a result of the brain drain, the motherhood becomes motherhood at distance. Starting from the hypothesis that re-signification of the mother at distance practices is culturally relevant; the research aims to understand the experience of mother at a distance in order to extrapolate the strategies of management of the empty nest. Specifically, the research aims to evaluate the experience of a brain drain’s mother, who created a blog that intends to take care of other parents at a distance. Actually, the blog is the only artifact symbol of the Italian culture of motherhood at distance. In the research, a Netnographic Analysis of the blog is offered with the aim of understanding if the online world becomes an opportunity to manage the role of mother at a distance. A narrative interview with the blog creator was conducted and then the texts were analyzed by means of a Diatextual Analysis approach. It emerged that the migration projects of talented children take on different meanings and representations for parents. Thus, it is shown that the blog becomes a new form of understanding and practicing motherhood at a distance.

Keywords: brain drain, diatextual analysis, distance motherhood blog, online and offline narrations

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3900 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou


This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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3899 Assessing Distance Education Practices: Teachers Experience and Perceptions

Authors: Mohammed Amraouy, Mostafa Bellafkih, Abdellah Bennane, Aziza Benomar


Distance education has become popular due to their ability to provide learning from almost anywhere and anytime. COVID-19 forced educational institutions to urgently introduce distance education to ensure pedagogical continuity, so all stakeholders were invited to adapt to this new paradigm. In order to identify strengths and weaknesses, the research focuses on the need to create an effective mechanism for evaluating distance education. The aims of this research were to explore and evaluate the use of digital media in general and official platforms in particular in distance education practices. To this end, we have developed and validated a questionnaire before administering it to a sample of 431 teachers in Morocco. Teachers reported lower knowledge and skills in the didactic use of ICT in the distance education process. In addition, although age and educative experience of the teachers continue to modulate the level of instrumental skills. Therefore, resources (digital resources and infrastructure) and the teachers’ ICT training present serious limitations, which require a training more focused on the distance educational paradigm and educational environments that allow teachers to create educational activities able to promote and facilitate the distance learning process.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, teachers’ perceptions, assessment

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3898 Evaluation of Distance Education Needs of Athletes

Authors: Yunus Emre Karakaya, Sebahattin Devecioglu, Bilal Coban


Today, information technology’s presence is felt in every field of life. Fields of education and sports sciences have their own share too. Especially developments in informatics technologies changed the perspectives of these fields. The altered technological conditions made distance education argumentative in these fields. Due to advantages distance education provides to students, they can access the desired education without concerns about time and place. Education facilities are seen to head for distance education in this manner and expedite the process. Distance education applications, which was first started to be applied in the mid-1800s, have been implemented in Turkey since 1970s and still continues today. In this study, the historical development of distance education in the world and Turkey and the problems athletes face in education were discussed. Accordingly, suggestions were made evaluating the importance and requirements of distance education in sports education facilities at higher education level. Additionally, Questions of “Is distance education important in sports education in Turkey?”, “What are the problems of athletes in the education field in Turkey?” and similar questions were attempted to be answered. Finally, in Turkey, distance sports education applications in universities should be launched to ensure that athletes’ educations are not deficit and unfinished. Within this framework, legal regulations should be implemented by “Council of Higher Education” to develop the distance sports education in Turkey and utilize distance education efficiently in solving the sports education problems. By ensuring the advancement of athletes with this method, it is expected for athletes to contribute to sports in the country in both government and the private sector in the medium and long terms. Individuals who participated in the distance sports education will set an example in extending the country’s youth to national and international fields.

Keywords: athletes, distance education, higher education, sports education, Turkey

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3897 Evaluating the Topsoil and Subsoil Physical Quality Using Relative Bulk Density in Urmia Plain

Authors: Hossein Asgarzadeh, Ayoub Osmani, Farrokh Asadzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi


This study was conducted to evaluate the topsoil and subsoil physical quality using relative bulk density (RBD) in Urmia plain in Iran. Undisturbed samples were collected from two layers (topsoil and subsoil) of thirty agricultural soils. Categories of 0.72 ≥ RBD (low degree of compactness), 0.82 > RBD > 0.72 (moderate/optimum degree of compactness), and RBD ≥ 0.82 (high degree of compactness) were used to evaluate soil physical quality (SPQ). Two topsoils had a low degree of compactness, fourteen topsoils had an optimum degree of compactness, and the rest (i.e., fourteen topsoils) had a high degree of compactness. Only one subsoil had an optimum degree of compactness, and twenty-eight subsoils (i.e., 93%) had a high degree of compactness, indicating poor SPQ of the subsoil layer in the studied region. It seems that conventional tillage in the past decades destroyed the pore system in the majority of studied subsoils. The high degree of compactness would reduce soil aeration and increase soil penetration resistance which could restrict root and plant growth. Conversely, a low degree of soil compactness is expected to reduce the root-soil contact.

Keywords: compactness, relative bulk density, soil physical quality

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3896 Analysis of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) of Selected Nerves in Athletics

Authors: Jogbinder Singh Soodan, Ashok Kumar, Gobind Singh


Background: This study aims to describe the motor nerve conduction velocity of selected nerves of both the upper and lower extremities in athletes. Thirty high-level sprinters (100 mts and 200 mts) and thirty high level distance runners (3000 mts) were volunteered to participate in the study. Method: Motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV) of radial and sural nerves were recorded with the help of computerized equipment, NEUROPERFECT (MEDICAID SYSTEMS, India), with standard techniques of supramaximal percutaneus stimulation. The anthropometric measurements taken were body height (cms), age (yrs) and body weight (kgs). The neurophysiological parameters taken were MNCV of radial nerve (upper extremity) and sural nerve (lower extremity) of both sides (i.e. dominant and non-dominant) of the body. The room temperature was maintained at 37 degree Celsius. Results: Significant differences in motor nerve conduction velocities were found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in each group. The MNCV of radial nerve was obtained was significantly higher in the sprinters than long distance runners. The MNCV of sural nerve recorded was significantly higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. Conclusion: The motor nerve conduction velocity of radial nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to the distance runners and also, the MNCV for sural nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. In case of sprinters, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves were higher in dominant limbs (i.e. arms and legs) of both sides of the body. But, in case of distance runners, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves is higher in non dominant limbs.

Keywords: motor nerve conduction velocity, radial nerve, sural nerve, sprinters

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3895 Gender and Parenthood in Web 2.0.: Research on Role Distance in a Bulgarian Weblog Dedicated to Motherhood

Authors: Gergana Nenova


The persistence of gender arrangements in childcare has been well-documented and theorized, but we know little on how they have been represented in Web 2.0. by the social actors themselves. This paper relies on Goffman’s concept of role distance to explore the online self-representations of mothers as a group and thus the complicated relationship between gender and parenthood. The object of research is a popular Bulgarian weblog dedicated to motherhood, and its content has been analyzed through content analysis. The results demonstrate that the concept of role distance can be successfully used to illuminate the ways the gendered expectations and norms of parenting are being questioned online. The research contributes both to the understanding of the relevance of the concept of role distance in explaining gender relations and of its increasing importance in Web 2.0.

Keywords: gender, parenthood, role distance, Web 2.0

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3894 Increasing the Apparent Time Resolution of Tc-99m Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Dynamic SPECT by Use of an 180-Degree Interpolation Method

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Maya Yamashita, Kyoko Saito


In general, dynamic SPECT data acquisition needs a few minutes for one rotation. Thus, the time-activity curve (TAC) derived from the dynamic SPECT is relatively coarse. In order to effectively shorten the interval, between data points, we adopted a 180-degree interpolation method. This method is already used for reconstruction of the X-ray CT data. In this study, we applied this 180-degree interpolation method to SPECT and investigated its effectiveness.To briefly describe the 180-degree interpolation method: the 180-degree data in the second half of one rotation are combined with the 180-degree data in the first half of the next rotation to generate a 360-degree data set appropriate for the time halfway between the first and second rotations. In both a phantom and a patient study, the data points from the interpolated images fell in good agreement with the data points tracking the accumulation of 99mTc activity over time for appropriate region of interest. We conclude that data derived from interpolated images improves the apparent time resolution of dynamic SPECT.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, time resolution, 180-degree interpolation method, 99mTc-GSA.

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3893 Development of Distance Training Packages on the Teaching Principles of Foundation English for Secondary School English Teachers in Bangkok and Its Vicinity

Authors: Sita Yiemkuntitavorn


The purposes of this research were to: (1) Develop a distance training package on the teaching principles foundation english language in order to gain the teaching ability for secondary school english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity (2) study the satisfaction of English teachers towards the quality of a distance training package. The samples for the efficiency testing consisted of 30 english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity, obtained by purposive sampling. Research tools comprised (1) a distance learning package on the foundation of English writing for teachers. (2) The questionnaires asking the teachers on the quality of the distance training package, and (3) two parallel forms of an achievement test for pre-testing and post-testing. Statistics used were the E1/E2 index, mean and standard deviation. Research findings showed that, (1) the distance training package were efficient at 80.2/80.6 according to the set efficiency criterion of 80/80; (2) and the satisfaction of the teachers on the distance training package of the teaching principles of foundation english for secondary school english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity was at “Satisfied” level.

Keywords: a distance training package, teaching principles of foundation english, secondary school, Bangkok and its vicinity

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