Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9825

Search results for: health care services

9825 Impact of Out-Of-Pocket Payments on Health Care Finance and Access to Health Care Services: The Case of Health Transformation Program in Turkey

Authors: Bengi Demirci

Abstract:

Out-of-pocket payments have become one of the common models adopted by health care reforms all over the world, and they have serious implications for not only the financial set-up of the health care systems in question but also for the people involved in terms of their access to the health care services provided. On the one hand, out-of-pocket payments are used in raising resources for the finance of the health care system and in decreasing non-essential health care expenses by having a deterrent role on the patients. On the other hand, out-of-pocket payment model causes regressive distribution effect by putting more burdens on the lower income groups and making them refrain from using health care services. Being a relatively incipient country having adopted the out-of-pocket payment model within the context of its Health Transformation Program which has been ongoing since the early 2000s, Turkey provides a good case for re-evaluating the pros and cons of this model in order not to sacrifice equality in access to health care for raising revenue for health care finance and vice versa. Therefore this study aims at analyzing the impact of out-of-pocket payments on the health finance system itself and on the patients’ access to healthcare services in Turkey where out-of-pocket payment model has been in use for a while. In so doing, data showing the revenue obtained from out-of-pocket payments and their share in health care finance are analyzed. In addition to this, data showing the change in the amount of expenditure made by patients on health care services after the adoption of out-of-pocket payments and the change in the use of various health care services in the meanwhile are examined. It is important for the incipient countries like Turkey to be careful in striking the right balance between the objective of cost efficiency and that of equality in accessing health care services while adopting the out-of-pocket payment model.

Keywords: health care access, health care finance, health reform, out-of-pocket payments

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9824 Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Care Services

Authors: Taner Ersoz, Filiz Ersoz

Abstract:

This study was designed enable application of multivariate technique in the interpretation of categorical data for measuring health care services satisfaction in Turkey. The data was collected from a total of 17726 respondents. The establishment of the sample group and collection of the data were carried out by a joint team from The Ministry of Health and Turkish Statistical Institute (Turk Stat) of Turkey. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used on the data of 2882 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full. The multiple correspondence analysis indicated that, in the evaluation of health services females, public employees, younger and more highly educated individuals were more concerned and complainant than males, private sector employees, older and less educated individuals. Overall 53 % of the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services in the past three years. This study demonstrates the public consciousness in health services and health care satisfaction in Turkey. It was found that most the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services over the past three years. Awareness of health service quality increases with education levels. Older individuals and males would appear to have lower expectancies in health services.

Keywords: multiple correspondence analysis, multivariate categorical data, health care services, health satisfaction survey

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9823 Patients’ Trust in Health Care Systems

Authors: Dilara Usta, Fatos Korkmaz

Abstract:

Background: Individuals who utilise health services maintain relationships with health professionals, insurers and institutions. The nature of these relationships requires service receivers to have trust in the service providers because maintaining health services without reciprocal trust is very difficult. Therefore, individual evaluations of trust within the scope of health services have become increasingly important. Objective: To investigate patients’ trust in the health-care system and their relevant socio-demographical characteristics. Methods: This research was conducted using a descriptive design which included 493 literate patients aged 18-65 years who were hospitalised for a minimum of two days at public university and training&research hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients’ trust in health-care professionals, insurers, and institutions were investigated. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale between September 2015 and April 2016. Results: The participants’ mean age was 47.7±13.1; 70% had a moderate income and 69% had a prior hospitalisation and 63.5% of the patients were satisfied with the health-care services. The mean Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale score for the sample was 61.5±8.3; the provider subscale had a mean of 38.1±5, the insurers subscale had a mean of 12.9±3.7, and institutions subscale had a mean of 10.6±1.9. Conclusion: Patients’ level of trust in the health-care system was above average and the trust level of the patients with higher educational and socio-economic levels was lower compared to the other patients. Health-care professionals should raise awareness about the significance of trust in the health-care system.

Keywords: delivery of health care, health care system, nursing, patients, trust

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9822 The Relationship between Quality of Work and Employment, Self-Perceived Health and Use of Health Services among the Older Japanese Workforce

Authors: Jacques Wels

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Japan has one of the highest average retirement ages within the OCDE and is paving the way to raise the retirement age to 70. However, the Japanese labour market is facing two main issues that can have detrimental effects on health: non-standard employment forms are widespread among the ageing workforce, and poor working conditions can contribute to explain poor health in late career. To assess such a relationship, the study uses data from JSTAR. Using mediation analysis, it particularly looks at the association between job dissatisfaction, employment status, self-perceived health (SPH), and use of health care services. Results show that work quality and employment status are associated with SPH. Contract work has a particularly negative impact and therefore contributes to explain the use of health care services but is not significantly associated with lower job satisfaction levels. SPH is a good predictor of the use of health care services.

Keywords: self-reported health, occupational health, employment, older workers, mediation

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9821 Exploring Factors That Affect the Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services: Perceptions of Women in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Leoba Nyathi, Augustine K. Tugli, Takalani G. Tshitangano

Abstract:

Use of health care services is an effective way of improving maternal and child health outcomes, especially in the rural areas. The study aimed to find out the perceptions of women on factors that affect the utilisation of antenatal care services (ANC) in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Mabunga village which is situated in Mangwe Rural District, Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach using explorative and descriptive design was adopted for the study. A sample of ten women were chosen from the target population by means of convenience sampling and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into themes and subthemes. The study results showed that access factors, socio-cultural factors, demographic factors, quality of care and knowledge about antenatal care services were the major factors affecting utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe Rural District. It was discovered that the geographical location of the village to the health care centres has a great impact on utilisation of services. All the women did not initiate ANC services as recommended and they also did not adhere to the number of times they were supposed to visit the health care centres. The findings concluded that women have the knowledge about ANC and they all attended at least once during their last pregnancy. However, inconsistencies in attendance were shown due to access, socio-cultural and demographic factors.

Keywords: antenatal care services, women, utilisation, affect, factors, perceptions

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9820 Therapeutic Touch from Primary Care to Tertiary Care in Health Services

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Hacer Demirkol, Merve Uğuryol

Abstract:

Therapeutic touch is one of the most important methods of complementary and alternative treatments. Therapeutic touch requires the sharing of universal energy. Therapeutic touch (TT) provides the interaction between the patient and the nurse. In addition, nurses can be aware of physical and mental symptoms of patients through therapeutic touch. Therapeutic touch (TT) is short-term provides the advantage for the nurse. For this reason, nurses have to be aware of the importance of therapeutic touch and they can use it from the primary care to tertiary care in nursing practices at in health field.

Keywords: health care services, complementary treatment, nursing, therapeutic touch

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9819 Indicators to Assess the Quality of Health Services

Authors: Muyatdinova Aigul, Aitkaliyeva Madina

Abstract:

The article deals with the evaluation of the quality of medical services on the basis of quality indicators. For this purpose allocated initially the features of the medical services market. The Features of the market directly affect on the evaluation process that takes a multi-level and multi-stakeholder nature. Unlike ordinary goods market assessment of medical services does not only market. Such an assessment is complemented by continuous internal and external evaluation, including experts and accrediting bodies. In the article highlighted the composition of indicators for a comprehensive evaluation

Keywords: health care market, quality of health services, indicators of care quality

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9818 Is Swaziland on Track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals?

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman

Abstract:

Background: The importance of maternal and child healthcare services cannot be stressed enough. These services are very important for the health and health outcomes of the mother and that of the child and in ensuring that both maternal and child deaths are prevented. The objective of the study is to inspire good quality maternal and child health care services in Swaziland. Specifically, is Swaziland on track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals? Methods: The study used secondary data from the Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07. This is an explorative and descriptive study which used pre-selected variables to study factors influencing the use of maternal and child healthcare services in Swaziland. Different types of examinations, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analysis were adopted. Results: The study findings showed a high use rate of antenatal care (97.3%) and delivery care (74.0%), and a low rate of postnatal care use (20.5%). The uptake childhood immunization is also high in the country, averaging more than 80.0%. Moreover, certain factors which were found to be influencing the use of maternal healthcare and childhood immunization include: woman’s age, parity, media exposure, maternal education, wealth status, and residence. The findings also revealed that these factors affect the use of maternal and child health differently. Conclusion: It is important to study factors related to maternal and child health uptake to inform relevant stakeholders about possible areas of improvement. Programs to educate families about the importance of maternal and child healthcare services should be implemented. Swaziland needs to work hard on child survival and maternal health care services, no doubt it is on track with the MDG 4 & 5.

Keywords: maternal healthcare, antenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, child health, immunization, socio-economic and demographic factors

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9817 Factors Affecting Adequate Utilisation of Ante-natal Health Care Services among Pregnant Women in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State

Authors: Ilim Moses Msughter

Abstract:

The study was carried out to examine the availability of Ante-natal care services and the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilization of these services in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State. Four specific objectives were outlined as thus to examine the availability of antenatal care services in Dutsin-Ma local government area, to identify the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilisation of ante-natal care services, to ascertain the challenges affecting utilisation of ante-natal care services and suggest strategies to improve efficiency in ante-natal service delivery and utilisation of same services. Data were collected from 110 respondents using a questionnaire and through the use of the interview. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings revealed that ante-natal care services are available in the study area, but access to such services is hindered by several factors, which include religious and traditional beliefs, cost of services and poor attitudes of health care workers which has an adverse effect on people’s desire to visit ante-natal centres. The study recommended that Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) need to be trained on how to handle pregnancy-related complications. It is also recommended that essential ante-natal drugs and services should be subsidised or made free by the government, and this must be closely monitored to ensure efficiency. Finally, human relation training should be organised for nurses and midwives to improve their attitudes towards patients during ante-natal visits.

Keywords: utilisation, religion, traditional birth attendant, ante-natal

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9816 The Comparison between Public's Social Distances against Syrian Refugees and Perceptions of Access to Healthcare Services: Istanbul Sample

Authors: Pinar Dogan, Merve Tarhan, Ahu Kurklu

Abstract:

Syrian refugees who sheltering due to war has protected by the Government of Turkey since 2011. Since Syria was a medium-low income country prior to the war, it is known that chronic health problems weren’t common among citizens. However, it is also known that they frequently use health services in our country because of the spread of infectious and acute diseases due to insufficient sanitation and crowding after the war. This study was planned to compare the social distances of the community against the Syrian refugees and the perceptions of accessing health care services. The descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 1262 individuals living in Istanbul. A questionnaire form consisted of Personal Information Form, The Bogardus Social Distance Scale (BSDS) and The Survey of Access to Healthcare Services (AHS) was used as data collection tool. Descriptive tests and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. It was found that the majorities of participants was satisfied with the health services and were waiting for more than 40 minutes to be examined. It was determined that participants have high scores from BSDS. At the same time, the majority of participants stated that their level of access to health care is diminishing due to refugees. Participants who experienced disruption in access to health services due to refugees were found to have higher scores from BSDS. The data collection process in the study will continue until 2400 individuals are reached. With these conclusions, it is considered necessary that the effect of the presence of the refugees in reaching the health services and nursing care of the society should be revealed through extensive researches to be conducted in Turkey.

Keywords: health care services, nursing care, social distances, Syrian refugees

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9815 Youth Friendly Health Services for Rural Thai Teenagers

Authors: C. Sridawruang

Abstract:

Young people today has sexual activities differing from those of earlier generations, in that teenagers are likely to have multiple partners, and are frequently in short-term relationships or with partners that are not well known to them. The proportion of teenage mothers in Thailand has increased. Young people were not specifically addressed during the overall very successful HIV-prevention campaigns. Because of this missed opportunity, they are still unaware of the risk of unsafe sexual behavior. Aims: To describe the reproductive health care services in perspectives of rural Thai teenagers Methods: This survey was one part of a mixed method approach taken using survey and focus groups with 439 teenagers aged 12-18 years in 5 villages, Udon Thani, Thailand. The standard questionnaire survey had been used for collecting data. The numeric data was checked and analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Results: Most teenager respondents stated that they do not know where sexual reproductive health services provided for them. Most teenagers felt difficult to access and talk with health staff about sexual related issues. They stated that discussing, or consulting with health providers might not be safe. Teenagers might lose opportunities to access and get advice from health care services. The mean knowledge score of contraception and condom reproductive was 6.34 from a total score 11. Most teenagers especially girls expressed a need for counseling services and reported a need for telephone services. Conclusions: The need of appropriate information focusing on sexual relationships and contraception should be designed to help young people make wise decisions and there should be set health care services for Thai teenagers to make sure that teenagers could access easily. Health care providers need to be trained to improve their knowledge, attitudes and skills in reproductive health care practices for Thai teenagers.

Keywords: youth friendly health services, rural, Thai, teenagers

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9814 Secured Cancer Care and Cloud Services in Internet of Things /Wireless Sensor Network Based Medical Systems

Authors: Adeniyi Onasanya, Maher Elshakankiri

Abstract:

In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has constituted a driving force of modern technological advancement, and it has become increasingly common as its impacts are seen in a variety of application domains, including healthcare. IoT is characterized by the interconnectivity of smart sensors, objects, devices, data, and applications. With the unprecedented use of IoT in industrial, commercial and domestic, it becomes very imperative to harness the benefits and functionalities associated with the IoT technology in (re)assessing the provision and positioning of healthcare to ensure efficient and improved healthcare delivery. In this research, we are focusing on two important services in healthcare systems, which are cancer care services and business analytics/cloud services. These services incorporate the implementation of an IoT that provides solution and framework for analyzing health data gathered from IoT through various sensor networks and other smart devices in order to improve healthcare delivery and to help health care providers in their decision-making process for enhanced and efficient cancer treatment. In addition, we discuss the wireless sensor network (WSN), WSN routing and data transmission in the healthcare environment. Finally, some operational challenges and security issues with IoT-based healthcare system are discussed.

Keywords: IoT, smart health care system, business analytics, (wireless) sensor network, cancer care services, cloud services

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9813 Geographic Differences in Access to HIV Prevention Services and Care among Sexual Minority Men in Puerto Rico

Authors: William Coburn, Dylan Hauchard, Amel Naouali

Abstract:

Background: The nature of the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico (PR) is less understood than in the continental U.S. There is evidence to suggest that there are differences in health care access based on geographical location, such that rural areas are less underserved and have less immediate access to HIV prevention resources. Methods: The current study consists of a cross-sectional online survey of self-reporting HIV-negative sexual minority men (SMM) residing in PR. Results: In this sample, there were no differences between urban and rural-based services for SMM. However, more than half of the sample reported that they have never disclosed their gender identity and sexual practices to a physician. Conclusion: HIV is a significant public health concern affecting Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S. Findings in this paper can have implications for HIV prevention services in PR specifically, as few studies have directly focused on the impact of HIV and health care services in PR outside of the continental U.S.

Keywords: HIV, Puerto Rico, infectious diseases , public health

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9812 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole

Abstract:

Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

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9811 Caring for the Carers: A Qualitative Study to Evaluate the Perspective of Mental Health Carers on the Effectiveness of Community Services in the Illawarra Region (NSW)

Authors: Mona Nikidehaghani, Freda Hui

Abstract:

In Australia, one-third of mental health carers provide 40 hours or more of unpaid care per week. These hidden workers contribute significantly to the Australian mental health workforce by providing unpaid services both direct and indirect to people in their care. However, carers are often neglected in the healthcare system because Government services focus on those with a mental health condition rather than those supporting them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of mental health carers on the effectiveness of community services designed for carers and how these services could be improved. We collaborated with One Door Mental Health, a community organisation that supports mental health carers. Through semi-structured interviews with 27 mental health carers residing in the Illawarra region (NSW), we documented their daily challenges and evaluated outcomes of the current programs for carers. Our findings demonstrate that services such as education programs enable capacity building and improve the social life and mental health of carers. Drawing on the perceptions of mental health carers, this study maps pathways for making meaningful changes in the lives of carers and proposes an outcome framework to evaluate the impact of a community organisation on the lives of their clients. The framework prepared by this project would be replicable, allowing other community organisations to measure the outcomes and improve their services.

Keywords: capacity building, community development, community service, mental health carers

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9810 RV Car Clinic as Cost-Effective Health Care

Authors: Dessy Arumsari, Ais Assana Athqiya, Mulyaminingrum

Abstract:

Healthcare in remote areas is one of the major concerns in Indonesia. Building hospitals in a nation of 18.000 islands with a larger-than-life bureaucracy and problems with corruption, a critical shortage of qualified medical professionals and well-heeled patients resigned to traveling abroad for health care is a hard feat to accomplish. To assuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, a new solution to tackle this problem is with the presence of RV Car Clinic. This car has a concept such as a walking hospital that provides health facilities inside it. All of the health professionals who work in RV Car Clinic will do the rotation for a year in order to the equitable distribution of health workers. We need to advocate the policy makers to help realize RV Car Clinic in remote areas. Health services can be disseminated by the present of RV Car Clinic. Summarily, the local communities can get cost effectively because RV Car Clinic will come to their place and serve the health services.

Keywords: health policy, health professional, remote areas, RV Car Clinic

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9809 Cost of Outpatient Procedures for Ostomized Patients Treated in the Public Health Network in Brazil and Its Impact on the Budget of the Unified Health System

Authors: Karina Guimaraes, Lilian Santos

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This study has the purpose of planning and instituting monitoring actions as a way of knowing the scenario of assistance to the patient with stoma, treated in the public health network in Brazil, from January to November of the year 2016, from the elaboration of a technical document containing the survey of the number of procedures offered and the value of the ostomy services, accredited in the Unified Health System-SUS. The purpose of this document is to improve the quality of these services in the efficient management of available financial resources, making it indispensable for the creation of strategies for the implementation and implementation of care services for people with stomata as a strategic tool in the promotion, prevention, qualification and efficiency in health care.

Keywords: health economic, management, ostomy, unified health system

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9808 Patients' Satisfaction about Private Sector Primary Care Nurses in Sri Lanka

Authors: N. R. N. Mendis, S. N. Silva

Abstract:

Introduction: Patient satisfaction of services provided by primary care health services depends on many factors. One key factor in this depends on is the nursing services received in primary care. Since majority of the primary care in Sri Lanka is provided by the private sector, it is important to assess patient satisfaction on this. Objective: To assess the satisfaction among the public on nurses working in dispensaries in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done on 200 individual selected using convenient sampling among dispensaries in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Results: 59.3% of the sample had long term illnesses or disabilities and all of them preferred speaking to a nurse. 70.9% of the sample used to make appointments with nurses while 57.8% out of them were comfortable in discussing their health concerns. 98.9 % agreed that they get individual attention by the nurses. Majority of the sample that is 34.2% spends around 20 minutes with the nurse without even making any pay. Significantly, the whole sample believes that the nurses are professional and admits that the care given is of high quality. All 100% of the sample said that the nurses could understand their concerns while 93.5% admitted that it was very useful in their recovery. Conclusions: Majority of the public were very much satisfied with the nurses and their practice at the dispensaries.

Keywords: health education, nurses practices, patient satisfaction, primary care

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9807 Community‐Based Participatory Research in Elderly Health Care of Paisanee Ramintra 65 Community, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: A. Kulprasutidilok

Abstract:

In order to address the social factors of elderly health care, researcher and community members have turned to more inclusive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received increased attention as the academic and public health communities struggle to address the persistent problems of disparities in the use of health care and health outcomes for several over the past decade. As Thailand becomes an ageing society, health services and proper care systems specifically for the elderly group need to be prepared and well established. The purpose of this assignment was to study the health problems and was to explore the process of community participation in elderly health care. Participants in this study were member of elderly group of Paisanee Ramintra 65 community in Bangkok, Thailand. The results indicated two important components of community participation process in elderly health care: 1) a process to develop community participation in elderly health care, and 2) outcomes resulting from such process. The development of community participation consisted of four processes. As for the outcomes of the community participation development process, they consisted of elderly in the community got jointly and formulated a group, which strengthened the project because of collaborative supervision among themselves. Moreover, inactive health care services have changed to being energetic and focus on health promotion rather than medical achievement and elderly association of community can perform health care activities for chronically illness through the achievement of this development; consequently, they increasingly gained access to physical, cognitive, and social activity.

Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, heath care, Thailand.

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9806 Health Services for Women Refugees: A Quantitative Exploratory Study in Ottawa, Canada

Authors: Kholoud Sheba

Abstract:

Women refugees expectedly are physical, socially and mentally vulnerable due to their past traumatic experiences and their novel circumstances in their receiving countries. They may have a wide range of general, mental, and reproductive health problems, but reportedly avoid visiting health care facilities owing to complex elements. Women refugees are usually unfamiliar with their new country health system and unable to navigate it efficiently. They have limited English language skills, which makes it even harder to access culturally insensitive health services. This study examines barriers to health care for refugee women in Ottawa and offers suggestions to address these challenges. Drawing from culturally congruent health care models in Canada, the United Kingdom, and some parts of the United States, this study highlights the importance of cultivating compassion in the provision of health care for women refugees as a way of addressing some of the disparities in health care in Canada. To address the study purpose, a survey questionnaire was designed and pretested questionnaire and was administrated using SurveyMonkey, a paid source survey application, over a period of two weeks. Snowballing sampling procedures were used to recruit the participants. Data was measured using frequencies, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. The test of significance is set at p < .05. The study asked how refugees perceive their experience in accessing and navigating public health services in Ottawa; what challenges refugees face with healthcare in Canada, and, if gender is related to refugees’ perceptions of the health care system they are forced to use? Results show refugees perceived their experience accessing the healthcare services in Canada to be a positive experience and the health providers to be culturally sensitive and allowing enough time listening to their complaints. The language stood tall in their barriers accessing the services due to low English proficiency and the need for interpretation services to encourage them attending the services.

Keywords: women refugee, access barriers, Ottawa, resettlement

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9805 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge

Abstract:

Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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9804 Demographic Characteristics as a Determinant of the use of Health Care Services: Case of Nsukka, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Beatrice Adeoye

Abstract:

Studies have associated social and demographic characteristics as strong determinants of utilization of health care services; however, not much has been done to explore the dynamics of these variables in Nigeria. This empirical study explores the link between demographic factors and the future use of health care services in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. A total of 543 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The findings of the study showed that majority (56.9%) of the respondents were female while 43.1% were male. More of the respondents were married (50.3%) while 41.80/0 of the respondents were between ages 26-35. Testing the demographic characteristics regarding where people will prefer to go first for treatment with multiple regression, It is only Sex as a demographic variable that indicates positive association for future occurrence to where people will prefer to go first for treatment with 0.08 significance. Age and education indicates no association considering their level of significance. This result shows that sex is one of the determinant factors of where and when people will go for treatment. This is pointing out the realities regarding African society where in the family setting, it is the father that dictates the cause of action. Also to buttress these findings, cross tabulating age with who determines where and when to go for treatment, findings show that majority (58.9%) within age 26-35 said their spouses decide on where and when to go for treatment. Findings showed that patriarchy still plays an important role in the utilization of health care delivery among the people studied.

Keywords: Demographic characters, Determinant, Health Care, treatment, self-medication, symptom,

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9803 Testing of Canadian Integrated Healthcare and Social Services Initiatives with an Evidence-Based Case Definition for Healthcare and Social Services Integrations

Authors: S. Cheng, C. Catallo

Abstract:

Introduction: Canada's healthcare and social services systems are failing high risk, vulnerable older adults. Care for vulnerable older Canadians (65 and older) is not optimal in Canada. It does not address the care needs of vulnerable, high risk adults using a holistic approach. Given the growing aging population, and the care needs for seniors with complex conditions is one of the highest in Canada's health care system, there is a sense of urgency to optimize care. Integration of health and social services is an emerging trend in Canada when compared to European countries. There is no common and universal understanding of healthcare and social services integration within the country. Consequently, a clear understanding and definition of integrated health and social services are absent in Canada. Objectives: A study was undertaken to develop a case definition for integrated health and social care initiatives that serve older adults, which was then tested against three Canadian integrated initiatives. Methodology: A limited literature review was undertaken to identify common characteristics of integrated health and social care initiatives that serve older adults, and comprised both scientific and grey literature, in order to develop a case definition. Three Canadian integrated initiatives that are located in the province of Ontario, were identified using an online search and a screening process. They were surveyed to determine if the literature-based integration definition applied to them. Results: The literature showed that there were 24 common healthcare and social services integration characteristics that could be categorized into ten themes: 1) patient-care approach; 2) program goals; 3) measurement; 4) service and care quality; 5) accountability and responsibility; 6) information sharing; 7) Decision-making and problem-solving; 8) culture; 9) leadership; and 10) staff and professional interaction. The three initiatives showed agreement on all the integration characteristics except for those characteristics associated with healthcare and social care professional interaction, collaborative leadership and shared culture. This disagreement may be due to several reasons, including the existing governance divide between the healthcare and social services sectors within the province of Ontario that has created a ripple effect in how professions in the two different sectors interact. In addition, the three initiatives may be at maturing levels of integration, which may explain disagreement on the characteristics associated with leadership and culture. Conclusions: The development of a case definition for healthcare and social services integration that incorporates common integration characteristics can act as a useful instrument in identifying integrated healthcare and social services, particularly given the emerging and evolutionary state of this phenomenon within Canada.

Keywords: Canada, case definition, healthcare and social services integration, integration, seniors health, services delivery

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9802 Telemedicine Services in Ophthalmology: A Review of Studies

Authors: Nasim Hashemi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri

Abstract:

Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide health care services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities to people at these remote areas. Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Thus, teleophthalmology can overcome geographical barriers and improve quality, access, and affordability of eye health care services. Since teleophthalmology has been widespread applied in recent years, the aim of this study was to determine the different applications of teleophthalmology in the world. To this end, three bibliographic databases (Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were comprehensively searched with these keywords: eye care, eye health care, primary eye care, diagnosis, detection, and screening of different eye diseases in conjunction with telemedicine, telehealth, teleophthalmology, e-services, and information technology. All types of papers were included in the study with no time restriction. We conducted the search strategies until 2015. Finally 70 articles were surveyed. We classified the results based on the’type of eye problems covered’ and ‘the type of telemedicine services’. Based on the review, from the ‘perspective of health care levels’, there are three level for eye health care as primary, secondary and tertiary eye care. From the ‘perspective of eye care services’, the main application of teleophthalmology in primary eye care was related to the diagnosis of different eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, strabismus and aged related macular degeneration. The main application of teleophthalmology in secondary and tertiary eye care was related to the screening of eye problems i.e. diabetic retinopathy, astigmatism, glaucoma screening. Teleconsultation between health care providers and ophthalmologists and also education and training sessions for patients were other types of teleophthalmology in world. Real time, store–forward and hybrid methods were the main forms of the communication from the perspective of ‘teleophthalmology mode’ which is used based on IT infrastructure between sending and receiving centers. In aspect of specialists, early detection of serious aged-related ophthalmic disease in population, screening of eye disease processes, consultation in an emergency cases and comprehensive eye examination were the most important benefits of teleophthalmology. Cost-effectiveness of teleophthalmology projects resulted from reducing transportation and accommodation cost, access to affordable eye care services and receiving specialist opinions were also the main advantages of teleophthalmology for patients. Teleophthalmology brings valuable secondary and tertiary care to remote areas. So, applying teleophthalmology for detection, treatment and screening purposes and expanding its use in new applications such as eye surgery will be a key tool to promote public health and integrating eye care to primary health care.

Keywords: applications, telehealth, telemedicine, teleophthalmology

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9801 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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9800 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma, Tsung-Hsueh Lu

Abstract:

Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, health services, lifespan, universal coverage

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9799 Utilization of Antenatal Care Services by Domestic Workers in Delhi

Authors: Meenakshi

Abstract:

Background: The complications during pregnancy are the major cause of morbidity and deaths among women in the reproductive age group. Childbearing is the most important phase in women’s lives that occur mainly in the adolescent and adult years. Maternal health, thus is an important issue as this as this is important phase is also productive time for women as they strive fulfill their capabilities as an individual, mothers, family members and also as a citizen. The objective of the study is to document the coverage of ANC and its determinants among domestic workers. Method: A survey of 300 domestic workers were carried in Delhi. Only respondents in the age group (15-49) and whose recent birth was of 5 years preceding the survey were included. Socio-demographic data and information on maternal health was collected from these respondents Information on ANC was collected from total 300 respondents. Standard of living index were composed based on households assists and similarly autonomy index was computed based on women decision making power in the households taking certain key variables. Cross tabulations were performed to obtain frequency and percentages. Potential socio-economic determinants of utilization of ANC among domestic workers were examined using binary logistic regressions. Results: Out of 300 domestic workers survey, only 70.7 per cent per cent received ANC. Domestic workers who married at age 18 years and above are 4 times more likely to utilize antenatal services during their last birth (***p< 0.01). Comparison to domestic workers with number of living children two or less, domestic workers with number of living children more than two are less likely to utilize antenatal care services (**p< 0.05). Domestic workers belonging to Other Backward Castes are more likely to utilize antenatal care services than domestic workers belonging to scheduled tribes ((**p< 0.05). Conclusion: The level of utilization of maternal health services are less among domestic workers is less, as they spend most of their time at the employers household. Though demonstration effect do have impact on their life styles but utilization of maternal health services is poor. Strategies and action are needed to improve the utilization of maternal health services among this section of workers as they are vulnerable because of no proper labour legislations.

Keywords: antenatal care, domestic workers, health services, maternal health, women’s health

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9798 Nurses' View on Costing Nursing Care: A Case Study of Two Selected Public Hospitals in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Abiola Opadoja, Samuel Olukayode Awotona

Abstract:

Nursing services costing has been a major interest to nurses for a long period of time. Determination of nursing costing is germane in order to show the effectiveness of nursing practice in an improved and affordable health care delivery system. This has been a major concern of managers that have the mind of quality and affordable health services. The treatment or intervention should be considered as ‘product’ of nursing care and should provide an explainable term for billing. The study was non-experimental, descriptive and went about eliciting the views of nurses on costing nursing care at two public hospitals namely: University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital. The questionnaire was the instrument used in eliciting nurse’s response. It was administered randomly on 300 selected respondents across various wards within the hospitals. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS20.0 to generate frequency, and cross-tabulations to explore the statistical relationship between variables. The result shows that 89.2% of the respondents viewed costing of nursing care as an important issued to be looked into. The study concluded that nursing care costing is germane to enhancing the status and imagery of the nurses, it is essential because it would enhance the performance of nurses in discharging their duties. There is need to have a procedural manual agreed on by nursing practitioner on costing of each care given.

Keywords: costing, health care delivery system, intervention, nursing care, practitioner

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9797 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence

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Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

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9796 Strengthening Functional Community-Provider Linkages: Lessons from the Challenge Initiative for Healthy Cities Program in Indore, India

Authors: Sabyasachi Behera, Shiv Kumar, Pramod Gautam, Anisur Rahman, Pawan Pathak, Rahul Bhadouria

Abstract:

Background: The increasing proportion of population especially urban poor and vulnerable groups or groups with specific needs, with health indicators worse than their rural counterparts in India face various issues related with availability and quality of health care. The reasons are myriad, starting from information and awareness of the community, especially, in a scenario wherein the needs and challenges of floating and migrant urban populations remain poorly understood. Weak linkages between health care facilities and slum dwellers and vulnerable populations hinder the improvement of health services for urban poor. Method: To address this issue, TCIHC program is helping health department of Indore city of Madhya Pradesh to establish a referral mechanism with a dual approach: at both community and facility level. The former is based on the premise of ‘building social capital’, i.e. norms and networks within a community facilitating collective action, helps improve the demand and supply of health services at appropriate levels of care (Minus 2: Accredited Social Health Activist and Community Health Groups; Minus 1: Urban Health Nutrition Days; Zero: Urban Primary Health Center; Plus 1: secondary facility with BEmONC services; Plus 2: secondary facilities with CEmONC services; Plus 3: tertiary level facility) for the urban poor. The latter focuses on encouraging the provision of all services at various levels of service delivery points and stakeholders to function in a coordinated manner to ensure better health service availability and coverage in underserved slum areas. Results: This initiative has enhanced the utilization of community based, primary and secondary level services through defined referral pathways that are clearly known to a community dweller. Conclusion: An ideal referral mechanism should begin with referral at the community level wherein services of a frontline health care provider are accessed by them at their door-step, causing no delay in both understanding and decision on the health issues faced by them.

Keywords: levels of care, linkages, referral mechanism, service delivery

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