Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Jenn-Kaie Lain

4 LEDs Based Indoor Positioning by Distances Derivation from Lambertian Illumination Model

Authors: Yan-Ren Chen, Jenn-Kaie Lain


This paper proposes a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on visible light communications, implemented by light-emitting diode fixtures. In the proposed positioning algorithm, distances between light-emitting diode fixtures and mobile terminal are derived from the assumption of ideal Lambertian optic radiation model, and Trilateration positioning method is proceeded immediately to get the coordinates of mobile terminal. The proposed positioning algorithm directly obtains distance information from the optical signal modeling, and therefore, statistical distribution of received signal strength at different positions in interior space has no need to be pre-established. Numerically, simulation results have shown that the proposed indoor positioning algorithm can provide accurate location coordinates estimation.

Keywords: indoor positioning, received signal strength, trilateration, visible light communications

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3 Rapid Fetal MRI Using SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR Techniques

Authors: Chen-Chang Lee, Po-Chou Chen, Jo-Chi Jao, Chun-Chung Lui, Leung-Chit Tsang, Lain-Chyr Hwang


Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a challenge task because the fetal movements could cause motion artifact in MR images. The remedy to overcome this problem is to use fast scanning pulse sequences. The Single-Shot Fast Spin-Echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging technique is routinely performed and often used as a gold standard in clinical examinations. Fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) T1-Weighted Imaging (T1WI) is often used to identify fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Fast Imaging Employing Steady-State Acquisition (FIESTA) is commonly used to identify fetal structures as well as the heart and vessels. The contrast of FIESTA image is related to T1/T2 and is different from that of SSFSE. The advantages and disadvantages of these two scanning sequences for fetal imaging have not been clearly demonstrated yet. This study aimed to compare these three rapid MRI techniques (SSFSE, FIESTA, and FSPGR) for fetal MRI examinations. The image qualities and influencing factors among these three techniques were explored. A 1.5T GE Discovery 450 clinical MR scanner with an eight-channel high-resolution abdominal coil was used in this study. Twenty-five pregnant women were recruited to enroll fetal MRI examination with SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR scanning. Multi-oriented and multi-slice images were acquired. Afterwards, MR images were interpreted and scored by two senior radiologists. The results showed that both SSFSE and T2W-FIESTA can provide good image quality among these three rapid imaging techniques. Vessel signals on FIESTA images are higher than those on SSFSE images. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of FIESTA is lower than that of the others two techniques, but it is prone to cause banding artifacts. FSPGR-T1WI renders lower Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) because it severely suffers from the impact of maternal and fetal movements. The scan times for these three scanning sequences were 25 sec (T2W-SSFSE), 20 sec (FIESTA) and 18 sec (FSPGR). In conclusion, all these three rapid MR scanning sequences can produce high contrast and high spatial resolution images. The scan time can be shortened by incorporating parallel imaging techniques so that the motion artifacts caused by fetal movements can be reduced. Having good understanding of the characteristics of these three rapid MRI techniques is helpful for technologists to obtain reproducible fetal anatomy images with high quality for prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: fetal MRI, FIESTA, FSPGR, motion artifact, SSFSE

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2 Myanmar Consonants Recognition System Based on Lip Movements Using Active Contour Model

Authors: T. Thein, S. Kalyar Myo


Human uses visual information for understanding the speech contents in noisy conditions or in situations where the audio signal is not available. The primary advantage of visual information is that it is not affected by the acoustic noise and cross talk among speakers. Using visual information from the lip movements can improve the accuracy and robustness of automatic speech recognition. However, a major challenge with most automatic lip reading system is to find a robust and efficient method for extracting the linguistically relevant speech information from a lip image sequence. This is a difficult task due to variation caused by different speakers, illumination, camera setting and the inherent low luminance and chrominance contrast between lip and non-lip region. Several researchers have been developing methods to overcome these problems; the one is lip reading. Moreover, it is well known that visual information about speech through lip reading is very useful for human speech recognition system. Lip reading is the technique of a comprehensive understanding of underlying speech by processing on the movement of lips. Therefore, lip reading system is one of the different supportive technologies for hearing impaired or elderly people, and it is an active research area. The need for lip reading system is ever increasing for every language. This research aims to develop a visual teaching method system for the hearing impaired persons in Myanmar, how to pronounce words precisely by identifying the features of lip movement. The proposed research will work a lip reading system for Myanmar Consonants, one syllable consonants (င (Nga)၊ ည (Nya)၊ မ (Ma)၊ လ (La)၊ ၀ (Wa)၊ သ (Tha)၊ ဟ (Ha)၊ အ (Ah) ) and two syllable consonants ( က(Ka Gyi)၊ ခ (Kha Gway)၊ ဂ (Ga Nge)၊ ဃ (Ga Gyi)၊ စ (Sa Lone)၊ ဆ (Sa Lain)၊ ဇ (Za Gwe) ၊ ဒ (Da Dway)၊ ဏ (Na Gyi)၊ န (Na Nge)၊ ပ (Pa Saug)၊ ဘ (Ba Gone)၊ ရ (Ya Gaug)၊ ဠ (La Gyi) ). In the proposed system, there are three subsystems, the first one is the lip localization system, which localizes the lips in the digital inputs. The next one is the feature extraction system, which extracts features of lip movement suitable for visual speech recognition. And the final one is the classification system. In the proposed research, Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with Active Contour Model (ACM) will be used for lip movement features extraction. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for finding class parameter and class number in training set and testing set. Then, experiments will be carried out for the recognition accuracy of Myanmar consonants using the only visual information on lip movements which are useful for visual speech of Myanmar languages. The result will show the effectiveness of the lip movement recognition for Myanmar Consonants. This system will help the hearing impaired persons to use as the language learning application. This system can also be useful for normal hearing persons in noisy environments or conditions where they can find out what was said by other people without hearing voice.

Keywords: feature extraction, lip reading, lip localization, Active Contour Model (ACM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT)

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1 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ren-Jy Ben, Jo-Chi Jao, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen


Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the study of pathogenesis, biological characteristics and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, LipoDox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thigh were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, Three-Dimensional (3D) Fast Spin Echo (FSE) T2-Weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. And Two-Dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbits. Afterwards, a series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, magnetic resonance imaging, VX2 tumor model

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