Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: disparity

115 Riemannain Geometries Of Visual Space

Authors: Jacek Turski

Abstract:

The visual space geometries are constructed in the Riemannian geometry framework from simulated iso-disparity conics in the horizontalvisual plane of the binocular system with the asymmetric eyes (AEs). For the eyes fixating at the abathic distance, which depends on the AE’s parameters, the iso-disparity conics are frontal straight lines in physical space. For allother fixations, the iso-disparity conics consist of families of the ellipses or hyperbolas depending on both the AE’s parameters and the bifoveal fixation. However, the iso-disparity conic’s arcs are perceived in the gaze direction asthe frontal lines and are referred to as visual geodesics. Thus, geometriesof physical and visual spaces are different. A simple postulate that combines simulated iso-disparity conics with basic anatomy od the human visual system gives the relative depth for the fixation at the abathic distance that establishes the Riemann matric tensor. The resulting geodesics are incomplete in the gaze direction and, therefore, give thefinite distances to the horizon that depend on the AE’s parameters. Moreover, the curvature vanishes in this eyes posture such that visual space is flat. For all other fixations, only the sign of the curvature canbe inferred from the global behavior of the simulated iso-disparity conics: the curvature is positive for the elliptic iso-disparity curves and negative for the hyperbolic iso-disparity curves.

Keywords: asymmetric eye model, iso-disparity conics, metric tensor, geodesics, curvature

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114 Block Matching Based Stereo Correspondence for Depth Calculation

Authors: G. Balakrishnan

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Stereo Correspondence plays a major role in estimation of distance of an object from the stereo camera pair for various applications. In this paper, a stereo correspondence algorithm based on block-matching technique is presented. Initially, an energy matrix is calculated for every disparity obtained using modified Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD). Higher energy matrix errors are removed by using threshold value in order to reduce the mismatch errors. A smoothening filter is applied to eliminate unreliable disparity estimate across the object boundaries. The purpose is to improve the reliability of calculation of disparity map. The experimental results obtained shows that the final depth map produce better results and can be used to all the applications using stereo cameras.

Keywords: stereo matching, filters, energy matrix, disparity

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113 Service Delivery Disparity Conundrum at Winnie Madikizela Mandela Local Municipality: Exploration of the Enhanced Future

Authors: Mandisi Matyana

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Although the South African local government is doing all the best in ensuring improved service delivery for the citizens, service delivery disparity still remains the real challenge for other municipalities. The unequal distribution of services within municipal wards is causing unequal happiness among the citizens; hence others do enjoy different provided municipal services, while others do not. It is acknowledged that less access to municipal services infringes one’s rights, such as the right to human dignity and the right to life. Some of the municipal services are basic services and they are the mainstay of human survival, such as water, housing, etc. It is quite evident that the service delivery disparity could be caused by the various factors within the local municipality affairs, including both administrative and political factors. Therefore, this study is undertaken to check and evaluate the main foundations of service delivery disparity in ensuring equal development of the state, particularly for local communities. The study used the qualitative method to collect the data from the citizens of Winnie Madikizela Mandela Local Municipality. An extensive literature was also conducted in understanding the causes of service delivery disparity. Study findings prove that the service delivery disparity could be caused by factors such as political interference in administration, corruption and fraud, elevated unemployment levels, inadequate institutional capacity, etc. Therefore, the study recommends strong community participation and constant external supervision in the local government so as to encourage openness in local government to ensure fair administration towards services to be provided.

Keywords: administration, development, municipal services, service delivery disparity, Winnie Madikizela Mandela local municipality

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112 Analyzing of Speed Disparity in Mixed Vehicle Technologies on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Tahmina Sultana, Yasser Hassan

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Vehicle technologies rapidly evolving due to their multifaceted advantages. Adapted different vehicle technologies like connectivity and automation on the same roads with conventional vehicles controlled by human drivers may increase speed disparity in mixed vehicle technologies. Identifying relationships between speed distribution measures of different vehicles and road geometry can be an indicator of speed disparity in mixed technologies. Previous studies proved that speed disparity measures and traffic accidents are inextricably related. Horizontal curves from three geographic areas were selected based on relevant criteria, and speed data were collected at the midpoint of the preceding tangent and starting, ending, and middle point of the curve. Multiple linear mixed effect models (LME) were developed using the instantaneous speed measures representing the speed of vehicles at different points of horizontal curves to recognize relationships between speed variance (standard deviation) and road geometry. A simulation-based framework (Monte Carlo) was introduced to check the speed disparity on horizontal curves in mixed vehicle technologies when consideration is given to the interactions among connected vehicles (CVs), autonomous vehicles (AVs), and non-connected vehicles (NCVs) on horizontal curves. The Monte Carlo method was used in the simulation to randomly sample values for the various parameters from their respective distributions. Theresults show that NCVs had higher speed variation than CVs and AVs. In addition, AVs and CVs contributed to reduce speed disparity in the mixed vehicle technologies in any penetration rates.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicles, non-connected vehicles, speed variance

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111 Spatial Disparity in Education and Medical Facilities: A Case Study of Barddhaman District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya

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The economic scenario of any region does not show the real picture for the measurement of overall development. Therefore, economic development must be accompanied by social development to be able to make an assessment to measure the level of development. The spatial variation with respect to social development has been discussed taking into account the quality of functioning of a social system in a specific area. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of social infrastructural facilities and analyze the magnitude of regional disparities at inter- block level in Barddhman district. It starts with the detailed account of the selection process of social infrastructure indicators and describes the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. Analyzing the block level data, this paper tries to identify the disparity among the blocks in the levels of social development. The results have been subsequently explained using both statistical analysis and geo spatial technique. The paper reveals that the social development is not going on at the same rate in every part of the district. Health facilities and educational facilities are concentrated at some selected point. So overall development activities come to be concentrated in a few centres and the disparity is seen over the blocks.

Keywords: disparity, inter-block, social development, spatial variation

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110 I Feel Pretty: Using Discretization to Unpack Gender Disparity in Musical Theatre - A Study of Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story

Authors: Erin McKellar, Narelle Yeo

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Gender disparity can be found in the representation of the female characters in Leonard Bernstein’s musical West Side Story. As a postmodern composer, Bernstein was open about his social activism, yet did not consider his compositional portrayal of female characters as part of that activism. Using discretization as an analysis tool, this thesis explores the melodic contours of male and female songs in West Side Story to show differences in complexity between male and female characterisation. The analysis explores the intervallic relationship between the vocal line and melodic color in relation to the accompaniment harmony, taking into consideration the use of consonance and dissonance. West Side Story is commonly known for its distinct use of the tritone motif and its inherent dissonance. It is evident when reviewing the findings of this study that there is a distinct disparity between male-led and female-led music. The male-led numbers consistently adhere to a dissonant aesthetic with the tritone motif implemented in all of the extracted songs. By contrast, the female songs remain consonant with simple intervallic movements. By examining the results of this study through the lens of Equality Feminism, this thesis finds that Bernstein has simplified the characterisations of the female leads. The thesis further proposes that without cognisant consideration of the compositional portrayal of women, the musical theatre will continue to reinforce gender stereotypes, as evident through this study of Bernstein’s West Side Story.

Keywords: music theatre, gender bias, composition, Leonard Bernstein

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109 Disparity of Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Vocational Education

Authors: Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad, Yee Mei Heong, Nurfirdawati Muhammad Hanafi, Tee Tze Kiong

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This study is conducted to investigate the disparity of between learning styles and cognitive abilities specifically in Vocational Education. Felder and Silverman Learning Styles Model (FSLSM) was applied to measure the students’ learning styles while the content in Building Construction Subject consists; knowledge, skills and problem solving were taken into account in constructing the elements of cognitive abilities. There are four dimension of learning styles proposed by Felder and Silverman intended to capture student learning preferences with regards to processing either active or reflective, perception based on sensing or intuitive, input of information used visual or verbal and understanding information represent with sequential or global learner. The study discovered that students are tending to be visual learners and each type of learner having significant difference whereas cognitive abilities. The finding may help teachers to facilitate students more effectively and to boost the student’s cognitive abilities.

Keywords: learning styles, cognitive abilities, dimension of learning styles, learning preferences

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108 Telepsychiatry for Asian Americans

Authors: Jami Wang, Brian Kao, Davin Agustines

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COVID-19 highlighted the active discrimination against the Asian American population easily seen through media, social tension, and increased crimes against the specific population. It is well known that long-term racism can also have a large impact on both emotional and psychological well-being. However, the healthcare disparity during this time also revealed how the Asian American community lacked the research data, political support, and medical infrastructure for this particular population. During a time when Asian American fear for safety with decreasing mental health, telepsychiatry is particularly promising. COVID-19 demonstrated how well psychiatry could integrate with telemedicine, with psychiatry being the second most utilized telemedicine visits. However, the Asian American community did not utilize the telepsychiatry resources as much as other groups. Because of this, we wanted to understand why the patient population who was affected the most by COVID-19 mentally did not seek out care. To do this, we decided to study the top top telepsychiatry platforms. The current top telepsychiatry companies in the United States include Teladoc and BetterHelp. In the Teladoc mental health sector, they only had 4 available languages (English, Spanish, French, and Danis,) with none of them being an Asian language. In a similar manner, Teladoc’s top competitor in the telepsychiatry space, BetterHelp, only listed a total of 3 Asian languages, including Mandarin, Japanese, and Malaysian. However, this is still a short list considering they have over 20 languages available. The shortage of available physicians that speak multiple languages is concerning, as it could be difficult for the Asian American community to relate with. There are limited mental health resources that cater to their likely cultural needs, further exacerbating the structural racism and institutional barriers to appropriate care. It is important to note that these companies do provide interpreters to comply with the nondiscrimination and language assistance federal law. However, interactions with an interpreter are not only more time-consuming but also less personal than talking directly with a physician. Psychiatry is the field that emphasizes interpersonal relationships. The trust between a physician and the patient is critical in developing patient rapport to guide in better understanding the clinical picture and treating the patient appropriately. The language barrier creates an additional barrier between the physician and patient. Because Asian Americans are one of the largest growing patient population bases, these telehealth companies have much to gain by catering to the Asian American market. Without providing adequate access to bilingual and bicultural physicians, the current system will only further exacerbate the growing disparity. The healthcare community and telehealth companies need to recognize that the Asian American population is a severely underserved population in mental health and has much to gain from telepsychiatry. The lack of language is one of many reasons why there is a disparity for Asian Americans in the mental health space.

Keywords: telemedicine, psychiatry, Asian American, disparity

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107 The Effect of Region of Residence on Fertility in Nigeria

Authors: Motlatso Rampedi

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Nigeria has the fifth highest Total Fertility Rate in Sub-Saharan Africa at 5.5 children born to a woman. Some demographic research has found that there is an association between region of residence and fertility in Nigeria, with the Northern regions pertaining to high fertility and the Southern regions pertaining to low fertility levels. Even so, little attention has been given to understanding the effect of region of residence on fertility. Instead, a significant amount of research has been conducted on exploring the proximate determinants of fertility in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to test whether there is an association between region of residence and fertility in Nigeria. Using a sample size of 38 948 women aged 15-49 derived from the 2013 NDHS and the Poisson regression model for analysis, the study has found that region of residence has a significant effect on fertility. Moreover, the ANOVA test has shown that there is a socioeconomic disparity by region of residence in Nigeria. The Northern regions of Nigeria have shown to have higher levels of fertility as compared to the Southern regions. Therefore, while proximate determinants of fertility and socio-demographic characteristics of women are important, region of residence remains one of the fundamental determinants of fertility. Given these findings, it is recommended that government should not exhaust its resources or focus its fertility reduction policies and programmes at entire populations but target specific regions where fertility is most prevalent.

Keywords: high fertility, region, socioeconomic disparity, socio-demographic characteristics

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106 Gender Disparity in Film Industries: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Daniel Edem Adzovie, Jakub Kudlac

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The subtle institutionalization of male dominance in the film industry in the 1930s and its rippling effect of gender imbalance especially, regarding female active participation in film industries across the globe in terms of number and influence, is a worrying trend. The main purpose of the study is to explore the role of gender themes, especially patriarchal themes in films, in influencing the disparity experienced in film industries. Partially, we examine the motivations vis-à-vis the demotivating factors that attract and or refract females from enrolling in film schools against their male contemporaries. Employing a qualitative inquiry with a specific focus on document analysis as well as experts’ opinions in order to ascertain the antecedents and consequences of patriarchal themes in films on female participation in film industries, we drew extant literature from reputable databases such as EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, ERIH Plus, Google Scholar as well as notable books on gender and film. Secondly, we conceptualized a research model for a future qualitative research design that could take into consideration a study from at least three different film industries and analyze using thematic analysis. This could help validate the proposed conceptual model of the study. The literature review revealed that culture, to a large extent, influences the patriarchal themes conveyed in films, which inhibits active female participation in film industries. Research implications have been discussed.

Keywords: film industry, female, gender, male dominance, patriarchal themes

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105 The Rise and Effects of Social Movement on Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: The Bersih Movement as a Case Study

Authors: Nur Rafeeda Daut

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The significance of this paper is to provide an insight on the role of social movement in building stronger ethnic relations in Malaysia. In particular, it focuses on how the BERSIH movement have been able to bring together the different ethnic groups in Malaysia to resist the present political administration that is seen to manipulate the electoral process and oppress the basic freedom of expression of Malaysians. Attention is given on how and why this group emerged and its mobilisation strategies. Malaysia which is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society gained its independence from the British in 1957. Like many other new nations, it faces the challenges of nation building and governance. From economic issues to racial and religious tension, Malaysia is experiencing high level of corruption and income disparity among the different ethnic groups. The political parties in Malaysia are also divided along ethnic lines. BERSIH which is translated as ‘clean’ is a movement which seeks to reform the current electoral system in Malaysia to ensure equality, justice, free and fair elections. It was originally formed in 2007 as a joint committee that comprised leaders from political parties, civil society groups and NGOs. In April 2010, the coalition developed as an entirely civil society movement unaffiliated to any political party. BERSIH claimed that the electoral roll in Malaysia has been marred by fraud and other irregularities. In 2015, the BERSIH movement organised its biggest rally in Malaysia which also includes 38 other rallies held internationally. Supporters of BERSIH that participated in the demonstration were comprised of all the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. In this paper, two social movement theories are used: resource mobilization theory and political opportunity structure to explain the emergence and mobilization of the BERSIH movement in Malaysia. Based on these two theories, corruption which is believed to have contributed to the income disparity among Malaysians has generated the development of this movement. The rise of re-islamisation values propagated by certain groups in Malaysia and the shift in political leadership has also created political opportunities for this movement to emerge. In line with the political opportunity structure theory, the BERSIH movement will continue to create more opportunities for the empowerment of civil society and the unity of ethnic relations in Malaysia. Comparison is made on the degree of ethnic unity in the country before and after BERSIH was formed. This would include analysing the level of re-islamisation values and also the level of corruption in relation to economic income under the premiership of the former Prime Minister Mahathir and the present Prime Minister Najib Razak. The country has never seen such uprisings like BERSIH where ethnic groups which over the years have been divided by ethnic based political parties and economic disparity joined together with a common goal for equality and fair elections. As such, the BERSIH movement is a unique case where it illustrates the change of political landscape, ethnic relations and civil society in Malaysia.

Keywords: ethnic relations, Malaysia, political opportunity structure, resource mobilization theory and social movement

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104 Digitalization: The Uneven Geography of Information and Communication Technology (ICTS) CTSoss Four Major States in India

Authors: Sanchari Mukhopadhyay

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Today, almost the entire realm of human activities are becoming increasingly dependent on the power of information, where through ICTs it is now possible to cater distances and avail various services at a few clicks. In principle, ICTs are thus expected to blur location-specific differences and affiliations of development and bring in an inclusive society at the wake of globalization. However, eventually researchers and policy analysts realized that ICTs are also generating inequality in spite of the hope for an integrated world and widespread social well-being. Regarding this unevenness, location plays a major role as often ICT development is seen to be concentrated into pockets, leaving behind large tracks as underprivileged. Thus, understanding the spatial pattern of ICT development and distribution is significant in relation to exploring the extent to which ICTs are fulfilling the promises or reassuring the existing divisions. In addition, it is also profoundly crucial to investigate how regions are connecting and competing both locally and globally. The focus of the research paper is to evaluate the spatial structure of ICT led development in India. Thereby, it attempts to understand the state level (four selected states) pattern of ICT penetration, the pattern of diffusion across districts with respect to large urban centres and the rural-urban disparity of technology adoption. It also tries to assess the changes in access dynamisms of ICTs as one move away from a large metropolitan city towards the periphery. In brief, the analysis investigates into the tendency towards the uneven growth of development through the identification of the core areas of ICT advancement within the country and its diffusion from the core to the periphery. In order to assess the level of ICT development and rural-urban disparity across the districts of selected states, two indices named ICT Development Index and Rural-Urban Digital Divide Index have been constructed. The study mostly encompasses the latest Census (2011) of the country and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) in some cases.

Keywords: ICT development, diffusion, core-periphery, digital divide

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103 Rural-Urban Drift: Labour Migration, Health-Seeking Behaviour Disparity in the Urban Slum of Madina, Ghana

Authors: Ransford Kwaku Afeadie

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Purpose – The health challenges that characterises most of the migrants’ urban slums raise a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step towards maintaining a healthy life. The importance of contextual issues is necessary to help meet specific community health needs and programmes. Therefore, this study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating health-seeking behaviour disparity among rural-urban labour migrant slum dwellers before and after migration to the urban slums of Madina in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Design/methodology/approach – The author used explanatory sequential approach of research investigation. Questionnaire and interview guides were used to collect data from the respondents; however, in the absence of an existing reliable sampling frame, the various communities were selected by the use of cluster sampling proportional to size. At the second stage, a simple random sampling was used to select the various household heads. A total of 241 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondents representing a response rate of 100%. The author used the purposive sampling technique to conduct eight in-depth interviews and six key informants’ interviews. Findings – The author found various discrepancies in many of the activities that could fulfill substantial health-seeking behaviour in the slum as compared to migrant’s places of origin. The reason for coming to the slum amidst many settlements needs and low education background are the factors that accounted for this. This study, therefore, contradicts the proposition held by the health belief model. It is, therefore, important to note that contextual issues are key, in this case, rural-urban migrant slums present a different dynamic that must be taken into account when designing health programmes for such settings. Originality/value – Many, if not all the, studies on health-seeking behaviour have focused on urban slums without taking into account urban migrants’ slums. Such a failure to take into account the variations of the health needs of migrants’ urban slum settings can eventually lead to a mismatch of health programmes meant to address their challenges. Therefore, this study brings to the fore such variations that must be taken into account when designing health programmes. The study also indicates that even with the same people, there were disparities in terms of health-seeking behaviour in the slum and at places of origin.

Keywords: health-seeking behaviour, rural–urban migration, urban slums, health belief model

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102 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

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Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
101 A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation

Authors: Hangil Park, Hwayeon Song, Jingyung Sim

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In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.

Keywords: space industry, activation, strategy, business ecosystem

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100 Gifted Disadvantage in Education Safety Net: A Reality Check: A Case Study From India

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

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Although notion of giftedness is a reality, yet it swings along the pendulum of equality and excellence. At times, nurturance of gifted abilities becomes a struggle of better catchment of resources and facilities. Those from affluent setup are blessed with better support system whereas gifted children from disadvantaged group suffer from submissive upbringing. In developing countries like India, with diverse demographic profiles, socio-cultural diversity and economic disparity, the very concept of equality in education face severe challenge. The present paper presents the dichotomy of ideology of equality and excellence in education practices. It highlights the need of wider vision, better policy making and decentralized implementation services to allow gifted children to enjoy what they are; dream what they can be; and promote what they will be.

Keywords: gifted, disadvantaged, education safety net, India

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99 Foreign Banks Taking More Risk: Evidence from Emerging Economies

Authors: Minghua Chen, Rui Wang

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This paper addresses the impact of foreign ownership on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Using bank-level panel data of more than 1,300 commercial banks in 32 emerging economies during 2000-2013, we find that foreign owned banks take on more risk than their domestic counterparts. We further examine several factors that may potentially contribute to foreign banks’ differentiated riskiness from four perspectives, namely, foreign banks’ informational disadvantages, agency problems, the contagious effect of parent banks’ financial conditions and the disparity between home and host markets. We find supportive evidence that these factors play a significant role in affecting foreign banks’ risk-taking.

Keywords: bank risk-taking, emerging economies, financial liberalization, foreign banks

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98 Politics of Planned Development: Focus on Urban Roads in Kaduna Metropolitan Area

Authors: Felicia Iyabode Olasehinde, Michael Maiye Olumorin

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To achieve a liveable and sustainable city, decision makers must engage in holistic approach to the planning and development of infrastructure such as roads. From observation there is great disparity in the development of roads in the northern part of the city while the south is being starved with this infrastructure. This paper attempts to make a comparison between the natures of roads in the north as against the south. The methodology to be adopted is survey research using clusters in the four local government making Kaduna Metropolis. The analysis of the road will be based on existing planning standards for roads in urban areas. This will now provide useful information for critical stakeholders at all levels of governance responsible for achieving liveable and sustainable cities.

Keywords: infrastructure, liveable, sustainable, urbanroads

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97 Strict Liability as a Means of Standardising Sentencing Outcomes for Shoplifting Offences Dealt with in UK Magistrates Courts

Authors: Mariam Shah

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Strict liability is frequently used in magistrate’s courts for TV license and driving offences.There is existing research suggesting that the strict liability approach to criminal offences can result in ‘absurd’ judicial outcomes, or potentially ‘injustice’.This paper will discuss the potential merits of strict liability as a method for dealing with shoplifting offences.Currently, there is disparity in sentencing outcomes in the UK, particularly in relation to shoplifting offences.This paper will question whether ‘injustice’ is actually in the differentiation of defendants based upon their ‘perceived’ circumstances, which could be resulting in arbitrary judicial decision making.

Keywords: arbitrary, decision making, judicial decision making, shoplifting, stereotypes, strict liability

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96 Regional Disparities in the Level of Education in West Bengal

Authors: Nafisa Banu

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The present study is an attempt to analyze the regional disparities in the level of education in West Bengal. The data based on secondary sources obtained from a census of India. The study is divided into four sections. The first section presents introductions, objectives and brief descriptions of the study area, second part discuss the methodology and data base, while third and fourth comprise the empirical results, interpretation, and conclusion respectively. For showing the level of educational development, 8 indicators have been selected and Z- score and composite score techniques have been applied. The present study finds out there are large variations of educational level due to various historical, economical, socio-cultural factors of the study area.

Keywords: education, regional disparity, literacy rate, Z-score, composite score

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95 Can Sustainability Help Achieve Social Justice?

Authors: Maryam Davodi-Far

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Although sustainability offers a vision to preserve the earth’s resources while sustaining life on earth, there tends to be injustice and disparity in how resources are allocated across the globe. As such, the question that arises is whom will sustainability benefit? Will the rich grow richer and the poor become worse off? Is there a way to find balance between sustainability and still implement and achieve success with distributive justice theories? One of the facets of justice is distributive justice; the idea of balancing benefits and costs associated with the way in which we disseminate and consume goods. Social justice relies on how the cost and burdens of our resource allocation can be done reasonably and equitably and spread across a number of societies, and within each society spread across diverse groups and communities. In the end, the question is how to interact with the environment and diverse communities of today and of those communities of the future.

Keywords: consumerism, sustainability, sustainable development, social justice, social equity, distributive justice

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94 Contrasting The Water Consumption Estimation Methods

Authors: Etienne Alain Feukeu, L. W. Snyman

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Water scarcity is becoming a real issue nowadays. Most countries in the world are facing it in their own way based on their own geographical coordinate and condition. Many countries are facing a challenge of a growing water demand as a result of not only an increased population, economic growth, but also as a pressure of the population dynamic and urbanization. In view to mitigate some of this related problem, an accurate method of water estimation and future prediction, forecast is essential to guarantee not only the sufficient quantity, but also a good water distribution and management system. Beside the fact that several works have been undertaken to address this concern, there is still a considerable disparity between different methods and standard used for water prediction and estimation. Hence this work contrast and compare two well-defined and established methods from two countries (USA and South Africa) to demonstrate the inconsistency when different method and standards are used interchangeably.

Keywords: water scarcity, water estimation, water prediction, water forecast.

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93 Simulation of Corn Yield in Carmen, North Cotabato, Philippines Using Aquacrop Model

Authors: Marilyn S. Painagan

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This general objective of the study was to apply the AquaCrop model to the conditions in the municipality of Carmen, North Cotabato in terms of predicting corn yields in this area and determine the influence of rainfall and soil depth on simulated yield. The study revealed wide disparity in monthly yields as a consequence of similarly varying monthly rainfall magnitudes. It also found out that simulated yield varies with the depth of soil, which in this case was clay loam, the predominant soil in the study area. The model was found to be easy to use even with limited data and shows a vast potential for various farming and policy applications, such as formulation of a cropping calendar.

Keywords: aquacrop, evapotranspiration, crop modelling, crop simulation

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92 The Trumping of Science: Exploratory Study into Discrepancy between Politician and Scientist Sources in American Covid-19 News Coverage

Authors: Wafa Unus

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Science journalism has been vanishing from America’s national newspapers for decades. Reportage on scientific topics is limited to only a handful of newspapers and of those, few employ dedicated science journalists to cover stories that require this specialized expertise. News organizations' lack of readiness to convey complex scientific concepts to a mass populace becomes particularly problematic when events like the Covid-19 pandemic occur. The lack of coverage of Covid-19 prior to its onset in the United States, suggests something more troubling - that the deprioritization of reporting on hard science as an educational tool in favor of political frames of coverage, places dangerous blinders on the American public. This research looks at the disparity between voices of health and science experts in news articles and the voices of political figures, in order to better understand the approach of American newspapers in conveying expert opinion on Covid-19. A content analysis of 300 articles on Covid-19 by major newspapers in the United States between January 1st, 2020 and April 30th, 2020 illuminates this investigation. The Boston Globe, the New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times are included in the content analysis. Initial findings reveal a significant disparity in the number of articles that mention Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute Allergy and Infectious Disease, and the number that make reference to political figures. Covid-related articles in the New York Times that focused on health topics (as opposed to economic or social issues) contained the voices of 54 different politicians who were mentioned a total of 608 times. Only five members of the scientific community were mentioned a total of 24 times (out of 674 articles). In the Boston Globe, 36 different politicians were mentioned a total of 147 times, and only two members of the scientific community, one being Anthony Fauci, were mentioned a total of nine times (out of 423 articles). In the Los Angeles Times, 52 different politicians were mentioned a total of 600 times, and only six members of the scientific community were included and were mentioned a total of 82 times with Fauci being mentioned 48 times (out of 851 articles). Results provide a better understanding of the frames in which American journalists in Covid hotspots conveyed information of expert analysis on Covid-19 during one of the most pressing news events of the century. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to utilize the exploratory data to evaluate the nature, extent and impact of Covid-19 reporting in the context of trustworthiness and scientific expertise. Secondarily, this data will illuminate the degree to which Covid-19 reporting focused on politics over science.

Keywords: science reporting, science journalism, covid, misinformation, news

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91 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

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In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, gender differences, research output

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90 Transition Dynamic Analysis of the Urban Disparity in Iran “Case Study: Iran Provinces Center”

Authors: Marzieh Ahmadi, Ruhullah Alikhan Gorgani

Abstract:

The usual methods of measuring regional inequalities can not reflect the internal changes of the country in terms of their displacement in different development groups, and the indicators of inequalities are not effective in demonstrating the dynamics of the distribution of inequality. For this purpose, this paper examines the dynamics of the urban inertial transport in the country during the period of 2006-2016 using the CIRD multidimensional index and stochastic kernel density method. it firstly selects 25 indicators in five dimensions including macroeconomic conditions, science and innovation, environmental sustainability, human capital and public facilities, and two-stage Principal Component Analysis methodology are developed to create a composite index of inequality. Then, in the second stage, using a nonparametric analytical approach to internal distribution dynamics and a stochastic kernel density method, the convergence hypothesis of the CIRD index of the Iranian provinces center is tested, and then, based on the ergodic density, long-run equilibrium is shown. Also, at this stage, for the purpose of adopting accurate regional policies, the distribution dynamics and process of convergence or divergence of the Iranian provinces for each of the five. According to the results of the first Stage, in 2006 & 2016, the highest level of development is related to Tehran and zahedan is at the lowest level of development. The results show that the central cities of the country are at the highest level of development due to the effects of Tehran's knowledge spillover and the country's lower cities are at the lowest level of development. The main reason for this may be the lack of access to markets in the border provinces. Based on the results of the second stage, which examines the dynamics of regional inequality transmission in the country during 2006-2016, the first year (2006) is not multifaceted and according to the kernel density graph, the CIRD index of about 70% of the cities. The value is between -1.1 and -0.1. The rest of the sequence on the right is distributed at a level higher than -0.1. In the kernel distribution, a convergence process is observed and the graph points to a single peak. Tends to be a small peak at about 3 but the main peak at about-0.6. According to the chart in the final year (2016), the multidimensional pattern remains and there is no mobility in the lower level groups, but at the higher level, the CIRD index accounts for about 45% of the provinces at about -0.4 Take it. That this year clearly faces the twin density pattern, which indicates that the cities tend to be closely related to each other in terms of development, so that the cities are low in terms of development. Also, according to the distribution dynamics results, the provinces of Iran follow the single-density density pattern in 2006 and the double-peak density pattern in 2016 at low and moderate inequality index levels and also in the development index. The country diverges during the years 2006 to 2016.

Keywords: Urban Disparity, CIRD Index, Convergence, Distribution Dynamics, Random Kernel Density

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89 A Study of Effective Stereo Matching Method for Long-Wave Infrared Camera Module

Authors: Hyun-Koo Kim, Yonghun Kim, Yong-Hoon Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Myungho Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we have described an efficient stereo matching method and pedestrian detection method using stereo types LWIR camera. We compared with three types stereo camera algorithm as block matching, ELAS, and SGM. For pedestrian detection using stereo LWIR camera, we used that SGM stereo matching method, free space detection method using u/v-disparity, and HOG feature based pedestrian detection. According to testing result, SGM method has better performance than block matching and ELAS algorithm. Combination of SGM, free space detection, and pedestrian detection using HOG features and SVM classification can detect pedestrian of 30m distance and has a distance error about 30 cm.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance system, pedestrian detection, stereo matching method, stereo long-wave IR camera

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88 The Awareness of Computer Science Students Regarding the Security of Location Based Games

Authors: Jacques Barnard, Magda Huisman, Gunther R. Drevin

Abstract:

Rapid expansion and development in die mobile technology market has created an opportunity for users to participate in location based games. As a consequence of this fast expanding market and new technology, it is important to be aware of the implications this has on security. This paper measures the impact on the security awareness of games’ participants, as well as on that of students at university level with regards to their various stages of input in years of studying and gamer classification. This serves to provide insight into the matter as to discernible differences in the awareness of the security implications concerning these technologies. The data was accumulated via a web questionnaire that was to be completed yearly by students from respective year groups. Results signify a meaningful disparity in security awareness among students completing the varying study years and research. This awareness, however, does not always impact on gamers.

Keywords: gamer classifications, location based games, location based data, security awareness

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87 A Comparison of Image Data Representations for Local Stereo Matching

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

The stereo matching problem, while having been present for several decades, continues to be an active area of research. The goal of this research is to find correspondences between elements found in a set of stereoscopic images. With these pairings, it is possible to infer the distance of objects within a scene, relative to the observer. Advancements in this field have led to experimentations with various techniques, from graph-cut energy minimization to artificial neural networks. At the basis of these techniques is a cost function, which is used to evaluate the likelihood of a particular match between points in each image. While at its core, the cost is based on comparing the image pixel data; there is a general lack of consistency as to what image data representation to use. This paper presents an experimental analysis to compare the effectiveness of more common image data representations. The goal is to determine the effectiveness of these data representations to reduce the cost for the correct correspondence relative to other possible matches.

Keywords: colour data, local stereo matching, stereo correspondence, disparity map

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86 The Impact of Economic Status on Health Status in the Context of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. S. Sabuz

Abstract:

Bangladesh, a South Asian developing country, has achieved a remarkable breakthrough in health indicators during the last four decades despite immense income inequality. This phenomenon results in the mystical exclusion of marginalized people from obtaining health care facilities. However, the persistence of exclusion of the disadvantaged remains troubling. Exclusion occurs from occupational inferiority, pay and wage differences, educational backwardness, gender disparity to urban-rural complexity and eliminate the unprivileged from seeking and availing the health services. Evidence from Bangladesh shows that many sick people prefer to die at home without securing medical services because in previous times they were not treated well, not because the medical facilities were inadequate or antediluvian but the socio-economic class allows them to receive obdurate treatment. Furthermore, government and policymakers have given enormous emphasis on infrastructural development and achieving health indicators instead of ensuring quality services and inclusiveness of people from all spheres. Therefore, it is high time to address the issues concerning this and highlight the impact of economic status on health status in a sociological perspective. The objective of this study is to consider ways of assessing and exploring the impact of economic status for instance: occupational status, pay and wage variable, on health status in the context of Bangladesh. The hypotheses are that there are a significant number of factors affecting economic status which are impactful for health status eventually, but acute income inequality is a prominent factor. Illiteracy, gender disparity, remoteness, incredibility on services, superior costs, superstition etc. are the dominant indicators behind the economic factors influencing the health status. The chosen methodologies are a qualitative and quantitative approaches to accomplish the research objectives. Secondary sources of data will be used to conduct the study. Surveys will be conducted on the people who have ever been through the health care facilities and people from the different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. Focus group discussions will be conducted to acquire the data from different cultural and regional citizens. The findings show that 48% of people who are from disadvantaged communities have been deprived of proper health care facilities. The general reasons behind this are the higher cost of medicines and other equipment. A significant number of people are unaware of the appropriate facilities. It was found that the socio-economic variables are the main influential factors that work as the driving force for both economic dimension and health status. Above all regional variables and gender, dimensions have an enormous effect on determining the health status of an individual or community. Amidst many positive achievements for example decrease in the child mortality rate, an increase in the immunization programs of the child etc., the inclusiveness of all classes of people in health care facilities has been overshadowed in Bangladesh. However, this phenomenon along with the socio-economic and cultural phenomena significantly demolishes the quality and inclusiveness of the health status of people.

Keywords: cultural context of health, economic status, gender and health, rural health care

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