Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2024

Search results for: connected vehicles

2024 VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions

Authors: Jared Oluoch

Abstract:

Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.

Keywords: VANET, connected vehicles, 802.11p, WAVE, DSRC, trust, security, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2023 A Survey on Intelligent Connected-Vehicle Applications Based on Intercommunication Techniques in Smart Cities

Authors: B. Karabuluter, O. Karaduman

Abstract:

Connected-Vehicles consists of intelligent vehicles, each of which can communicate with each other. Smart Cities are the most prominent application area of intelligent vehicles that can communicate with each other. The most important goal that is desired to be realized in Smart Cities planned for facilitating people's lives is to make transportation more comfortable and safe with intelligent/autonomous/driverless vehicles communicating with each other. In order to ensure these, the city must have communication infrastructure in the first place, and the vehicles must have the features to communicate with this infrastructure and with each other. In this context, intelligent transport studies to solve all transportation and traffic problems in classical cities continue to increase rapidly. In this study, current connected-vehicle applications developed for smart cities are considered in terms of communication techniques, vehicular networking, IoT, urban transportation implementations, intelligent traffic management, road safety, self driving. Taxonomies and assessments performed in the work show the trend of studies in inter-vehicle communication systems in smart cities and they are contributing to by ensuring that the requirements in this area are revealed.

Keywords: smart city, connected vehicles, infrastructures, VANET, wireless communication, intelligent traffic management

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2022 Analyzing of Speed Disparity in Mixed Vehicle Technologies on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Tahmina Sultana, Yasser Hassan

Abstract:

Vehicle technologies rapidly evolving due to their multifaceted advantages. Adapted different vehicle technologies like connectivity and automation on the same roads with conventional vehicles controlled by human drivers may increase speed disparity in mixed vehicle technologies. Identifying relationships between speed distribution measures of different vehicles and road geometry can be an indicator of speed disparity in mixed technologies. Previous studies proved that speed disparity measures and traffic accidents are inextricably related. Horizontal curves from three geographic areas were selected based on relevant criteria, and speed data were collected at the midpoint of the preceding tangent and starting, ending, and middle point of the curve. Multiple linear mixed effect models (LME) were developed using the instantaneous speed measures representing the speed of vehicles at different points of horizontal curves to recognize relationships between speed variance (standard deviation) and road geometry. A simulation-based framework (Monte Carlo) was introduced to check the speed disparity on horizontal curves in mixed vehicle technologies when consideration is given to the interactions among connected vehicles (CVs), autonomous vehicles (AVs), and non-connected vehicles (NCVs) on horizontal curves. The Monte Carlo method was used in the simulation to randomly sample values for the various parameters from their respective distributions. Theresults show that NCVs had higher speed variation than CVs and AVs. In addition, AVs and CVs contributed to reduce speed disparity in the mixed vehicle technologies in any penetration rates.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicles, non-connected vehicles, speed variance

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2021 Sensor and Actuator Fault Detection in Connected Vehicles under a Packet Dropping Network

Authors: Z. Abdollahi Biron, P. Pisu

Abstract:

Connected vehicles are one of the promising technologies for future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). A connected vehicle system is essentially a set of vehicles communicating through a network to exchange their information with each other and the infrastructure. Although this interconnection of the vehicles can be potentially beneficial in creating an efficient, sustainable, and green transportation system, a set of safety and reliability challenges come out with this technology. The first challenge arises from the information loss due to unreliable communication network which affects the control/management system of the individual vehicles and the overall system. Such scenario may lead to degraded or even unsafe operation which could be potentially catastrophic. Secondly, faulty sensors and actuators can affect the individual vehicle’s safe operation and in turn will create a potentially unsafe node in the vehicular network. Further, sending that faulty sensor information to other vehicles and failure in actuators may significantly affect the safe operation of the overall vehicular network. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take these issues into consideration while designing the control/management algorithms of the individual vehicles as a part of connected vehicle system. In this paper, we consider a connected vehicle system under Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and propose a fault diagnosis scheme that deals with these aforementioned challenges. Specifically, the conventional CACC algorithm is modified by adding a Kalman filter-based estimation algorithm to suppress the effect of lost information under unreliable network. Further, a sliding mode observer-based algorithm is used to improve the sensor reliability under faults. The effectiveness of the overall diagnostic scheme is verified via simulation studies.

Keywords: fault diagnostics, communication network, connected vehicles, packet drop out, platoon

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2020 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu

Abstract:

In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2019 A Review of In-Vehicle Network for Cloud Connected Vehicle

Authors: Hanbhin Ryu, Ilkwon Yun

Abstract:

Automotive industry targets to provide an improvement in safety and convenience through realizing fully autonomous vehicle. For partially realizing fully automated driving, Current vehicles already feature varieties of advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) for safety and infotainment systems for the driver’s convenience. This paper presents Cloud Connected Vehicle (CCV) which connected vehicles with cloud data center via the access network to control the vehicle for achieving next autonomous driving form and describes its features. This paper also describes the shortcoming of the existing In-Vehicle Network (IVN) to be a next generation IVN of CCV and organize the 802.3 Ethernet, the next generation of IVN, related research issue to verify the feasibility of using Ethernet. At last, this paper refers to additional considerations to adopting Ethernet-based IVN for CCV.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, cloud connected vehicle, ethernet, in-vehicle network

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
2018 A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction

Authors: Nicholas Lambert, Seungyeon Ryu, Mehmet Mulla, Albert Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.

Keywords: gesture, holographic interface, human-computer interaction, user-centered design

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2017 Artificial Intelligence in Penetration Testing of a Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Network

Authors: Phillip Cyril Garrad

Abstract:

The recent popularity of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) corresponds with an increase in the risk of cyber-attacks. These cyber-attacks have been instigated by both researchers or white-coat hackers and cyber-criminals. As Connected Vehicles move towards full autonomy, the impact of these cyber-attacks also grows. The current research details challenges faced in cybersecurity testing of CAV, including access and cost of the representative test setup. Other challenges faced are lack of experts in the field. Possible solutions to how these challenges can be overcome are reviewed and discussed. From these findings, a software simulated CAV network is established as a cost-effective representative testbed. Penetration tests are then performed on this simulation, demonstrating a cyber-attack in CAV. Studies have shown Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve runtime, increase efficiency and comprehensively cover all the typical test aspects in penetration testing in other industries. There is an attempt to introduce similar AI models to the software simulation. The expectation from this implementation is to see similar improvements in runtime and efficiency for the CAV model. If proven to be an effective means of penetration test for CAV, this methodology may be used on a full CAV test network.

Keywords: cybersecurity, connected vehicles, software simulation, artificial intelligence, penetration testing

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2016 Estimating the Traffic Impacts of Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory Systems Using Microsimulation

Authors: C. B. Masera, M. Imprialou, L. Budd, C. Morton

Abstract:

Even though signalised intersections are necessary for urban road traffic management, they can act as bottlenecks and disrupt traffic operations. Interrupted traffic flow causes congestion, delays, stop-and-go conditions (i.e. excessive acceleration/deceleration) and longer journey times. Vehicle and infrastructure connectivity offers the potential to provide improved new services with additional functions of assisting drivers. This paper focuses on one of the applications of vehicle-to-infrastructure communication namely Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA). To assess the effectiveness of GLOSA in the urban road network, an integrated microscopic traffic simulation framework is built into VISSIM software. Vehicle movements and vehicle-infrastructure communications are simulated through the interface of External Driver Model. A control algorithm is developed for recommending an optimal speed that is continuously updated in every time step for all vehicles approaching a signal-controlled point. This algorithm allows vehicles to pass a traffic signal without stopping or to minimise stopping times at a red phase. This study is performed with all connected vehicles at 100% penetration rate. Conventional vehicles are also simulated in the same network as a reference. A straight road segment composed of two opposite directions with two traffic lights per lane is studied. The simulation is implemented under 150 vehicles per hour and 200 per hour traffic volume conditions to identify how different traffic densities influence the benefits of GLOSA. The results indicate that traffic flow is improved by the application of GLOSA. According to this study, vehicles passed through the traffic lights more smoothly, and waiting times were reduced by up to 28 seconds. Average delays decreased for the entire network by 86.46% and 83.84% under traffic densities of 150 vehicles per hour per lane and 200 vehicles per hour per lane, respectively.

Keywords: connected vehicles, GLOSA, intelligent transport systems, vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2015 Modelling of Multi-Agent Systems for the Scheduling of Multi-EV Charging from Power Limited Sources

Authors: Manan’Iarivo Rasolonjanahary, Chris Bingham, Nigel Schofield, Masoud Bazargan

Abstract:

This paper presents the research and application of model predictive scheduled charging of electric vehicles (EV) subject to limited available power resource. To focus on algorithm and operational characteristics, the EV interface to the source is modelled as a battery state equation during the charging operation. The researched methods allow for the priority scheduling of EV charging in a multi-vehicle regime and when subject to limited source power availability. Priority attribution for each connected EV is described. The validity of the developed methodology is shown through the simulation of different scenarios of charging operation of multiple connected EVs including non-scheduled and scheduled operation with various numbers of vehicles. Performance of the developed algorithms is also reported with the recommendation of the choice of suitable parameters.

Keywords: model predictive control, non-scheduled, power limited sources, scheduled and stop-start battery charging

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2014 Vehicle Ownership and Occupancy Change in Travel Demand Model Due to the Emergence of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Authors: Asadur Rahman, Bin Ran

Abstract:

Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will have a major impact on transportation infrastructure, transportation mobility, as well as vehicle ownership and occupancy. The traffic forecasting process using the travel demand model (TDM) predicts traffic conditions that are expected to occur on the transportation system in future years but not the precise representations of traffic volume due to the complexity of real-world drive behavior and roadway characteristics. This research has proposed a framework (from the state-of-the-art and practice and the 20 to 30 years forecast horizon) to incorporate CAVs in the traditional four-step trip based TDM to do traffic forecast; and concludes that vehicle miles travel (VMT), vehicle hours travel (VHT), and travel delay are directly related to travel behaviors such as vehicle ownership and occupancy. Outlining changes (decrease) in single occupancy (SO) in trips and vehicle ownership (VO) in households with the dedicated lane(s) for CAVs in roadway network, the planned scenarios revealed that ‘with CAV’ VMT may decrease up to forty percent than ‘without CAV’ in an extreme scenario. Results from different scenarios in this research suggest implementing a single dedicated lane in the road network for CAVs at the beginning of implementation. Analyzing the impact of CAVs on urban-rural mobility, travel patterns, vehicle ownership, and occupancy will benefit traffic forecasts from a scenario planning perspective for the long-range transportation planning process; to guide and improve investment plans and the overall decision-making process.

Keywords: connected and automated vehicles, traffic forecasting, vehicle ownership, vehicle occupancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2013 Design and Implementation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter

Authors: B. H. Lee

Abstract:

Nowadays, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter is adopted in various places like as home, factory, because grid-connected PV inverter can reduce total power consumption by supplying electricity from PV array. In this paper, design and implementation of a 300 W grid-connected PV inverter are described. It is implemented with TI Piccolo DSP core and operated at 100 kHz switching frequency in order to reduce harmonic contents. The maximum operating input voltage is up to 45 V. The characteristics of the designed system that include maximum power point tracking (MPPT), single operation and battery charging are verified by simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: design, grid-connected, implementation, photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
2012 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su

Abstract:

The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, zero emission car, fuel economy, CO₂ footprint

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2011 A Survey on Intelligent Traffic Management with Cooperative Driving in Urban Roads

Authors: B. Karabuluter, O. Karaduman

Abstract:

Traffic management and traffic planning are important issues, especially in big cities. Due to the increase of personal vehicles and the physical constraints of urban roads, the problem of transportation especially in crowded cities over time is revealed. This situation reduces the living standards, and it can put human life at risk because the vehicles such as ambulance, fire department are prevented from reaching their targets. Even if the city planners take these problems into account, emergency planning and traffic management are needed to avoid cases such as traffic congestion, intersections, traffic jams caused by traffic accidents or roadworks. In this study, in smart traffic management issues, proposed solutions using intelligent vehicles acting in cooperation with urban roads are examined. Traffic management is becoming more difficult due to factors such as fatigue, carelessness, sleeplessness, social behavior patterns, and lack of education. However, autonomous vehicles, which remove the problems caused by human weaknesses by providing driving control, are increasing the success of practicing the algorithms developed in city traffic management. Such intelligent vehicles have become an important solution in urban life by using 'swarm intelligence' algorithms and cooperative driving methods to provide traffic flow, prevent traffic accidents, and increase living standards. In this study, studies conducted in this area have been dealt with in terms of traffic jam, intersections, regulation of traffic flow, signaling, prevention of traffic accidents, cooperation and communication techniques of vehicles, fleet management, transportation of emergency vehicles. From these concepts, some taxonomies were made out of the way. This work helps to develop new solutions and algorithms for cities where intelligent vehicles that can perform cooperative driving can take place, and at the same time emphasize the trend in this area.

Keywords: intelligent traffic management, cooperative driving, smart driving, urban road, swarm intelligence, connected vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2010 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2009 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2008 Antenna for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Connected Objects

Authors: Nizar Sakli, Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli

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If connected objects multiply, they are becoming a challenge in more than one way. In particular by their consumption and their supply of electricity. A large part of the new generations of connected objects will only be able to develop if it is possible to make them entirely autonomous in terms of energy. Some manufacturers are therefore developing products capable of recovering energy from their environment. Vital solutions in certain contexts, such as the medical industry. Energy recovery from the environment is a reliable solution to solve the problem of powering wireless connected objects. This paper presents and study a optically transparent solar patch antenna in frequency band of 2.4 GHz for connected objects in the future standard 5G for energy harvesting and RF transmission.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, solar cell, wireless communications

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2007 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal

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Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
2006 Intelligent 6G Wireless Communication using a UAV Heterogenous Topology for Vibrant and Smart Societies: A Case of the Kingdome Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faris A. Almalki

Abstract:

In our innovative digital era, it is widely accepted that integration and collaboration between advanced technologies to pave the way to hyper-connected societies and thus more global smart connectivity. Unsurprisingly, when Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Artificial Intelligent (AI) and Internet of Everything (IoE) integrate can contribute towards the goal of vibrant and smart societies. This paper aims to shed light on integrating intelligent UAVs-enabled AIwith IoE in context of 6G capabilities, network topologies, and applications to achieve hyper-connected and smart societies: a case of Kingdom Saudi Arabia (KSA); which a massive country of densely and sparsely populated zones with some difficult terrains. Thus, the KSA strives in the last decade to bridge the digital gap across the country. Since 2020, KSA has achieved second place globally in the field of cybersecurity, it is ranked the top digital riser in digital competitiveness among G20 countries, as well as first place in the digital ecosystem index and third in the digital capabilities index.The proposed intelligent 6G wireless communication system would massively help in achieving vibrant and smart societies including the ambitious KSA. This contribution is a noticeable shift from exiting work in the literature, providing a panoramic view of the proposed integration.

Keywords: drones, global connectivity, internet of everything (IoE), smart cities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 6G

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2005 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane

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In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2004 A Comparative Study of Series-Connected Two-Motor Drive Fed by a Single Inverter

Authors: A. Djahbar, E. Bounadja, A. Zegaoui, H. Allouache

Abstract:

In this paper, vector control of a series-connected two-machine drive system fed by a single inverter (CSI/VSI) is presented. The two stator windings of both machines are connected in series while the rotors may be connected to different loads, are called series-connected two-machine drive. Appropriate phase transposition is introduced while connecting the series stator winding to obtain decoupled control the two-machines. The dynamic decoupling of each machine from the group is obtained using the vector control algorithm. The independent control is demonstrated by analyzing the characteristics of torque and speed of each machine obtained via simulation under vector control scheme. The viability of the control techniques is proved using analytically and simulation approach.

Keywords: drives, inverter, multi-phase induction machine, vector control

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2003 Energy Consumption Models for Electric Vehicles: Survey and Proposal of a More Realistic Model

Authors: I. Sagaama, A. Kechiche, W. Trojet, F. Kamoun

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Replacing combustion engine vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs) is a major step in recent years due to their potential benefits. Battery autonomy and charging processes are still a big issue for that kind of vehicles. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of electric vehicles becomes a necessity. Many researches target introducing recent information and communication technologies in EVs in order to propose reducing energy consumption services. Evaluation of realistic scenarios is a big challenge nowadays. In this paper, we will elaborate a state of the art of different proposed energy consumption models in the literature, then we will present a comparative study of these models, finally, we will extend previous works in order to propose an accurate and realistic energy model for calculating instantaneous power consumption of electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicle, vehicular networks, energy models, traffic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2002 Torque Loss Prediction Test Method of Bolted Joints in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Volkan Ayik

Abstract:

Loosening as a result of torque loss in bolted joints is one of the most encountered problems resulting in loss of connection between parts. The main reason for this is the dynamic loads to which the joints are subjected while the vehicle is moving. In particular, vibration-induced loads can loosen the joints in any size and geometry. The aim of this study is to study an improved method due to road-induced vibration in heavy commercial vehicles for estimating the vibration performance of bolted joints of the components connected to the chassis, before conducting prototype level vehicle structural strength tests on a proving ground. The frequency and displacements caused by the road conditions-induced vibration loads have been determined for the parts connected to the chassis, and various experimental design scenarios have been formed by matching specific components and vibration behaviors. In the studies, the performance of the torque, washer, test displacement, and test frequency parameters were observed by maintaining the connection characteristics on the vehicle, and the sensitivity ratios for these variables were calculated. As a result of these experimental design findings, tests performed on a developed device based on Junker’s vibration device and proving ground conditions versus test correlation levels were found.

Keywords: bolted joints, junker’s test, loosening failure, torque loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2001 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C. Vale, J. U. L. Mendes

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Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: aerodynamic, vehicles, wind tunnel, safety, acting

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2000 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack

Abstract:

Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photo voltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1999 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo

Abstract:

Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: vehicle, overhaul, age, uneconomical, diesel, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
1998 Performance Assessment of PV Based Grid Connected Solar Plant with Varying Load Conditions

Authors: Kusum Tharani, Ratna Dahiya

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the power flow of a grid connected 100-kW Photovoltaic(PV) array connected to a 25-kV grid via a DC-DC boost converter and a three-phase three-level Voltage Source Converter (VSC). Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is implemented in the boost converter bymeans of a Simulink model using the 'Perturb & Observe' technique. First, related papers and technological reports were extensively studied and analyzed. Accordingly, the system is tested under various loading conditions. Power flow analysis is done using the Newton-Raphson method in Matlab environment. Finally, the system is subject to Single Line to Ground Fault and Three Phase short circuit. The results are simulated under the grid-connected operating model.

Keywords: grid connected PV Array, Newton-Raphson Method, power flow analysis, three phase fault

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
1997 Effective Scheduling of Hybrid Reconfigurable Microgrids Considering High Penetration of Renewable Sources

Authors: Abdollah Kavousi Fard

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This paper addresses the optimal scheduling of hybrid reconfigurable microgrids considering hybrid electric vehicle charging demands. A stochastic framework based on unscented transform to model the high uncertainties of renewable energy sources including wind turbine and photovoltaic panels, as well as the hybrid electric vehicles’ charging demand. In order to get to the optimal scheduling, the network reconfiguration is employed as an effective tool for changing the power supply path and avoiding possible congestions. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in three different scenarios including coordinated, uncoordinated and smart charging demand of hybrid electric vehicles. A typical grid-connected microgrid is employed to show the satisfying performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: microgrid, renewable energy sources, reconfiguration, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1996 Rotational Energy Recovery System

Authors: Vijayendra Anil Menon, Ashwath Narayan Murali

Abstract:

The present day vehicles do not reuse the energy expelled in running the vehicle. The energy used to run the vehicle is expelled immediately.This has remained a constant for many decades. With all the vehicles running on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to improve efficiency of the vehicles until a reliable replacement for fossil fuels is found.Our design is based on the concept of Kinetic energy recovery systems. Though our design lies in principle with the KERS, our design can be used in day-to-day driving. With our design, efficiency of vehicles increases and fuel conservation is possible thereby reducing the carbon footprint.

Keywords: KERS, Battery, Wheels, Efficiency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1995 A Comparison Between the Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor in the Automobile

Authors: Jack Mason, Ahmad Pourmovhed

Abstract:

This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the internal combustion engine when compared to different types of electric vehicles. The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)'s overall cost, environmental impact, and usability will all be compared to different types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Also, the ways to solve the issues of the problems each vehicle presents will be discussed.

Keywords: interal combustion engine, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, emissions

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