Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3803

Search results for: spatial variation

3803 Spatial Variation of Trace Elements in Suspended Sediments from Urban River

Authors: Daniel Macedo Neto, Sandro Froehner, Juan Sanez

Abstract:

Suspended sediments (SS) are an environmental constituent able to represent the effects of land use changes on watersheds. One important consideration of land use change is its implication on trace element loading. Water bodies have the capacity to retain trace elements. Spatial variation in trace elements concentrations can be associated with land occupation and sources of pollution. In this work, the spatial variation of trace elements in suspended sediments from an urban river was assessed. Time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples were installed in three different sites of Barigui River. The suspend solids were collected every 30 days, from May 2015 to August 2015 (total samples 12). Site P1 covers 44 km2 drainage area and has low land occupation, whilst P2 cover an area of 87 km2 and it is totally urban as P3, which area is higher than 130 km2. Trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn) were analysed by ICP-ES. All elements analyzed showed a similar pattern, i.e., the concentration raise with the urbanization, exception for As (P1=7.75; P2=5.75; P3=5.60mg/kg). There was increase in concentration for Cd (P1=0.75; P2=0.78; P3=1.45mg/kg), Cr (P1=59.50; P2=101.75; P3=102.00 mg/kg), Zn (P1=142.25; P2=152.50; P3=223.00mg/kg), P (P1=937.50; P2=1,545.00; P3=2,355.00 mg/kg) and for Pb (P1=31.25; P2=32.75; P3=39.17±2.56 mg/kg). The variation in concentrations were as follow -27.74% (As), +93.33% (Cd), +71.43% (Cr), +151.20% (P), +25.33% (Pb) e +56.77% (Zn). Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn presented a clear trend of increasing the concentration from upstream to downstream. Such variation is more notorious for P, Cd and Cr, possibly due the urbanization.

Keywords: trace elements, erosion, urbanization, suspended sediments

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3802 Spatial Disparity in Education and Medical Facilities: A Case Study of Barddhaman District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The economic scenario of any region does not show the real picture for the measurement of overall development. Therefore, economic development must be accompanied by social development to be able to make an assessment to measure the level of development. The spatial variation with respect to social development has been discussed taking into account the quality of functioning of a social system in a specific area. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of social infrastructural facilities and analyze the magnitude of regional disparities at inter- block level in Barddhman district. It starts with the detailed account of the selection process of social infrastructure indicators and describes the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. Analyzing the block level data, this paper tries to identify the disparity among the blocks in the levels of social development. The results have been subsequently explained using both statistical analysis and geo spatial technique. The paper reveals that the social development is not going on at the same rate in every part of the district. Health facilities and educational facilities are concentrated at some selected point. So overall development activities come to be concentrated in a few centres and the disparity is seen over the blocks.

Keywords: disparity, inter-block, social development, spatial variation

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3801 Temporal Characteristics of Human Perception to Significant Variation of Block Structures

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

In the latest research efforts, the structures of the image in the spatial domain have been successfully analyzed and proved to deduce the visual masking for accurately estimating the visibility thresholds of the image. If the structural properties of the video sequence in the temporal domain are taken into account to estimate the temporal masking, the improvement and enhancement of the as-sessing spatio-temporal visibility thresholds are reasonably expected. In this paper, the temporal characteristics of human perception to the change in block structures on the time axis are analyzed. The temporal characteristics of human perception are represented in terms of the significant variation in block structures for the analysis of human visual system (HVS). Herein, the block structure in each frame is computed by combined the pattern masking and the contrast masking simultaneously. The contrast masking always overestimates the visibility thresholds of edge regions and underestimates that of texture regions, while the pattern masking is weak on a uniform background and is strong on the complex background with spatial patterns. Under considering the significant variation of block structures between successive frames, we extend the block structures of images in the spatial domain to that of video sequences in the temporal domain to analyze the relation between the inter-frame variation of structures and the temporal masking. Meanwhile, the subjective viewing test and the fair rating process are designed to evaluate the consistency of the temporal characteristics with the HVS under a specified viewing condition.

Keywords: temporal characteristic, block structure, pattern masking, contrast masking

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3800 Bayesian Locally Approach for Spatial Modeling of Visceral Leishmaniasis Infection in Northern and Central Tunisia

Authors: Kais Ben-Ahmed, Mhamed Ali-El-Aroui

Abstract:

This paper develops a Local Generalized Linear Spatial Model (LGLSM) to describe the spatial variation of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) infection risk in northern and central Tunisia. The response from each region is a number of affected children less than five years of age recorded from 1996 through 2006 from Tunisian pediatric departments and treated as a poison county level data. The model includes climatic factors, namely averages of annual rainfall, extreme values of low temperatures in winter and high temperatures in summer to characterize the climate of each region according to each continentality index, the pluviometric quotient of Emberger (Q2) to characterize bioclimatic regions and component for residual extra-poison variation. The statistical results show the progressive increase in the number of affected children in regions with high continentality index and low mean yearly rainfull. On the other hand, an increase in pluviometric quotient of Emberger contributed to a significant increase in VL incidence rate. When compared with the original GLSM, Bayesian locally modeling is improvement and gives a better approximation of the Tunisian VL risk estimation. According to the Bayesian approach inference, we use vague priors for all parameters model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method.

Keywords: generalized linear spatial model, local model, extra-poisson variation, continentality index, visceral leishmaniasis, Tunisia

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3799 Spatial Differentiation Patterns and Influencing Mechanism of Urban Greening in China: Based on Data of 289 Cities

Authors: Fangzheng Li, Xiong Li

Abstract:

Significant differences in urban greening have occurred in Chinese cities, which accompanied with China's rapid urbanization. However, few studies focused on the spatial differentiation of urban greening in China with large amounts of data. The spatial differentiation pattern, spatial correlation characteristics and the distribution shape of urban green space ratio, urban green coverage rate and public green area per capita were calculated and analyzed, using Global and Local Moran's I using data from 289 cities in 2014. We employed Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model to assess the impacts of urbanization process on urban greening of China. Then we used Geographically Weighted Regression to estimate the spatial variations of the impacts. The results showed: 1. a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in urban greening values, and the differentiation patterns were featured by the administrative grade and the spatial agglomeration simultaneously; 2. it revealed that urbanization has a negative correlation with urban greening in Chinese cities. Among the indices, the the proportion of secondary industry, urbanization rate, population and the scale of urban land use has significant negative correlation with the urban greening of China. Automobile density and per capita Gross Domestic Product has no significant impact. The results of GWR modeling showed that the relationship between urbanization and urban greening was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggested significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on urban greening.

Keywords: China’s urbanization, geographically weighted regression, spatial differentiation pattern, urban greening

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3798 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

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3797 Method for Auto-Calibrate Projector and Color-Depth Systems for Spatial Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: R. Estrada, A. Henriquez, R. Becerra, C. Laguna

Abstract:

Spatial Augmented Reality is a variation of Augmented Reality where the Head-Mounted Display is not required. This variation of Augmented Reality is useful in cases where the need for a Head-Mounted Display itself is a limitation. To achieve this, Spatial Augmented Reality techniques substitute the technological elements of Augmented Reality; the virtual world is projected onto a physical surface. To create an interactive spatial augmented experience, the application must be aware of the spatial relations that exist between its core elements. In this case, the core elements are referred to as a projection system and an input system, and the process to achieve this spatial awareness is called system calibration. The Spatial Augmented Reality system is considered calibrated if the projected virtual world scale is similar to the real-world scale, meaning that a virtual object will maintain its perceived dimensions when projected to the real world. Also, the input system is calibrated if the application knows the relative position of a point in the projection plane and the RGB-depth sensor origin point. Any kind of projection technology can be used, light-based projectors, close-range projectors, and screens, as long as it complies with the defined constraints; the method was tested on different configurations. The proposed procedure does not rely on a physical marker, minimizing the human intervention on the process. The tests are made using a Kinect V2 as an input sensor and several projection devices. In order to test the method, the constraints defined were applied to a variety of physical configurations; once the method was executed, some variables were obtained to measure the method performance. It was demonstrated that the method obtained can solve different arrangements, giving the user a wide range of setup possibilities.

Keywords: color depth sensor, human computer interface, interactive surface, spatial augmented reality

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3796 Macroinvertebrate Variation of Endorheic Depression Wetlands within North West and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

Authors: Lee-Ann Foster, Wynand Malherbe, Martin Ferriera, Johan Van Vuren

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Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variability. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetlands. The objective of this study was to compare the spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages within endorheic depressions in Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Sampling was conducted over a period of two seasons during 2012 and 2013 at all sampling points to account for a wet and dry season. The identification of macroinvertebrate community samples resulted in 24 taxa for both provinces. Results showed similarities in the structure of communities in perennial endorheic depressions in both provinces with the exception of one or two species. Macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga depressions (locally called pans) were similar to those reported in previous studies completed in the area and most of the macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga and the North West are known to be commonly found in temporary habitats. The knowledge acquired can now be utilised to enhance the available literature on these systems. Long-term studies have to be implemented to better understand the ecological functioning of the pans in the North West Province.

Keywords: aquatic, macroinvertebrate assemblages, pans, spatial variation

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3795 Spatial Distribution of Socio-Economic Factors in Kogi State, Nigeria: Development Issues and Implication(s)

Authors: Yahya A. Sadiq, Grace F. Balogun, Olufemi J. Anjorin

Abstract:

This study analyzed the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in Kogi state with a view to examining its implications on the development of the state. Consequently, questionnaires were administered on both the selected individual respondents (784) in the state and on the administrative offices (local council offices, 21) to solicit relevant information on the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in their areas. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The study revealed commerce/trade, education, and health care, etc. as the major socio-economic factors in the state but with marked variation/imbalance in their spatial distribution across the study area. The rural-based local government areas have far less of such important facilities. Conclusively, it was recommended that there is need for socio-economic transformation of living conditions of people in the study area especially by positively redistributing local political power and the resources that are abound in the state will be felt by everybody including the commoners.

Keywords: development, local government areas (LGAs), spatial distribution, socio-economic factors

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3794 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário

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This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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3793 Spatial Variation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Plants Grown in Greenhouses (Springs) in Elmali-Antalya Region

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez, Sahriye Sonmez, Hasan Rasit Turkkan, Hatice Tuba Selcuk

Abstract:

In this study, the spatial variation of plant and soil nutrition contents of tomato plants grown in greenhouses was investigated in Elmalı region of Antalya. For this purpose, total of 19 sampling points were determined. Coordinates of each sampling points were recorded by using a hand-held GPS device and were transferred to satellite data in GIS. Soil samples were collected from two different depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and leaf were taken from different tomato greenhouses. The soil and plant samples were analyzed for N, P and K. Then, attribute tables were created with the analyses results by using GIS. Data were analyzed and semivariogram models and parameters (nugget, sill and range) of variables were determined by using GIS software. Kriged maps of variables were created by using nugget, sill and range values with geostatistical extension of ArcGIS software. Kriged maps of the N, P and K contents of plant and soil samples showed patchy or a relatively smooth distribution in the study areas. As a result, the N content of plants were sufficient approximately 66% portion of the tomato productions. It was determined that the P and K contents were sufficient of 70% and 80% portion of the areas, respectively. On the other hand, soil total K contents were generally adequate and available N and P contents were found to be highly good enough in two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) 90% portion of the areas.

Keywords: Elmali, nutrients, springs greenhouses, spatial variation, tomato

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3792 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju

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Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

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3791 Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass in the East China Sea Based on MODIS Data

Authors: Yumei Wu, Xiaoyan Dang, Shenglong Yang, Shengmao Zhang

Abstract:

The East China Sea is one of four main seas in China, where there are many fishery resources. Some important fishing grounds, such as Zhousan fishing ground important to society. But the eco-environment is destroyed seriously due to the rapid developing of industry and economy these years. In this paper, about twenty-year satellite data from MODIS and the statistical information of marine environment from the China marine environmental quality bulletin were applied to do the research. The chlorophyll-a concentration data from MODIS were dealt with in the East China Sea and then used to analyze the features and variations of plankton biomass in recent years. The statistics method was used to obtain their spatial and temporal features. The plankton biomass in the Yangtze River estuary and the Taizhou region were highest. The high phytoplankton biomass usually appeared between the 88th day to the 240th day (end-March - August). In the peak time of phytoplankton blooms, the Taizhou islands was the earliest, and the South China Sea was the latest. The intensity and period of phytoplankton blooms were connected with the global climate change. This work give us confidence to use satellite data to do more researches about the China Sea, and it also provides some help for us to know about the eco-environmental variation of the East China Sea and regional effect from global climate change.

Keywords: the East China Sea, phytoplankton biomass, temporal and spatial variation, phytoplankton bloom

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3790 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian

Abstract:

This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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3789 Spatial and Temporal Evaluations of Disinfection By-Products Formation in Coastal City Distribution Systems of Turkey

Authors: Vedat Uyak

Abstract:

Seasonal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) concentrations were investigated within three distribution systems of a coastal city of Istanbul, Turkey. Moreover, total trihalomethanes and other organics concentration were also analyzed. The investigation was based on an intensive 16 month (2009-2010) sampling program, undertaken during the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. Four THM (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform), and nine HAA (the most commonly occurring one being dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA); other compounds are monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA) and chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBAA)) species and other water quality and operational parameters were monitored at points along the distribution system between the treatment plant and the system’s extremity. The effects of coastal water sources, seasonal variation and spatial variation were examined. The results showed that THMs and HAAs concentrations vary significantly between treated waters and water at the distribution networks. When water temperature exceeds 26°C in summer, the THMs and HAAs levels are 0.8 – 1.1, and 0.4 – 0.9 times higher than treated water, respectively. While when water temperature is below 12°C in the winter, the measured THMs and HAAs concentrations at the system’s extremity were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L, and 60 μg/L, respectively. The highest THM concentrations occurred in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 92 μg/L. Moreover, the lowest THM levels were observed in the Omerli distribution network, with a mean concentration of 7 μg/L. For HAA levels, the maximum concentrations again were observed in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 57 μg/l. High spatial and seasonal variation of disinfection by-products in the drinking water of Istanbul was attributed of illegal wastewater discharges to water supplies of Istanbul city.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, seasonal variation

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3788 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

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As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

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3787 Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics of Soil pH around the Balikesir City, Turkey

Authors: Çağan Alevkayali, Şermin Tağil

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Determination of soil pH surface distribution in urban areas is substantial for sustainable development. Changes on soil properties occur due to functions on performed in agriculture, industry and other urban functions. Soil pH is important to effect on soil productivity which based on sensitive and complex relation between plant and soil. Furthermore, the spatial variability of soil reaction is necessary to measure the effects of urbanization. The objective of this study was to explore the spatial variation of soil pH quality and the influence factors of human land use on soil Ph around Balikesir City using data for 2015 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). For this, soil samples were taken from 40 different locations, and collected with the method of "Systematic Random" from the pits at 0-20 cm depths, because anthropologic sourced pollutants accumulate on upper layers of soil. The study area was divided into a grid system with 750 x 750 m. GPS was used to determine sampling locations, and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was used to analyze the spatial distribution of pH in the study area and to predict the variable values of un-exampled places with the help from the values of exampled places. Natural soil acidity and alkalinity depend on interaction between climate, vegetation, and soil geological properties. However, analyzing soil pH is important to indirectly evaluate soil pollution caused by urbanization and industrialization. The result of this study showed that soil pH around the Balikesir City was neutral, in generally, with values were between 6.5 and 7.0. On the other hand, some slight changes were demonstrated around open dump areas and the small industrial sites. The results obtained from this study can be indicator of important soil problems and this data can be used by ecologists, planners and managers to protect soil supplies around the Balikesir City.

Keywords: Balikesir, IDW, GIS, spatial variability, soil pH, urbanization

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3786 Exploring the Spatial Characteristics of Mortality Map: A Statistical Area Perspective

Authors: Jung-Hong Hong, Jing-Cen Yang, Cai-Yu Ou

Abstract:

The analysis of geographic inequality heavily relies on the use of location-enabled statistical data and quantitative measures to present the spatial patterns of the selected phenomena and analyze their differences. To protect the privacy of individual instance and link to administrative units, point-based datasets are spatially aggregated to area-based statistical datasets, where only the overall status for the selected levels of spatial units is used for decision making. The partition of the spatial units thus has dominant influence on the outcomes of the analyzed results, well known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). A new spatial reference framework, the Taiwan Geographical Statistical Classification (TGSC), was recently introduced in Taiwan based on the spatial partition principles of homogeneous consideration of the number of population and households. Comparing to the outcomes of the traditional township units, TGSC provides additional levels of spatial units with finer granularity for presenting spatial phenomena and enables domain experts to select appropriate dissemination level for publishing statistical data. This paper compares the results of respectively using TGSC and township unit on the mortality data and examines the spatial characteristics of their outcomes. For the mortality data between the period of January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2010 of the Taitung County, the all-cause age-standardized death rate (ASDR) ranges from 571 to 1757 per 100,000 persons, whereas the 2nd dissemination area (TGSC) shows greater variation, ranged from 0 to 2222 per 100,000. The finer granularity of spatial units of TGSC clearly provides better outcomes for identifying and evaluating the geographic inequality and can be further analyzed with the statistical measures from other perspectives (e.g., population, area, environment.). The management and analysis of the statistical data referring to the TGSC in this research is strongly supported by the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. An integrated workflow that consists of the tasks of the processing of death certificates, the geocoding of street address, the quality assurance of geocoded results, the automatic calculation of statistic measures, the standardized encoding of measures and the geo-visualization of statistical outcomes is developed. This paper also introduces a set of auxiliary measures from a geographic distribution perspective to further examine the hidden spatial characteristics of mortality data and justify the analyzed results. With the common statistical area framework like TGSC, the preliminary results demonstrate promising potential for developing a web-based statistical service that can effectively access domain statistical data and present the analyzed outcomes in meaningful ways to avoid wrong decision making.

Keywords: mortality map, spatial patterns, statistical area, variation

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3785 Evaluation of Spatial Correlation Length and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Terms for Predicting Reliability Level of Long-Term Settlement in Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

The spectral random field method is one of the widely used methods to obtain more reliable and accurate results in geotechnical problems involving material variability. Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion method was applied to perform random field discretization of cross-correlated creep parameters. Karhunen-Loeve expansion method is based on eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of covariance function adopting Kernel integral solution. In this paper, the accuracy of Karhunen-Loeve expansion was investigated to predict long-term settlement of soft soils adopting elastic visco-plastic creep model. For this purpose, a parametric study was carried to evaluate the effect of K-L expansion terms and spatial correlation length on the reliability of results. The results indicate that small values of spatial correlation length require more K-L expansion terms. Moreover, by increasing spatial correlation length, the coefficient of variation (COV) of creep settlement increases, confirming more conservative and safer prediction.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, long-term settlement, reliability analysis, spatial correlation length

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3784 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

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The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.

Keywords: fog, climatology, spatial variability, temporal variability

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3783 Spatial Scale of Clustering of Residential Burglary and Its Dependence on Temporal Scale

Authors: Mohammed A. Alazawi, Shiguo Jiang, Steven F. Messner

Abstract:

Research has long focused on two main spatial aspects of crime: spatial patterns and spatial processes. When analyzing these patterns and processes, a key issue has been to determine the proper spatial scale. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that these patterns and processes might differ appreciably for different temporal scales and might vary across geographic units of analysis. We examine the spatial-temporal dependence of residential burglary. This dependence is tested at varying geographical scales and temporal aggregations. The analyses are based on recorded incidents of crime in Columbus, Ohio during the 1994-2002 period. We implement point pattern analysis on the crime points using Ripley’s K function. The results indicate that spatial point patterns of residential burglary reveal spatial scales of clustering relatively larger than the average size of census tracts of the study area. Also, spatial scale is independent of temporal scale. The results of our analyses concerning the geographic scale of spatial patterns and processes can inform the development of effective policies for crime control.

Keywords: inhomogeneous K function, residential burglary, spatial point pattern, spatial scale, temporal scale

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3782 Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Triphonia Ngailo

Abstract:

Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM 2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750 mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny, and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm). The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region (250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended over eastern region.

Keywords: convective parameterization schemes, March-May 2013 rainfall season, spatial variation of parameterization schemes over Uganda, WRF model

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3781 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

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Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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3780 Modeling and Tracking of Deformable Structures in Medical Images

Authors: Said Ettaieb, Kamel Hamrouni, Su Ruan

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method based both on Active Shape Model and a priori knowledge about the spatio-temporal shape variation for tracking deformable structures in medical imaging. The main idea is to exploit the a priori knowledge of shape that exists in ASM and introduce new knowledge about the shape variation over time. The aim is to define a new more stable method, allowing the reliable detection of structures whose shape changes considerably in time. This method can also be used for the three-dimensional segmentation by replacing the temporal component by the third spatial axis (z). The proposed method is applied for the functional and morphological study of the heart pump. The functional aspect was studied through temporal sequences of scintigraphic images and morphology was studied through MRI volumes. The obtained results are encouraging and show the performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: active shape model, a priori knowledge, spatiotemporal shape variation, deformable structures, medical images

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3779 Spatial Data Mining by Decision Trees

Authors: Sihem Oujdi, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Existing methods of data mining cannot be applied on spatial data because they require spatial specificity consideration, as spatial relationships. This paper focuses on the classification with decision trees, which are one of the data mining techniques. We propose an extension of the C4.5 algorithm for spatial data, based on two different approaches Join materialization and Querying on the fly the different tables. Similar works have been done on these two main approaches, the first - Join materialization - favors the processing time in spite of memory space, whereas the second - Querying on the fly different tables- promotes memory space despite of the processing time. The modified C4.5 algorithm requires three entries tables: a target table, a neighbor table, and a spatial index join that contains the possible spatial relationship among the objects in the target table and those in the neighbor table. Thus, the proposed algorithms are applied to a spatial data pattern in the accidentology domain. A comparative study of our approach with other works of classification by spatial decision trees will be detailed.

Keywords: C4.5 algorithm, decision trees, S-CART, spatial data mining

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3778 Research on the Development and Space Optimization of Rental-Type Public Housing in Hangzhou

Authors: Xuran Zhang, Huiru Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, China has made great efforts to cultivate and develop the housing rental market, especially the rental-type public housing, which has been paid attention to by all sectors of the society. This paper takes Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object, and divides it into three development stages according to the different supply modes of rental-type public housing. Through data collection and field research, the paper summarizes the spatial characteristics of rental-type public housing from the five perspectives of spatial planning, spatial layout, spatial integration, spatial organization and spatial configuration. On this basis, the paper proposes the optimization of the spatial layout. The study concludes that the spatial layout of rental-type public housing should be coordinated with the development of urban planning. When planning and constructing, it is necessary to select more mixed construction modes, to be properly centralized, and to improve the surrounding transportation service facilities.  It is hoped that the recommendations in this paper will provide a reference for the further development of rental-type public housing in Hangzhou.

Keywords: Hangzhou, rental-type public housing, spatial distribution, spatial optimization

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3777 Flood Monitoring Using Active Microwave Remote Sensed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

Authors: Bikramjit Goswami, Manoranjan Kalita

Abstract:

Active microwave remote sensing is useful in remote sensing applications in cloud-covered regions in the world. Because of high spatial resolution, the spatial variations of land cover can be monitored in greater detail using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Inundation is studied using the SAR images obtained from Sentinel-1A in both VH and VV polarizations in the present experimental study. The temporal variation of the SAR scattering coefficient values for the area gives a good indication of flood and its boundary. The study area is the district of Morigaon in the state of Assam in India. The period of flood monitoring study is the monsoon season of the year 2017, during which high flood occurred in the state of Assam. The variation of microwave scattering value shows a distinctive indication of flood from the non-flooded period. Frequent monitoring of flood in a large area (10 km x 10 km) using passive microwave sensing and pin-pointing the actual flooded portions (5 m x 5 m) within the flooded area using active microwave sensing, can be a highly useful combination, as revealed by the present experimental results.

Keywords: active remote sensing, flood monitoring, microwave remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar

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3776 Variation in Italian Specialized Economic Texts

Authors: Abdelmagid Basyouny Sakr

Abstract:

Terminological variation is a reality and it is now recognized by terminologists. This paper investigates the terminological variation in the context of specialized economic texts in Italian. It aims to find whether certain patterns or tendencies can be derived from the analysis of these texts. Term variants pose two different kinds of difficulties. The first one is being able to recognize linguistic expressions that denote the same concept in running text. Another one lies in knowing which variant should be considered and for what purpose. This would help to differentiate between variants that could be candidates for inclusion in terminological resources and the ones which are synonyms or contextual variants. New insights about terminological variation in specialized texts could contribute to improve specialized dictionaries which will better account for the different ways in which a given thought is expressed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, specialized communication, terms and concepts, terminological variation

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3775 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Act, 2013 in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality: Case Study of Apel Nodal Point

Authors: Hlabishi Peter Ntloana

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the effectiveness of the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, in addressing key spatial challenges in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality, mainly focusing on Apel nodal point. Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, popularly known as SPLUMA, aimed at addressing emerging and existing spatial planning and land use management challenges in South Africa. There are critical key spatial challenges that are continuously encountered in Apel Nodal Point, which include dispersed rural settlement mainly in a communal settlement. The spatial patterns and rural settlements development patterns are a challenge, and such results in uncoordinated human settlements. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the spatial planning of Apel nodal points and determine the effectiveness of the SPLUMA policy. Key Informant interviews were conducted with 20 participants, and also the municipal Spatial Development Framework was considered to explore more challenges and proposed recommendations. The results divulged that there is a huge gap in addressing spatial planning, mainly in rural areas, and correlation with the findings of the Municipal Spatial Development framework. In conclusion, spatial planning remains a critical dilemma in most rural settlements, and there must be programmes and strategies to balance the effectiveness of spatial planning in urban and rural settlements.

Keywords: land use management, rural settlement, spatial development framework, spatial planning

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3774 Algorithms used in Spatial Data Mining GIS

Authors: Vahid Bairami Rad

Abstract:

Extracting knowledge from spatial data like GIS data is important to reduce the data and extract information. Therefore, the development of new techniques and tools that support the human in transforming data into useful knowledge has been the focus of the relatively new and interdisciplinary research area ‘knowledge discovery in databases’. Thus, we introduce a set of database primitives or basic operations for spatial data mining which are sufficient to express most of the spatial data mining algorithms from the literature. This approach has several advantages. Similar to the relational standard language SQL, the use of standard primitives will speed-up the development of new data mining algorithms and will also make them more portable. We introduced a database-oriented framework for spatial data mining which is based on the concepts of neighborhood graphs and paths. A small set of basic operations on these graphs and paths were defined as database primitives for spatial data mining. Furthermore, techniques to efficiently support the database primitives by a commercial DBMS were presented.

Keywords: spatial data base, knowledge discovery database, data mining, spatial relationship, predictive data mining

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