Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6293

Search results for: heat generation/absorption

6293 Chemical Reaction, Heat and Mass Transfer on Unsteady MHD Flow along a Vertical Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation/Absorption and Variable Viscosity

Authors: Jatindra Lahkar


The effect of chemical reaction on laminar mixed convection flow and heat and mass transfer along a vertical unsteady stretching sheet is investigated, in the presence of heat generation/absorption with variable viscosity and viscous dissipation. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation and solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The effects of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are analyzed and presented graphically. Skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are derived at the sheet. It is observed that the influence of chemical reaction, the fluid flow along the sheet accelerate with the increase of chemical reaction parameter, on the other hand, temperature of the fluid increases with increase of chemical reaction parameter but concentration of the fluid reduces with it. The boundary layer decreases on the surface of the sheet for all values of unsteadiness parameter, increasing values of the chemical reaction parameter. The increases in the values of Sc cause the species concentration and its boundary layer thickness to decrease resulting in less induced flow and higher fluid temperatures. This is depicted in the decreases in the velocity and species concentration and increases in the fluid temperature as Sc increases.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat generation/absorption, magnetic number, unsteadiness, variable viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
6292 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal


The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
6291 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-type Heat sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in the inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8 m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47, and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6, and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of the mass flow rates caused by different cross-sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: solar Inverter, heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
6290 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim


The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
6289 Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache


The concept of second law is assumed to be important to optimize the energy losses in heat exchangers. The present study is devoted to the numerical prediction of entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction in a double tube heat exchanger partly or fully filled with a porous medium. The goal of this work is to find the optimal conditions that allow minimizing entropy generation. For this purpose, numerical modeling based on the control volume method is used to describe the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the fluid and the porous medium. Effects of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and the effective thermal conductivity have been investigated. Unexpectedly, the fully porous heat exchanger yields a lower entropy generation than the partly porous case or the fluid case even if the friction increases the entropy generation.

Keywords: heat exchangers, porous medium, second law approach, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
6288 Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Free Convective Power Law Variable Temperature Past Vertical Plate Considering Exponential Variable Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity

Authors: Tania Sharmin Khaleque, Mohammad Ferdows


The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity along a vertical plate with internal heat generation effect have been studied. The plate temperature is assumed to follow a power law of the distance from the leading edge. The resulting governing two-dimensional equations are transformed using suitable transformations and then solved numerically by using fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with a modified version of the Newton-Raphson shooting method. The effects of the various parameters such as variable viscosity parameter β_1, the thermal diffusivity parameter β_2, heat generation parameter c and the Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles, as well as the local skin- friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Our results suggested that the presence of internal heat generation leads to increase flow than that of without exponentially decaying heat generation term.

Keywords: free convection, heat generation, thermal diffusivity, variable viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
6287 Boundary Layer Flow of a Casson Nanofluid Past a Vertical Exponentially Stretching Cylinder in the Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: G. Sarojamma, K. Vendabai


An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic field and heat source on the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson nanofluid over a vertical cylinder stretching exponentially along its radial direction. Using a similarity transformation, the governing mathematical equations, with the boundary conditions are reduced to a system of coupled, non –linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting system is solved numerically by the fourth order Runge – Kutta scheme with shooting technique. The influence of various physical parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, magnetic field, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and the natural convection parameter are presented graphically and discussed for non – dimensional velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. Numerical data for the skin – friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number have been tabulated for various parametric conditions. It is found that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Brownian motion parameter Nb and the thermophoresis parameter Nt.

Keywords: casson nanofluid, boundary layer flow, internal heat generation/absorption, exponentially stretching cylinder, heat transfer, brownian motion, thermophoresis

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
6286 Investigation of Solar Concentrator Prototypes under Tunisian Conditions

Authors: Moncef Balghouthi, Mahmoud Ben Amara, Abdessalem Ben Hadj Ali, Amenallah Guizani


Concentrated solar power technology constitutes an interesting option to meet a part of future energy demand, especially when considering the high levels of solar radiation and clearness index that are available particularly in Tunisia. In this work, we present three experimental prototypes of solar concentrators installed in the research center of energy CRTEn in Tunisia. Two are medium temperature parabolic trough solar collector used to drive a cooling installation and for steam generation. The third is a parabolic dish concentrator used for hybrid generation of thermal and electric power. Optical and thermal evaluations were presented. Solutions and possibilities to construct locally the mirrors of the concentrator were discussed. In addition, the enhancement of the performances of the receivers by nano selective absorption coatings was studied. The improvement of heat transfer between the receiver and the heat transfer fluid was discussed for each application.

Keywords: solar concentrators, optical and thermal evaluations, cooling and process heat, hybrid thermal and electric generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
6285 Entropy Generation Analysis of Cylindrical Heat Pipe Using Nanofluid

Authors: Morteza Ghanbarpour, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh


In this study, second law of thermodynamic is employed to evaluate heat pipe thermal performance. In fact, nanofluids potential to decrease the entropy generation of cylindrical heat pipes are studied and the results are compared with experimental data. Some cylindrical copper heat pipes of 200 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based Al2O3 nanofluids with volume concentrations of 1-5% as working fluids. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to enhance heat transfer properties of the base liquids used in heat transfer application. When the working fluid undergoes between different states in heat pipe cycle the entropy is generated. Different sources of irreversibility in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle are investigated and nanofluid effect on each of these sources is studied. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that nanofluid is a good choice to minimize the entropy generation in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle which results in higher thermal performance and efficiency of the system.

Keywords: heat pipe, nanofluid, thermodynamics, entropy generation, thermal resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
6284 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper, a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Keywords: ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
6283 Working Fluids in Absorption Chillers: Investigation of the Use of Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: L. Cesari, D. Alonso, F. Mutelet


The interest in cold production has been on the increase in absorption chillers for many years. In fact, the absorption cycles replace the compressor and thus reduce electrical consumption. The devices also allow waste heat generated through industrial activities to be recovered and cooled to a moderate temperature in accordance with regulatory guidelines. Many working fluids were investigated but could not compete with the commonly used {H2O + LiBr} and {H2O + NH3} to author’s best knowledge. Yet, the corrosion, toxicity and crystallization phenomena of these mixtures prevent the development of the absorption technology. This work investigates the possible use of a glyceline deep eutectic solvent (DES) and CO2 as working fluid in an absorption chiller. To do so, good knowledge of the mixtures is required. Experimental measurements (vapor-liquid equilibria, density, and heat capacity) were performed to complete the data lacking in the literature. The performance of the mixtures was quantified by the calculation of the coefficient of performance (COP). The results show that working fluids containing DES + CO2 are an interesting alternative and lead to different trails of working mixtures for absorption and chiller.

Keywords: absorption devices, deep eutectic solvent, energy valorization, experimental data, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6282 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah


Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
6281 Simulation of Solar Assisted Absorption Cooling and Electricity Generation along with Thermal Storage

Authors: Faezeh Mosallat, Eric L. Bibeau, Tarek El Mekkawy


Availability of a wide variety of renewable resources, such as large reserves of hydro, biomass, solar and wind in Canada provides significant potential to improve the sustainability of energy uses. As buildings represent a considerable portion of energy use in Canada, application of distributed solar energy systems for heating and cooling may increase the amount of renewable energy use. Parabolic solar trough systems have seen limited deployments in cold northern climates as they are more suitable for electricity production in southern latitudes. Heat production by concentrating solar rays using parabolic troughs can overcome the poor efficiencies of flat panels and evacuated tubes in cold climates. A numerical dynamic model is developed to simulate an installed parabolic solar trough facility in Winnipeg. The results of the numerical model are validated using the experimental data obtained from this system. The model is developed in Simulink and will be utilized to simulate a tri-generation system for heating, cooling and electricity generation in remote northern communities. The main objective of this simulation is to obtain operational data of solar troughs in cold climates as this is lacking in the literature. In this paper, the validated Simulink model is applied to simulate a solar assisted absorption cooling system along with electricity generation using organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and thermal storage. A control strategy is employed to distribute the heated oil from solar collectors among the above three systems considering the temperature requirements. This modeling provides dynamic performance results using real time minutely meteorological data which are collected at the same location the solar system is installed. This is a big step ahead of the current models by accurately calculating the available solar energy at each time step considering the solar radiation fluctuations due to passing clouds. The solar absorption cooling is modeled to use the generated heat from the solar trough system and provide cooling in summer for a greenhouse which is located next to the solar field. A natural gas water heater provides the required excess heat for the absorption cooling at low or no solar radiation periods. The results of the simulation are presented for a summer month in Winnipeg which includes the amount of generated electric power from ORC and contribution of solar energy in the cooling load provision

Keywords: absorption cooling, parabolic solar trough, remote community, validated model

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
6280 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang


This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: entropy generation, exothermicity or endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
6279 Transient Hygrothermoelastic Behavior in an Infinite Annular Cylinder with Internal Heat Generation by Linear Dependence Theory of Coupled Heat and Moisture

Authors: Tasneem Firdous Islam, G. D. Kedar


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of internal heat generation in a transient infinitely long annular cylinder subjected to hygrothermal loadings. The linear dependence theory of moisture and temperature is derived based on Dufour and Soret effect. The meticulous solutions of temperature, moisture, and thermal stresses are procured by using the Hankel transform technique. The influence of the internal heat source on the radial aspect is examined for coupled and uncoupled cases. In the present study, the composite material T300/5208 is considered, and the coupled and uncoupled cases are analyzed. The results obtained are computed numerically and illustrated graphically.

Keywords: temperature, moisture, hygrothermoelasticity, internal heat generation, annular cylinder

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6278 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad


This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
6277 Generation Mechanism of Opto-Acoustic Wave from in vivo Imaging Agent

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The optoacoustic effect is the energy conversion phenomenon from light to sound. In recent years, this optoacoustic effect has been utilized for an imaging agent to visualize a tumor site in a living body. The optoacoustic imaging agent absorbs the light and emits the sound signal. The sound wave can propagate in a living organism with a small energy loss; therefore, the optoacoustic imaging method enables the molecular imaging of the deep inside of the body. In order to improve the imaging quality of the optoacoustic method, the more signal intensity is desired; however, it has been difficult to enhance the signal intensity of the optoacoustic imaging agent because the fundamental mechanism of the signal generation is unclear. This study deals with the mechanism to generate the sound wave signal from the optoacoustic imaging agent following the light absorption by experimental and theoretical approaches. The optoacoustic signal efficiency for the nano-particles consisting of metal and polymer were compared, and it was found that the polymer particle was better. The heat generation and transfer process for optoacoustic agents of metal and polymer were theoretically examined. It was found that heat generated in the metal particle rapidly transferred to the water medium, whereas the heat in the polymer particle was confined in itself. The confined heat in the small particle induces the massive volume expansion, resulting in the large optoacoustic signal for the polymeric particle agent. Thus, we showed that heat confinement is a crucial factor in designing the highly efficient optoacoustic imaging agent.

Keywords: nano-particle, opto-acoustic effect, in vivo imaging, molecular imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
6276 Heat Distribution Simulation on Transformer Using FEMM Software

Authors: N. K. Mohd Affendi, T. A. R. Tuan Abdullah, S. A. Syed Mustaffa


In power industry transformer is an important component and most of us familiar by the functioning principle of a transformer electrically. There are many losses occur during the operation of a transformer that causes heat generation. This heat, if not dissipated properly will reduce the lifetime and effectiveness of the transformer. Transformer cooling helps in maintaining the temperature rise of various paths. This paper proposed to minimize the ambient temperature of the transformer room in order to lower down the temperature of the transformer. A simulation has been made using finite element methods programs called FEMM (Finite Elements Method Magnetics) to create a virtual model based on actual measurement of a transformer. The generalization of the two-dimensional (2D) FEMM results proves that by minimizing the ambient temperature, the heat of the transformer is decreased. The modeling process and of the transformer heat flow has been presented.

Keywords: heat generation, temperature rise, ambient temperature, FEMM

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
6275 Precise Spatially Selective Photothermolysis Skin Treatment by Multiphoton Absorption

Authors: Yimei Huang, Harvey Lui, Jianhua Zhao, Zhenguo Wu, Haishan Zeng


Conventional laser treatment of skin diseases and cosmetic surgery is based on the principle of one-photon absorption selective photothermolysis which relies strongly on the difference in the light absorption between the therapeutic target and its surrounding tissue. However, when the difference in one-photon absorption is not sufficient, collateral damage would occur due to indiscriminate and nonspecific tissue heating. To overcome this problem, we developed a spatially selective photothermolysis method based on multiphoton absorption in which the heat generation is restricted to the focal point of a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam aligned with the target of interest. A multimodal optical microscope with co-registered reflectance confocal imaging (RCM), two-photon fluorescence imaging (TPF), and second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) capabilities was used to perform and monitor the spatially selective photothermolysis. Skin samples excised from the shaved backs of euthanized NODSCID mice were used in this study. Treatments were performed by focusing and scaning the laser beam in the dermis with a 50µm×50µm target area. Treatment power levels of 200 mW to 400 mW and modulated pulse trains of different duration and period were experimented. Different treatment parameters achieved different degrees of spatial confinement of tissue alterations as visualized by 3-D RCM/TPF/SHG imaging. At 200 mW power level, 0.1 s pulse train duration, 4.1 s pulse train period, the tissue damage was found to be restricted precisely to the 50µm×50µm×10µm volume, where the laser focus spot had scanned through. The overlying epidermis/dermis tissue and the underneath dermis tissue were intact although there was light passing through these regions.

Keywords: multiphoton absorption photothermolysis, reflectance confocal microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, spatially selective photothermolysis, two-photon fluorescence microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
6274 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
6273 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim


This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
6272 Temperature Fields in a Channel Partially-Filled by Porous Material with Internal Heat Generations: On Exact Solution

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi


The present work examines analytically the effect internal heat generation on temperature fields in a channel partially-filled with a porous under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The Darcy-Brinkman model is used to represent the fluid transport through the porous material. Two fundamental models (models A and B) represent the thermal boundary conditions at the interface between the porous medium and the clear region. The governing equations of the problem are manipulated, and for each interface model, exact solutions for the solid and fluid temperature fields are developed. These solutions incorporate the porous material thickness, Biot number, fluid to solid thermal conductivity ratio Darcy number, as the non-dimensional energy terms in fluid and solid as parameters. Results show that considering any of the two models and under zero or negative heat generation (heat sink) and for any Darcy number, an increase in the porous thickness increases the amount of heat flux transferred to the porous region. The obtained results are applicable to the analysis of complex porous media incorporating internal heat generation, such as heat transfer enhancement (THE), tumor ablation in biological tissues and porous radiant burners (PRBs).

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, heat transfer, exact solution, internal heat generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
6271 Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel

Authors: Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Nader R. Ammar


One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.

Keywords: ship emissions, IMO, lithium bromide-water ARU, analysis, thermodynamic, economic and environmental analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
6270 Gas Condensing Unit with Inner Heat Exchanger

Authors: Dagnija Blumberga, Toms Prodanuks, Ivars Veidenbergs, Andra Blumberga


Gas condensing units with inner tubes heat exchangers represent third generation technology and differ from second generation heat and mass transfer units, which are fulfilled by passive filling material layer. The first one improves heat and mass transfer by increasing cooled contact surface of gas and condensate drops and film formed in inner tubes heat exchanger. This paper presents a selection of significant factors which influence the heat and mass transfer. Experimental planning is based on the research and analysis of main three independent variables; velocity of water and gas as well as density of spraying. Empirical mathematical models show that the coefficient of heat transfer is used as dependent parameter which depends on two independent variables; water and gas velocity. Empirical model is proved by the use of experimental data of two independent gas condensing units in Lithuania and Russia. Experimental data are processed by the use of heat transfer criteria-Kirpichov number. Results allow drawing the graphical nomogram for the calculation of heat and mass transfer conditions in the innovative and energy efficient gas cooling unit.

Keywords: gas condensing unit, filling, inner heat exchanger, package, spraying, tunes

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
6269 The Experimental Measurement of the LiBr Concentration of a Solar Absorption Machine

Authors: N. Hatraf, L. Merabti, Z. Neffah, W. Taane


The excessive consumption of fossil energies (electrical energy) during summer caused by the technological development involves more and more climate warming. In order to reduce the worst impact of gas emissions produced from classical air conditioning, heat driven solar absorption chiller is pretty promising; it consists on using solar as motive energy which is clean and environmentally friendly to provide cold. Solar absorption machine is composed by four components using Lithium Bromide /water as a refrigerating couple. LiBr- water is the most promising in chiller applications due to high safety, high volatility ratio, high affinity, high stability and its high latent heat. The lithium bromide solution is constitute by the salt lithium bromide which absorbs water under certain conditions of pressure and temperature however if the concentration of the solution is high in the absorption chillers; which exceed 70%, the solution will crystallize. The main aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the crystallization and to evaluate how the dependence between the electric conductivity and the concentration which should be controlled.

Keywords: absorption, crystallization, experimental results, lithium bromide solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6268 Effect of Joule Heating on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over Truncated Cone with Convective Boundary Condition Using Spectral Quasilinearization Method

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chetteti


This work emphasizes the effects of heat generation/absorption and Joule heating on chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow over a truncated cone with convective boundary condition. For this complex fluid flow problem, the similarity solution does not exist and hence using non-similarity transformations, the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of non-dimensional partial differential equations. Several authors have applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The influence of pertinent parameters namely Biot number, Joule heating, heat generation/absorption, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, spectral quasilinearization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6267 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop


The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow, and a local heat generation within the boundary layer with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T_inf)^p. Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the shrinking/stretching parameter lambda, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value lambda_c whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorbtion (Q<0), the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameter Q and s, when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet

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6266 Numerical Study of Entropy Generation Due to Hybrid Nano-Fluid Flow through Coaxial Porous Disks

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Ameen, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The current investigation of two-dimensional hybrid nanofluid flows with two coaxial parallel disks has been presented. Consider the hybrid nanofluid has been taken as steady-state. Consider the coaxial disks that have been porous. Consider the heat equation to examine joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. Nonlinear partial differential equations have been solved numerically. For shear stress and heat transfer, results are tabulated. Hybrid nanoparticles and Eckert numbers are increasing for heat transfer. Entropy generation is expanded with radiation parameters Eckert, Reynold, Prandtl, and Peclet numbers. A set of ordinary differential equations is obtained to utilize the capable transformation variables. The numerical solution of the continuity, momentum, energy, and entropy generation equations is obtaining using the command bvp4c of Matlab as a solver. To explore the impact of main parameters like suction/infusion, Prandtl, Reynold, Eckert, Peclet number, and volume fraction parameters, various graphs have been plotted and examined. It is concluded that a convectional nanofluid is highly compared by entropy generation with the boundary layer of hybrid nanofluid.

Keywords: entropy generation, hybrid nano fluid, heat transfer, porous disks

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6265 Thermodynamic Cycle Using Cyclopentane for Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation from Clinker Cooler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Vijayakumar Kunche


Waste heat recovery from Pre Heater exhaust gases and Clinker cooler vent gases is now common place in Cement Industry. Most common practice is to use Steam Rankine cycle for heat to power conversion. In this process, waste heat from the flue gas is recovered through a Heat Recovery steam generator where steam is generated and fed to a conventional Steam turbine generator. However steam Rankine cycle tends to have lesser efficiency for smaller power plants with less than 5MW capacity and where the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is less than 350 deg C. further a steam Rankine cycle needs treated water and maintenance intensive. These problems can be overcome by using Thermodynamic cycle using Cyclopentane vapour in place of steam. This innovative cycle is best suited for Heat recovery in cement plants and results in best possible heat to power conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about Heat Recovery Power generation using innovative thermal cycle which uses Cyclopentane vapour in place of water- steam. And how this technology has been adopted for a Clinker cooler hot gas from mid-tap.

Keywords: clinker cooler, energy efficiency, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery

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6264 Comparison between Bernardi’s Equation and Heat Flux Sensor Measurement as Battery Heat Generation Estimation Method

Authors: Marlon Gallo, Eduardo Miguel, Laura Oca, Eneko Gonzalez, Unai Iraola


The heat generation of an energy storage system is an essential topic when designing a battery pack and its cooling system. Heat generation estimation is used together with thermal models to predict battery temperature in operation and adapt the design of the battery pack and the cooling system to these thermal needs guaranteeing its safety and correct operation. In the present work, a comparison between the use of a heat flux sensor (HFS) for indirect measurement of heat losses in a cell and the widely used and simplified version of Bernardi’s equation for estimation is presented. First, a Li-ion cell is thermally characterized with an HFS to measure the thermal parameters that are used in a first-order lumped thermal model. These parameters are the equivalent thermal capacity and the thermal equivalent resistance of a single Li-ion cell. Static (when no current is flowing through the cell) and dynamic (making current flow through the cell) tests are conducted in which HFS is used to measure heat between the cell and the ambient, so thermal capacity and resistances respectively can be calculated. An experimental platform records current, voltage, ambient temperature, surface temperature, and HFS output voltage. Second, an equivalent circuit model is built in a Matlab-Simulink environment. This allows the comparison between the generated heat predicted by Bernardi’s equation and the HFS measurements. Data post-processing is required to extrapolate the heat generation from the HFS measurements, as the sensor records the heat released to the ambient and not the one generated within the cell. Finally, the cell temperature evolution is estimated with the lumped thermal model (using both HFS and Bernardi’s equation total heat generation) and compared towards experimental temperature data (measured with a T-type thermocouple). At the end of this work, a critical review of the results obtained and the possible mismatch reasons are reported. The results show that indirectly measuring the heat generation with HFS gives a more precise estimation than Bernardi’s simplified equation. On the one hand, when using Bernardi’s simplified equation, estimated heat generation differs from cell temperature measurements during charges at high current rates. Additionally, for low capacity cells where a small change in capacity has a great influence on the terminal voltage, the estimated heat generation shows high dependency on the State of Charge (SoC) estimation, and therefore open circuit voltage calculation (as it is SoC dependent). On the other hand, with indirect measuring the heat generation with HFS, the resulting error is a maximum of 0.28ºC in the temperature prediction, in contrast with 1.38ºC with Bernardi’s simplified equation. This illustrates the limitations of Bernardi’s simplified equation for applications where precise heat monitoring is required. For higher current rates, Bernardi’s equation estimates more heat generation and consequently, a higher predicted temperature. Bernardi´s equation accounts for no losses after cutting the charging or discharging current. However, HFS measurement shows that after cutting the current the cell continues generating heat for some time, increasing the error of Bernardi´s equation.

Keywords: lithium-ion battery, heat flux sensor, heat generation, thermal characterization

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