Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: B. Chatterjee

45 Criminal Justice System, Health and Imprisonment in India

Authors: Debolina Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee

Abstract:

Imprisonment is an expansive concept, as it is regulated by laws under criminal justice system of the state. The state sets principles of punishment to control offenders and also puts limits to excess punitive control. One significant way through which it exercises control is through rules governing healthcare of imprisoned population. Prisons signify specialized settings which accommodate both medical and legal concerns. The provision of care operates within the institutional paradigm of punishment. This requires the state to negotiate adequately between goals of punishment and fulfilment of basic human rights of offenders. The present study is based on a critical analysis of prison healthcare standards in India, which include government policies and guidelines. It also demonstrates how healthcare is delivered by drawing insights from a primary study conducted in a correctional home in the state of West Bengal, India, which houses both male and female inmates. Forty women were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, followed by focus group discussions. Doctors and administrative personnel were also interviewed. Findings show how institutional practices control women through subversion of the role of doctors to prison administration. Also, poor healthcare infrastructure, unavailability of specialized services, hierarchies between personnel and inmates make prisons unlikely sites for therapeutic intervention. The paper further discusses how institutional practices foster gender-based discriminatory practices.

Keywords: imprisonment, Indian prisons, prison healthcare, punishment

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44 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

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43 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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42 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Abhijit Chatterjee, Aishwaryaprajna

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Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem.

Keywords: geometric programming problem, multivariate optimisation technique, posynomial, spatial interpolation

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41 SFE as a Superior Technique for Extraction of Eugenol-Rich Fraction from Cinnamomum tamala Nees (Bay Leaf) - Process Analysis and Phytochemical Characterization

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Dipanwita Roy, Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Satadal Das

Abstract:

Highest yield of eugenol-rich fractions from Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) leaves were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), compared to hydro-distillation, organic solvents, liquid CO2 and subcritical CO2 extractions. Optimization of SC-CO2 extraction parameters was carried out to obtain an extract with maximum eugenol content. This was achieved using a sample size of 10 g at 55°C, 512 bar after 60 min at a flow rate of 25.0 cm3/sof gaseous CO2. This extract has the best combination of phytochemical properties such as phenolic content (1.77 mg gallic acid/g dry bay leaf), reducing power (0.80 mg BHT/g dry bay leaf), antioxidant activity (IC50 of 0.20 mg/ml) and anti-inflammatory potency (IC50 of 1.89 mg/ml). Identification of compounds in this extract was performed by GC-MS analysis and its antimicrobial potency was also evaluated. The MIC values against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were 0.5, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial potency, Cinnamomum tamala, eugenol, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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40 PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India

Authors: Toushik Maiti, Saibal Chatterjee, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Arijit Basuray

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Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.

Keywords: HVDC, load flow, PSS®E, unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults

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39 Interaction Issues at Patan Stepwell in Western India

Authors: Shekhar Chatterjee

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Architectural marvels of the Patan stepwell in Gujarat state in India were studied, to look into the cultural and design attributes in them. Direct observation, photography and interviewing the local people (especially senior citizens) were the methodology adopted. The aim was to look for clues into how culture and design affected architectural marvels of a building and convey that to the tourists. These interpretations from this building can offer many ideas to the contemporary design world in the form of design of modern day garments for various occasions, ornaments or accessory products for daily usage like bags, shoes and similar products. These monuments currently lack proper information system for guiding a tourist. Absence of any qualified tourist guides at the site compounds the problem further. This project investigates the feasibility of making the space more interactive for the tourist through proper digital information design and installations at places. Along with this, illumination and sound are also being used to narrate the history of these ancient monuments so that tourists get a flavor of the medieval past. Most importantly, all these digital interventions are low cost and done with easily available throw-away materials and can be replicated for other monuments as well.

Keywords: interaction, well, building, context

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38 Study of Transformer and Motor Winding under Pulsed Power Application

Authors: Arijit Basuray, Saibal Chatterjee

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Pulsed Power in the form of Recurrent Surge Generator (RSG) can be used for testing various parameters of Motor or Transformer windings including inter-turn, interlayer insulation. Windings with solid insulation in motor and transformer have many interfaces and undesirable defects, and these defects can be exposed under this nondestructive testing methodology. Due to rapid development in power electronics variable frequency drives (VFD), Dry Type or cast resin Transformer used with PWM Sine wave inverters for solar power, solid insulation system used nowadays are shifting more and more to a high-frequency application. Authors have used the recurrent surge generator for testing winding integrity as well as Partial Discharge(PD) at fast rising voltage enabling PD measurement at closer situation under which the insulation system is supposed to work. Authors have discussed test results on a different system with recurrent surge voltages of different rise time.

Keywords: fast rising voltage, partial discharge, pulsed power, recurrent surge generator, solid insulation

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37 Schematic Study of Groundwater Potential Zones in Granitic Terrain Using Remotesensing and GIS Techniques, in Miyapur and Bollaram Areas of Hyderabad, India

Authors: Ishrath, Tapas Kumar Chatterjee

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The present study aims developing interpretation and evaluation to integrate various data types for management of existing water resources for sustainable use. Proper study should be followed based on the geomorphology of the area. Thematic maps such as lithology, base map, land use/land cover, geomorphology, drainage and lineaments maps are prepared to study the area by using area toposheet, IRS P6 and LISIII Satellite imagery. These thematic layers are finally integrated by using Arc GIS, Arc View, and software to prepare a ground water potential zones map of the study area. In this study, an integrated approach involving remote sensing and GIS techniques has successfully been used in identifying groundwater potential zones in the study area to classify them as good, moderate and poor. It has been observed that Pediplain shallow (PPS) has good recharge, Pediplain moderate (PPM) has moderately good recharge, Pediment Inselberg complex (PIC) has poor recharge and Inselberg (I) has no recharge. The study has concluded that remote sensing and GIS techniques are very efficient and useful for identifying ground water potential zones.

Keywords: satellite remote sensing, GIS, ground water potential zones, Miyapur

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36 Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS6 promoter

Authors: Indranil Mondal, Debjyoti Bhakat, Asish Kumar mukhophadhyay, Nabendu Sekhar Chatterjee

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CS6 is the prevalent CF in our region and deciphering its molecular regulators would play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of ETEC pathogenesis. In prokaryotes, most of the genes are under the control of one operon and the promoter present upstream of the gene regulates the transcription of that gene. Here the promoter of CS6 had been characterized by computational method and further analyzed by β-galactosidase assay and sequencing. Promoter constructs and deletions were prepared as required to analyze promoter activity. The effect of different additives on CS6 promoters was analyzed by the β-galactosidase assay. Bioinformatic analysis done by Softberry/BPROM predicted fur, lrp, and crp boxes, -10 and -35 region upstream of CS6 gene. The promoter construction in no promoter plasmid pTL61T showed that region -573 to +1 is actually the promoter region as predicted. Sequential deletion of the region upstream of CS6 revealed that promoter activity remains the same when -573bp to -350bp deleted. But after the deletion of upstream region -350 bp to -255bp, promoter expression decreases drastically to 26%. Further deletion also decreases promoter activity up to a little range. So the region -355bp to -255bp holds the promoter sequence for the CS6 gene. Additives like iron, NaCl, etc., modulates promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. From the promoter analysis, it can be said that the minimum region lies between -254 and +1. Important region(s) lies between -350 bp to -255 bp upstream in the promoter, which might have important elements needed to control CS6 gene expression.

Keywords: microbiology, promoter, colonization factor, ETEC

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35 Accurate Cortical Reconstruction in Narrow Sulci with Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) Vector Field

Authors: Somojit Saha, Rohit K. Chatterjee, Sarit K. Das, Avijit Kar

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A new force field is designed for propagation of the parametric contour into deep narrow cortical fold in the application of knowledge based reconstruction of cerebral cortex from MR image of brain. Designing of this force field is highly inspired by the Generalized Gradient Vector Flow (GGVF) model and markedly differs in manipulation of image information in order to determine the direction of propagation of the contour. While GGVF uses edge map as its main driving force, the newly designed force field uses the map of distance between zero valued pixels and their nearest non-zero valued pixel as its main driving force. Hence, it is called Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) force field. The objective of this force field is forceful propagation of the contour beyond spurious convergence due to partial volume effect (PVE) in to narrow sulcal fold. Being function of the corresponding non-zero pixel value, the force field has got an inherent property to determine spuriousness of the edge automatically. It is effectively applied along with some morphological processing in the application of cortical reconstruction to breach the hindrance of PVE in narrow sulci where conventional GGVF fails.

Keywords: deformable model, external force field, partial volume effect, cortical reconstruction, MR image of brain

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34 Effectiveness of Physiotherapy in Hand Dysfunction of Leukemia Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Graft versus Host Disease Post Bone Marrow Transplant

Authors: Mohua Chatterjee, Rajib De

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Introduction: Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is often performed to treat patients with various types of leukemia. A majority of these patients develop complications like chronic musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT where patients get scleroderma, pain and restricted range of motion of joints of hand. If not treated early, it may cause permanent deformity of hand. This study was done to find the effectiveness of physiotherapy in hand dysfunction caused due to chronic musculoskeletal GVHD of leukemia patients after BMT. Methodology: 23 patients diagnosed with leukemia and having musculoskeletal GVHD were treated with a set of exercises including active exercises and stretching. The outcome was measured by Cochin Hand Function Scale (CHFS) at baseline and after four weeks of intervention. Results: Two patients were not able to carry out exercises beyond two weeks due to relapse of disease and one patient defaulted. It was found that all the patients who received physiotherapy had significant improvement in hand function. Mean CHFS decreased from 63.67 to 27.43 (P value < 0.001) indicating improvement in hand function after four weeks of physiotherapy. Conclusion: Early intervention of physiotherapy is effective in reducing hand dysfunction of leukemia patients with musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT.

Keywords: bone marrow transplant, hand dysfunction, leukemia, musculoskeletal graft versus host disease, physiotherapy

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33 The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Gross Domestic Product under Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries

Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee

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This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver (Ruščáková and Semančíková, 2016). According to Bouakez, (2014 ) different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study (Canh, 2018). Also, according to scholars, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. First, through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. Second, through the deterioration of foreign investors and fiscal policies related to a high level of debt (Cordella, et.al., 2010). Therefore, this study proposed that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors, which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.

Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countries

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32 Effect of Sr-Doping on Multiferroic Properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂

Authors: Parul Jain, Jitendra Saha, L. C. Gupta, Satyabrata Patnaik, Ashok K. Ganguli, Ratnamala Chatterjee

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This study shows how sensitively and drastically multiferroic properties of CaMn₇O₁₂ get modified by isovalent Sr-doping, namely, in Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ for x as small as 0.01 and 0.02. CaMn₇O₁₂ is a type-II multiferroic, wherein polarization is caused by magnetic spin ordering. In this report magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are investigated. Samples were prepared by wet sol gel technique using their respective nitrates; powders thus obtained were calcined and sintered in optimized conditions. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples doped with Sr concentrations in the range (0 ≤ x ≤ 10%) were found to be free from secondary phases. Magnetization versus temperature and magnetization versus field measurements were carried out using Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. Pyroelectric current measurements were done for finding the polarization in the samples. Findings of the measurements are: (i) increase of Sr-doping in CaMn₇O₁₂ lattice i.e. for x ≤ 0.02, increases the polarization, whereas decreases the magnetization and the coercivity of the samples; (ii) the material with x = 0.02 exhibits ferroelectric polarization Ps which is more than double the Ps in the un-doped material and the magnetization M is reduced to less than half of that of the pure material; remarkably (iii) the modifications in Ps and M are reversed as x increases beyond x = 0.02 and for x = 0.10, Ps is reduced even below that for the pure sample; (iv) there is no visible change of the two magnetic transitions TN1 (90 K) and TN2 (48 K) of the pure material as a function of x. The strong simultaneous variations of Ps and M for x = 0.02 strongly suggest that either a basic modification of the magnetic structure of the material or a significant change of the coupling of P and M or possibly both.

Keywords: ferroelectric, isovalent, multiferroic, polarization, pyroelectric

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31 Procedural Protocol for Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) Inversion

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S. Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar, V. C. Vani, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Susama Rani Mandal, R. Lakshmy

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The dual energy computed tomography (DECT) aims at noting the HU(V) values for the sample at two different voltages V=V1, V2 and thus obtain the electron densities (ρe) and effective atomic number (Zeff) of the substance. In the present paper, we aim to obtain a numerical algorithm by which (ρe, Zeff) can be obtained from the HU(100) and HU(140) data, where V=100, 140 kVp. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques.With the idea to develop the inversion algorithm for low Zeff materials, as is the case with non calcified coronary artery plaque, we prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρe, Zeff) lie in the range (2.65×1023≤ ρe≤ 3.64×1023 per cc ) and (6.80≤ Zeff ≤ 8.90). We fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(100) and HU(140) for the same pixels. Knowing that the HU(V) values are related to the attenuation coefficient of the system, we present an algorithm by which the (ρe, Zeff) is calibrated with respect to (HU(100), HU(140)). The calibration is done with a known set of 20 samples; its accuracy is checked with a different set of 23 known samples. We find that the calibration gives the ρe with an accuracy of ± 4% while Zeff is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%.In this inversion method (ρe, Zeff) of the scanned sample can be found by eliminating the effects of the CT machine and also by ensuring that the determination of the two unknowns (ρe, Zeff) does not interfere with each other. It is found that this algorithm can be used for prediction of chemical characteristic (ρe, Zeff) of unknown scanned materials with 95% confidence level, by inversion of the DECT data.

Keywords: chemical composition, dual-energy computed tomography, inversion algorithm

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30 Family Caregivers' Burden in Providing Care to the Hospitalized Elderly: Findings from Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee

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Family caregivers are vital in providing physical and emotional care to the aged. Providing care to aged involves physical as well as psycho-socio-economic challenges, compels the caregiver to fit in manifold roles, feel overburdened; which in turn requires them to change their priorities in life. The study conducted on family caregivers of the hospitalized elderly explores caregiver’s burden using Zarit Burden Scale (ZBS). The data has been collected from two randomly selected Multispecialty Hospitals in Kolkata (India), after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board of both the hospitals. The predictors of burden were also assessed using interview schedules. Among fifty-seven caregivers who participated in the study, caregiver’s burden was identified among thirty respondents with twenty-six having mild to moderate burden and four having moderate to severe burden. Majority of the caregivers were found to be female, reflecting the gendered nature of caregiving. Family caregivers spent more than six hours per day on caregiving, which severely disturbed their work-life including loss of job. The study revealed that the caregivers’ marital status, family structure, academic qualification, occupation and time spent on caregiving are related to family caregivers’ burden. The burden of care giving was accentuated by poor access to information, counseling, and lack of supportive services. The paper concludes by indicating the need for greater state interventions for caregivers.

Keywords: caregivers burden, family caregiving, hospitalized elderly, elderly in Kolkata, India, Zarit Burden Scale

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29 Spatial and Geostatistical Analysis of Surficial Soils of the Contiguous United States

Authors: Rachel Hetherington, Chad Deering, Ann Maclean, Snehamoy Chatterjee

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The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a soil survey and subsequent mineralogical and geochemical analyses of over 4800 samples taken across the contiguous United States between the years 2007 and 2013. At each location, samples were taken from the top 5 cm, the A-horizon, and the C-horizon. Many studies have looked at the correlation between the mineralogical and geochemical content of soils and influencing factors such as parent lithology, climate, soil type, and age, but it seems little has been done in relation to quantifying and assessing the correlation between elements in the soil on a national scale. GIS was used for the mapping and multivariate interpolation of over 40 major and trace elements for surficial soils (0-5 cm depth). Qualitative analysis of the spatial distribution across the U.S. shows distinct patterns amongst elements both within the same periodic groups and within different periodic groups, and therefore with different behavioural characteristics. Results show the emergence of 4 main patterns of high concentration areas: vertically along the west coast, a C-shape formed through the states around Utah and northern Arizona, a V-shape through the Midwest and connecting to the Appalachians, and along the Appalachians. The Band Collection Statistics tool in GIS was used to quantitatively analyse the geochemical raster datasets and calculate a correlation matrix. Patterns emerged, which were not identified in qualitative analysis, many of which are also amongst elements with very different characteristics. Preliminary results show 41 element pairings with a strong positive correlation ( ≥ 0.75). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses on this scale could increase knowledge on the relationships between element distribution and behaviour in surficial soils of the U.S.

Keywords: correlation matrix, geochemical analyses, spatial distribution of elements, surficial soils

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28 Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Meena, Tanushree Chatterjee

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Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.

Keywords: Okra, yellow vein mosaic virus, resistant, linkage map, QTLs

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27 Characterization and Monitoring of the Yarn Faults Using Diametric Fault System

Authors: S. M. Ishtiaque, V. K. Yadav, S. D. Joshi, J. K. Chatterjee

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The DIAMETRIC FAULTS system has been developed that captures a bi-directional image of yarn continuously in sequentially manner and provides the detailed classification of faults. A novel mathematical framework developed on the acquired bi-directional images forms the basis of fault classification in four broad categories, namely, Thick1, Thick2, Thin and Normal Yarn. A discretised version of Radon transformation has been used to convert the bi-directional images into one-dimensional signals. Images were divided into training and test sample sets. Karhunen–Loève Transformation (KLT) basis is computed for the signals from the images in training set for each fault class taking top six highest energy eigen vectors. The fault class of the test image is identified by taking the Euclidean distance of its signal from its projection on the KLT basis for each sample realization and fault class in the training set. Euclidean distance applied using various techniques is used for classifying an unknown fault class. An accuracy of about 90% is achieved in detecting the correct fault class using the various techniques. The four broad fault classes were further sub classified in four sub groups based on the user set boundary limits for fault length and fault volume. The fault cross-sectional area and the fault length defines the total volume of fault. A distinct distribution of faults is found in terms of their volume and physical dimensions which can be used for monitoring the yarn faults. It has been shown from the configurational based characterization and classification that the spun yarn faults arising out of mass variation, exhibit distinct characteristics in terms of their contours, sizes and shapes apart from their frequency of occurrences.

Keywords: Euclidean distance, fault classification, KLT, Radon Transform

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26 Understanding the Prevalence and Expression of Virulence Factors Harbored by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Debjyoti Bhakat, Indranil Mondal, Asish K. Mukhopadayay, Nabendu S. Chatterjee

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. Colonization factors play an important role in pathogenesis and are one of the main targets for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development. However, ETEC vaccines had poorly performed in the past, as the prevalence of colonization factors is region-dependent. There are more than 25 classical colonization factors presently known to be expressed by ETEC, although all are not expressed together. Further, there are other multiple non-classical virulence factors that are also identified. Here the presence and expression of common classical and non-classical virulence factors were studied. Further studies were done on the expression of prevalent colonization factors in different strains. For the prevalence determination, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed, which was confirmed by simplex PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to study the RNA expression of these virulence factors. Strains negative for colonization factors expression were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Among the clinical isolates, the most prevalent toxin was est+elt, followed by est and elt, while the pattern was reversed in the control strains. There were 29% and 40% strains negative for any classical colonization factors (CF) or non-classical virulence factors (NCVF) among the clinical and control strains, respectively. Among CF positive ETEC strains, CS6 and CS21 were the prevalent ones in the clinical strains, whereas in control strains, CS6 was the predominant one. For NCVF genes, eatA was the most prevalent among the clinical isolates and etpA for control. CS6 was the most expressed CF, and eatA was the predominantly expressed NCVF for both clinical and controlled ETEC isolates. CS6 expression was more in strains having CS6 alone. Different strains express CS6 at different levels. Not all strains expressed their respective virulence factors. Understanding the prevalent colonization factor, CS6, and its nature of expression will contribute to designing an effective vaccine against ETEC in this region of the globe. The expression pattern of CS6 also will help in examining the relatedness between the ETEC subtypes.

Keywords: classical virulence factors, CS6, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, expression, non-classical virulence factors

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25 Exploring Elder Care in Different Settings in West Bengal: A Psycho-Social Study of Private Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita C. Chatterjee

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West Bengal, one of the most rapidly ageing states in India, has inadequate structure for elder care. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve elder care which involves focusing on different care settings where the elderly exists, like - Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care facilities (e.g. - Old Age Homes, Hospices). The study explores various elder care settings, with the intention to develop an understanding about them, and thereby generate comprehensive information about the entire spectrum of elder care in Kolkata. Empirical data are collected from the elderly and their caregivers in different settings. The tools for data collection are narratives, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, along with field observations. Mixed method design is adopted to analyze the complexities of elder care in different set ups. The major challenges of elder care in private Homes are: architecturally inadequate housing conditions, paucity of financial support and scarcity of skilled caregivers. While the key factors preventing the Hospital and Long-Term Care Facilities from providing elder care services are inadequate policies and set governmental standards for elder care for the hospitalized elderly in various departments of the Hospital and the elderly residing in different kinds of Long Term Care Facilities. The limitations in each care setting results in considerable neglect and abuse of the elderly. The major challenges in elder care in West Bengal are lack of continuum between different care settings/ peripheral location of private Homes within public health framework and inadequate state Palliative policy- including narcotic regulations. The study suggests remedial measures to improve the capacity to deliver elder care in different settings.

Keywords: elder care settings, family caregiver, home care, geriatric hospital care, long term care facility

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24 How to Incorporate Vernacular Architecture into Practice for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from Kashmir and Kerala, India

Authors: Debanjana Chatterjee

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Vernacular settlements in India often take the form that is dictated by the climate they are in. India, with its vast cultural diversity and various climatic regions, offers a wide range of vernacular architecture. This paper focuses on two main geographical regions: Kashmir and Kerala. They bring together myriad challenges of climatic and social characteristics to incorporate into their vernacular architectures, which are still relevant despite the advent of globalization and modernization. Scholars like William Wurster and Catherine Bauer even claimed that all the traditional buildings in these places have the kind of urbanity, which is dignified and elegant but also lively and human that every architect would like to achieve if they knew how. With modernization, and with a greater ease of construction, a reduction in labor, and the apparent robustness of contemporary construction techniques, people have, however, become increasingly tentative in respect of vernacular architecture. And yet modern architecture has typically led to energize intensive structures without much consideration to the location and surroundings of the structure itself. In contrary, Laurie Baker, the British-born Indian architect, had shown us the way to integrate the knowledge of vernacular when he developed his designs based on the traditional architecture of Kerala, respecting the local climate and environment. This paper also explores his technical creativity in his design of Center for Development Studies (CDS) in Trivandrum. Hence, in order to protect and conserve our rich cultural and architectural heritage, the elements of vernacular should be incorporated into the contemporary planning and architecture for sustainable building design. The provision should be made to incorporate vernacular architecture and traditional knowledge in the policies. Ultimately, the policymakers, planners, and architects should consider this incorporation of traditional vernacular and contemporary sustainability in their work for the betterment of society now.

Keywords: vernacular, architecture, sustainable development, Kashmir and Kerala, climate, Laurie Baker

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23 Cross-Cultural Study of Stroop Interference among Juvenile Delinquents

Authors: Tanusree Moitra, Garga Chatterjee, Diganta Mukherjee, Anjali Ghosh

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Stroop task is considered to be an important measure of selective attention. However, the color – word Stroop task cannot be administered to the illiterate population. Some of the participants in the present study are illiterate, therefore, object – color Stroop task was used among male juvenile delinquents of India and Bangladesh citizenship (IC & BC), housed in delinquent home in India. The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that over - selective attention is present among juvenile delinquents across both the countries. Eighty juvenile delinquents and matched control of 12 – 18 years (50 IC juvenile delinquents, 30 BC juvenile delinquents and 50 Indian control) were shown 24 familiar objects in both typical (e.g. a red apple) and atypical (e.g. a blue apple) color. Repeated – measure factorial ANOVA was used and it was found that all the three groups have taken longer response time in the atypical condition compared to the typical condition. However, contrary to the over - selective attention hypothesis, both groups of juvenile delinquents displayed higher Stroop interference in comparison to the matched control group. The findings of the study can be explained on the basis of anxiety score. IC and BC juvenile delinquents have high anxiety score compared to the control group which indicates that increased anxiety is correlated with the interference produced by the atypical color object stimuli when compared with the typical object stimuli. Funding acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for financial support to the first author of the paper vide Reference no. SR/CSRI/PDF -01/2013 under Cognitive Science Research Initiative (CSRI) to carry out this work.

Keywords: Bangladesh, India, male juvenile delinquent, objects - color Stroop task

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22 Vascular Crossed Aphasia in Dextrals: A Study on Bengali-Speaking Population in Eastern India

Authors: Durjoy Lahiri, Vishal Madhukar Sawale, Ashwani Bhat, Souvik Dubey, Gautam Das, Biman Kanti Roy, Suparna Chatterjee, Goutam Gangopadhyay

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Crossed aphasia has been an area of considerable interest for cognitive researchers as it offers a fascinating insight into cerebral lateralization for language function. We conducted an observational study in the stroke unit of a tertiary care neurology teaching hospital in eastern India on subjects with crossed aphasia over a period of four years. During the study period, we detected twelve cases of crossed aphasia in strongly right-handed patients, caused by ischemic stroke. The age, gender, vernacular language and educational status of the patients were noted. Aphasia type and severity were assessed using Bengali version of Western Aphasia Battery (validated). Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were used to evaluate the location and extent of the ischemic lesion in brain. Our series of 12 cases of crossed aphasia included 7 male and 5 female with mean age being 58.6 years. Eight patients were found to have Broca’s aphasia, 3 had trans-cortical motor aphasia and 1 patient suffered from global aphasia. Nine patients were having very severe aphasia and 3 suffered from mild aphasia. Mirror-image type of crossed aphasia was found in 3 patients, whereas 9 had anomalous variety. In our study crossed aphasia was found to be more frequent in males. Anomalous pattern was more common than mirror-image. Majority of the patients had motor-type aphasia and no patient was found to have pure comprehension deficit. We hypothesize that in Bengali-speaking right-handed population, lexical-semantic system of the language network remains loyal to the left hemisphere even if the phonological output system is anomalously located in the right hemisphere.

Keywords: aphasia, crossed, lateralization, language function, vascular

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21 Magneto-Transport of Single Molecular Transistor Using Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model

Authors: Manasa Kalla, Narasimha Raju Chebrolu, Ashok Chatterjee

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We have studied the quantum transport properties of a single molecular transistor in the presence of an external magnetic field using the Keldysh Green function technique. We also used the Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model to describe the single molecular transistor that consists of a molecular quantum dot (QD) coupled to two metallic leads and placed on a substrate that acts as a heat bath. The phonons are eliminated by the Lang-Firsov transformation and the effective Hamiltonian is used to study the effect of an external magnetic field on the spectral density function, Tunneling Current, Differential Conductance and Spin polarization. A peak in the spectral function corresponds to a possible excitation. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin-up and spin-down states are degenerate and this degeneracy is lifted by the magnetic field leading to the splitting of the central peak of the spectral function. The tunneling current decreases with increasing magnetic field. We have observed that even the differential conductance peak in the zero magnetic field curve is split in the presence electron-phonon interaction. As the magnetic field is increased, each peak splits into two peaks. And each peak indicates the existence of an energy level. Thus the number of energy levels for transport in the bias window increases with the magnetic field. In the presence of the electron-phonon interaction, Differential Conductance in general gets reduced and decreases faster with the magnetic field. As magnetic field strength increases, the spin polarization of the current is increasing. Our results show that a strongly interacting QD coupled to metallic leads in the presence of external magnetic field parallel to the plane of QD acts as a spin filter at zero temperature.

Keywords: Anderson-Holstein model, Caldeira-Leggett model, spin-polarization, quantum dots

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20 Designing a Crowbar for Women: An Ergonomic Approach

Authors: Prakash Chandra Dhara, Rupa Maity, Mousumi Chatterjee

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Crowbars are used for the gardening purpose. The same tools are used by both male and female gardeners. The existing crowbars are suitable for the female gardeners. The present study was aimed to design a crowbar, which was required to use by the women for the gardening purpose, from the viewpoints of ergonomics. The study was carried out on 50 women in different villages of Howrah districts in West Bengal state. Different models of existing crowbars which were commonly used by the women were collected and evaluated by examining their shape and size. The problems of using existing crowbar were assessed by direct observation during its operation. The musculoskeletal disorder of the subjects for using the crowbar was evaluated by modified Nordic questionnaire method. The anthropometric dimensions, especially hand dimension, of the subjects were taken in standardized static conditions. Considering the problems of using the existing crowbars some design concepts were developed and accordingly three prototypes models (P1, P2, P3) of crowbar were prepared for designing of a modified crowbar for women. Psychophysical analysis of those prototypes was made by paired comparison tests. In the above test subjective preference for different characteristics of the crowbar, e.g., length, weight, length and breadth of the blade, handle diameter, position of the handle, were determined. From the results of the paired comparison test and percentile values of hand dimensions, a modified design of crowbar was suggested. The prototype model P1 possessed more preferred characteristics of the tool than that of other prototype models. In the final design, the weight of the tool and length of the blade was reduced from that of the existing crowbar. Other dimensions were also changed. Two handles were suggested in the redesigned tool for better gripping and operation. The modified crowbar was evaluated by studying the body joint angles, viz., wrist, shoulder and elbow, for assessing the suitability of the design. It was concluded that the redesigned crowbar was suitable for women’s use.

Keywords: body dimension, crowbar, ergo-design, women, hand anthropometry

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19 Monitoring Peri-Urban Growth and Land Use Dynamics with GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of Burdwan City, India

Authors: Mohammad Arif, Soumen Chatterjee, Krishnendu Gupta

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The peri-urban interface is an area of transition where the urban and rural areas meet and interact. So the peri-urban areas, which is characterized by strong urban influence, easy access to markets, services and other inputs, are ready supplies of labour but distant from the land paucity and pollution related to urban growth. Hence, the present study is primarily aimed at quantifying the spatio-temporal pattern of land use/land cover change during the last three decades (i.e., 1987 to 2016) in the peri-urban area of Burdwan city. In the recent past, the morphology of the study region has rapid change due to high growth of population and establishment of industries. The change has predominantly taken place along the State and National Highway 2 (NH-2) and around the Burdwan Municipality for meeting both residential and commercial purposes. To ascertain the degree of change in land use and land cover, over the specified time, satellite imageries and topographical sheets are employed. The data is processed through appropriate software packages to arrive at a deduction that most of the land use changes have occurred by obliterating agricultural land & water bodies and substituting them by built area and industrial spaces. Geospatial analysis of study area showed that this area has experienced a steep increase (30%) of built-up areas and excessive decrease (15%) in croplands between 1987 and 2016. Increase in built-up areas is attributed to the increase of out-migration during this period from the core city. This study also examined social, economic and institutional factors that lead to this rapid land use change in peri-urban areas of the Burdwan city by carrying out a field survey of 250 households in peri-urban areas. The research concludes with an urgency for regulating land subdivisions in peri-urban areas to prevent haphazard land use development. It is expected that the findings of the study would go a long way in facilitating better policy making.

Keywords: growth, land use land cover, morphology, peri-urban, policy making

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18 Customer Segmentation Revisited: The Case of the E-Tailing Industry in Emerging Market

Authors: Sanjeev Prasher, T. Sai Vijay, Chandan Parsad, Abhishek Banerjee, Sahakari Nikhil Krishna, Subham Chatterjee

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With rapid rise in internet retailing, the industry is set for a major implosion. Due to the little difference among competitors, companies find it difficult to segment and target the right shoppers. The objective of the study is to segment Indian online shoppers on the basis of the factors – website characteristics and shopping values. Together, these cover extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect shoppers as they visit web retailers. Data were collected using questionnaire from 319 Indian online shoppers, and factor analysis was used to confirm the factors influencing the shoppers in their selection of web portals. Thereafter, cluster analysis was applied, and different segments of shoppers were identified. The relationship between income groups and online shoppers’ segments was tracked using correspondence analysis. Significant findings from the study include that web entertainment and informativeness together contribute more than fifty percent of the total influence on the web shoppers. Contrary to general perception that shoppers seek utilitarian leverages, the present study highlights the preference for fun, excitement, and entertainment during browsing of the website. Four segments namely Information Seekers, Utility Seekers, Value Seekers and Core Shoppers were identified and profiled. Value seekers emerged to be the most dominant segment with two-fifth of the respondents falling for hedonic as well as utilitarian shopping values. With overlap among the segments, utilitarian shopping value garnered prominence with more than fifty-eight percent of the total respondents. Moreover, a strong relation has been established between the income levels and the segments of Indian online shoppers. Web shoppers show different motives from being utility seekers to information seekers, core shoppers and finally value seekers as income levels increase. Companies can strategically use this information for target marketing and align their web portals accordingly. This study can further be used to develop models revolving around satisfaction, trust and customer loyalty.

Keywords: online shopping, shopping values, effectiveness of information content, web informativeness, web entertainment, information seekers, utility seekers, value seekers, core shoppers

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17 Dependence of the Photoelectric Exponent on the Source Spectrum of the CT

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, V. C. Vani, Suresh Perumal, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar

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X-ray attenuation coefficient [µ(E)] of any substance, for energy (E), is a sum of the contributions from the Compton scattering [ μCom(E)] and photoelectric effect [µPh(E)]. In terms of the, electron density (ρe) and the effective atomic number (Zeff) we have µCom(E) is proportional to [(ρe)fKN(E)] while µPh(E) is proportional to [(ρeZeffx)/Ey] with fKN(E) being the Klein-Nishina formula, with x and y being the exponents for photoelectric effect. By taking the sample's HU at two different excitation voltages (V=V1, V2) of the CT machine, we can solve for X=ρe, Y=ρeZeffx from these two independent equations, as is attempted in DECT inversion. Since µCom(E) and µPh(E) are both energy dependent, the coefficients of inversion are also dependent on (a) the source spectrum S(E,V) and (b) the detector efficiency D(E) of the CT machine. In the present paper we tabulate these coefficients of inversion for different practical manifestations of S(E,V) and D(E). The HU(V) values from the CT follow: <µ(V)>=<µw(V)>[1+HU(V)/1000] where the subscript 'w' refers to water and the averaging process <….> accounts for the source spectrum S(E,V) and the detector efficiency D(E). Linearity of μ(E) with respect to X and Y implies that (a) <µ(V)> is a linear combination of X and Y and (b) for inversion, X and Y can be written as linear combinations of two independent observations <µ(V1)>, <µ(V2)> with V1≠V2. These coefficients of inversion would naturally depend upon S(E, V) and D(E). We numerically investigate this dependence for some practical cases, by taking V = 100 , 140 kVp, as are used for cardiological investigations. The S(E,V) are generated by using the Boone-Seibert source spectrum, being superposed on aluminium filters of different thickness lAl with 7mm≤lAl≤12mm and the D(E) is considered to be that of a typical Si[Li] solid state and GdOS scintilator detector. In the values of X and Y, found by using the calculated inversion coefficients, errors are below 2% for data with solutions of glycerol, sucrose and glucose. For low Zeff materials like propionic acid, Zeffx is overestimated by 20% with X being within1%. For high Zeffx materials like KOH the value of Zeffx is underestimated by 22% while the error in X is + 15%. These imply that the source may have additional filtering than the aluminium filter specified by the manufacturer. Also it is found that the difference in the values of the inversion coefficients for the two types of detectors is negligible. The type of the detector does not affect on the DECT inversion algorithm to find the unknown chemical characteristic of the scanned materials. The effect of the source should be considered as an important factor to calculate the coefficients of inversion.

Keywords: attenuation coefficient, computed tomography, photoelectric effect, source spectrum

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16 The Relationship of Aromatase Activity and Being Very Overweight in East Indian Women with or Without Polycystic Ovary Disease

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

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Background: Women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances. PCOD is a common ovulatory disorder in young women, which affects 5-10% of the population and results in infertility due to anovulation. Importantly, aromatase in ovarian granulosa and luteinized granulosa cells plays an important role for women of reproductive age. Generation and metabolism of androgen is directly related to aromatase activity. The E2/T ratio provides important information about aromatase activity because conversion of androgens to estrogens is mediated by CYP19, suggesting that the E2/T ratio may be a direct marker of aromatase activity. The nature of the interaction between ovarian aromatase activity and PCOD in women has been controversial, and the impact of weight gain on aromatase activity as well as E2 levels is unknown. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the association and relation between aromatase activity and levels of body mass index (BMI) from a reproductive hormone perspective in a group of women with or without PCOD. Methods: We designed a cohort study which included 200 individuals. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOD based on 2006 Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal- non PCOD, healthy, age-matched controls. Plasma sex hormones viz. estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA on the second day of the menstrual cycle, together with BMI and E2/T were calculated. Aromatase activity in PCOD patients with different BMI, T and E2 levels were compared. Results: PCOD patients showed significantly increased levels of BMI, E2 (P=0.004), T and LH, while their E2/T (P= <0.001), FSH and FSH/LH values were decreased compared with the control group. Higher E2 levels correlated with a relatively enhanced E2/T as well as T and LH levels but reduced BMI, FSH and FSH/LH levels in women with PCOD. Hyperandrogenic PCOD patients had increased E2 levels but their aromatase activity was markedly inhibited independent of their BMI values. Conclusions: We found a significant decrease of ovarian aromatase activity in women with PCOD as compared to controls. Our study showed that ovarian aromatase activity in PCOD was decreased which was independent of BMI. Enhancing aromatase activity may become an optimized strategy for developing therapies for PCOD women, especially those with obesity.

Keywords: aromatase activity, polycystic ovary disease, obesity, body mass index

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